Topic Editors

Aquatic Contaminant Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 105 McGill, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7, Canada
Department of Biosciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan, Italy
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy

Aquatic Emerging Contaminants and Their Ecotoxicological Consequences

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 August 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We propose a Topic concerning the assessment of emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, as well as their ecotoxicological effects on aquatic species. This Topic groups scientific peer reviewed articles from MDPI journals such as Toxics, Waters, Journal of Xenobiotics, and Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. In this context, emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, nanoparticles, and (micro)plastics are not included in regular monitoring processes and represent an increasing global threat to the aquatic environment. For this reason, based on the pivotal approach in ecotoxicology named Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA), which includes the monitoring and the effects of pollutants, the aims of the proposed Topic are: (i) the monitoring of emerging contaminants in both marine and freshwaters, with particular attention given to (micro)plastics, and (ii) the evaluation of adverse effects on aquatic species at different levels of biological organization (from molecular to population one) using the following approaches:

  • classical ecotoxicological tests;
  • wide batteries of biomarkers;
  • “omics” techniques.

In this field, research papers, reviews, and short communications will be accepted. Concerning original articles, only studies concerning the evaluation of environmental concentrations or, in general, with a high ecological impact will be considered. This Topic will aim to collect articles to contribute to filling the knowledge gap relating to the ecotoxicology of emerging contaminants.

Prof. Dr. François Gagné
Dr. Stefano Magni
Prof. Dr. Valerio Matozzo
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • aquatic ecosystems
  • marine waters
  • freshwaters
  • emerging contaminants
  • pharmaceuticals
  • illicit drugs
  • (micro)plastics
  • monitoring
  • toxicity evaluation

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
jmse
2.9 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600
Journal of Xenobiotics
jox
6.0 4.6 2011 21.7 Days CHF 1600
Toxics
toxics
4.6 3.4 2013 14.7 Days CHF 2600
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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13 pages, 3040 KiB  
Article
Triflumizole Induces Developmental Toxicity, Liver Damage, Oxidative Stress, Heat Shock Response, Inflammation, and Lipid Synthesis in Zebrafish
by Lina Bai, Peng Shi, Kun Jia, Hua Yin, Jilin Xu, Xiaojun Yan and Kai Liao
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110698 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Triflumizole (TFZ) toxicity must be investigated in the aquatic environment to understand the potential risks to aquatic species. Accordingly, the adverse effects of TFZ exposure in zebrafish were investigated. Results demonstrate that, after TFZ exposure, the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) in [...] Read more.
Triflumizole (TFZ) toxicity must be investigated in the aquatic environment to understand the potential risks to aquatic species. Accordingly, the adverse effects of TFZ exposure in zebrafish were investigated. Results demonstrate that, after TFZ exposure, the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) in 3 d post-fertilization (dpf) embryos and 6 dpf larvae were 4.872 and 2.580 mg/L, respectively. The development (including pericardium edema, yolk sac retention, and liver degeneration) was apparently affected in 3 dpf embryos. Furthermore, the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in 6 dpf larvae were significantly increased. Additionally, the expression of heat shock response genes (including hsp70, grp78, hsp90, and grp94), inflammatory genes (including p65-nfκb, il-1β, and cox2a), and lipid synthetic genes (including srebp1, fas, acc, and ppar-γ) in 3 dpf embryos was significantly increased, which was also partially observed in the intestinal cell line form Pampus argenteus. Taken together, TFZ could affect the development of zebrafish, accompanied by disturbances of oxidative stress, heat shock response, inflammation, and lipid synthesis. Our findings provide an original insight into the potential risks of TFZ to the aquatic ecosystem. Full article
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15 pages, 2581 KiB  
Article
An Ecological Approach to Control Pathogens of Lycopersicon esculentum L. by Slow Release of Mancozeb from Biopolymeric Conjugated Nanoparticles
by Ravinder Kumar, Vikash Nain and Joginder Singh Duhan
J. Xenobiot. 2022, 12(4), 329-343; https://doi.org/10.3390/jox12040023 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
To control insects, weeds, and infections in crops, old-fashioned pesticide formulations (with massive quantities of heavy metals and a variety of chemicals) are used. By biological amplification via the food chain, many of these established pesticide formulations have accumulated in living systems and [...] Read more.
To control insects, weeds, and infections in crops, old-fashioned pesticide formulations (with massive quantities of heavy metals and a variety of chemicals) are used. By biological amplification via the food chain, many of these established pesticide formulations have accumulated in living systems and caused environmental pollution. To form a nanoparticulate matrix with a diameter ranging from 322.2 ± 0.9 to 403.7 ± 0.7 nm, mancozeb was embedded in chitosan–gum acacia (CSGA) biopolymers and loadings were confirmed via TEM and FTIR. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses were carried out as part of the investigation. Inhibition of Alternaria alternata by nanoparticles (NPs) with 1.0 mg/mL mancozeb (CSGA-1.0) was 85.2 ± 0.7 % at 0.5 ppm, whereas for Stemphylium lycopersici it was 62.1 ± 0.7% in the mycelium inhibition method. NPs demonstrated antimicrobial action in pot house environments. After ten hours, the mancozeb was liberated from the nanoformulations due to polymer matrix diffusion and relaxation, compared to 2 h for commercial mancozeb. Even while drug-loaded conjugated nanoparticles have equivalent antifungal activities, they have a lower release rate and, hence, reduced toxicology compared to commercial mancozeb. Therefore, this method can be employed to implement sustainable farming techniques in the future. Full article
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23 pages, 3434 KiB  
Article
Combined Effects of Polystyrene Nanoplastics and Enrofloxacin on the Life Histories and Gut Microbiota of Daphnia magna
by Piotr Maszczyk, Bartosz Kiersztyn, Sebastiano Gozzo, Grzegorz Kowalczyk, Javier Jimenez-Lamana, Joanna Szpunar, Joanna Pijanowska, Cristina Jines-Muñoz, Marcin Lukasz Zebrowski and Ewa Babkiewicz
Water 2022, 14(21), 3403; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213403 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
The effect of nanoplastics (NPs) has been shown to interact with the effect of pollutants, including antibiotics. However, little is known about studies performed on freshwater organisms. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that both NPs and antibiotics affect the [...] Read more.
The effect of nanoplastics (NPs) has been shown to interact with the effect of pollutants, including antibiotics. However, little is known about studies performed on freshwater organisms. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that both NPs and antibiotics affect the life history traits of freshwater planktonic Daphnia magna, a model organism in ecotoxicological research, as well as the metabolic and taxonomic fingerprint of their gut microbiota, and whether there is an interaction in the effect of both stressors. To assess this, we experimented with the effect of different spherical polystyrene nanoplastic concentrations and antibiotic enrofloxacin measured through (i) the Daphnia body size and their selected reproductive parameters (the clutch size, egg volume, and total reproductive investment), (ii) the metabolomic diversity of gut microbiota (the respiration rate and the relative use of different carbon sources), and (iii) the microbial taxonomic diversity in the Daphnia intestine. Our results supported the hypothesis as each of the stressors on its own significantly influenced most of the measured parameters, and because there was a significant interaction in the effect of both stressors on all of the measured parameters. Therefore, the results suggest an interactive negative effect of the stressors and a possible link between the observed effects at the different levels of a biological organisation. Full article
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16 pages, 2854 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Ionic Liquid [BMIM]Cl on the Baltic Microphytobenthic Communities
by Zuzanna Sylwestrzak, Aleksandra Zgrundo and Filip Pniewski
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091223 - 01 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Ionic liquids (IL) are regarded as the solution to the modern world’s need to create and use compounds that exhibit a range of desirable properties while having a low environmental impact. However, recent reports are shattering the image of ionic liquids as environmentally [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids (IL) are regarded as the solution to the modern world’s need to create and use compounds that exhibit a range of desirable properties while having a low environmental impact. However, recent reports are shattering the image of ionic liquids as environmentally friendly substances, especially in relation to the aquatic environment, revealing their potentially toxic effects. To assess the potential environmental impact of ILs, we conducted an experiment involving 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), a substance considered to be the least hazardous among the imidazolium chloride ILs, on Baltic microphytobenthic communities. Microphytobenthos collected from the environment was tested under controlled laboratory conditions, and both the cell counts and the chloroplast condition were used as endpoints. It was shown that [BMIM]Cl at concentrations of 10−3 and 10−2, considered safe based on a cumulative impact assessment, has a negative effect on the condition of the microalgal cells and causes a reduction in population size. Although, under the influence of [BMIM]Cl, only a small proportion of the species was eliminated from the communities, only two species among those important to the communities showed resistance to this compound and eventually began to dominate the communities. Full article
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13 pages, 481 KiB  
Review
A Review of Methods for Removal of Ceftriaxone from Wastewater
by Petro Karungamye, Anita Rugaika, Kelvin Mtei and Revocatus Machunda
J. Xenobiot. 2022, 12(3), 223-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jox12030017 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3486
Abstract
The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater poses a threat to public health and has significant effects on the ecosystem. Since most wastewater treatment plants are ineffective at removing molecules efficiently, some pharmaceuticals enter aquatic ecosystems, thus creating issues such as [...] Read more.
The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater poses a threat to public health and has significant effects on the ecosystem. Since most wastewater treatment plants are ineffective at removing molecules efficiently, some pharmaceuticals enter aquatic ecosystems, thus creating issues such as antibiotic resistance and toxicity. This review summarizes the methods used for the removal of ceftriaxone antibiotics from aquatic environments. Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in many countries, including Tanzania. Ceftriaxone has been reported to be less or not degraded in traditional wastewater treatment of domestic sewage. This has piqued the interest of researchers in the monitoring and removal of ceftriaxone from wastewater. Its removal from aqueous systems has been studied using a variety of methods which include physical, biological, and chemical processes. As a result, information about ceftriaxone has been gathered from many sources with the searched themes being ceftriaxone in wastewater, ceftriaxone analysis, and ceftriaxone removal or degradation. The methods studied have been highlighted and the opportunities for future research have been described. Full article
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20 pages, 2565 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Global Trends of Pollutants in Marine Ecosystems around Barrang Caddi Island, Spermonde Archipelago Cluster: An Ecological Approach
by Ismail Marzuki, Early Septiningsih, Ernawati Syahruddin Kaseng, Herlinah Herlinah, Andi Sahrijanna, Sahabuddin Sahabuddin, Ruzkiah Asaf, Admi Athirah, Bambang Heri Isnawan, Gatot Supangkat Samidjo, Faizal Rumagia, Emmy Hamidah, Idum Satia Santi and Khairun Nisaa
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060301 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
High-quality marine ecosystems are free from global trending pollutants’ (GTP) contaminants. Accuracy and caution are needed during the exploitation of marine resources during marine tourism to prevent future ecological hazards that cause chain effects on aquatic ecosystems and humans. This article identifies exposure [...] Read more.
High-quality marine ecosystems are free from global trending pollutants’ (GTP) contaminants. Accuracy and caution are needed during the exploitation of marine resources during marine tourism to prevent future ecological hazards that cause chain effects on aquatic ecosystems and humans. This article identifies exposure to GTP: microplastic (MP); polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); pesticide residue (PR); heavy metal (HM); and medical waste (MW), in marine ecosystems in the marine tourism area (MTA) area and Barrang Caddi Island (BCI) waters. A combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were used with analytical instruments and mathematical formulas. The search results show the average total abundance of MPs in seawater (5.47 units/m3) and fish samples (7.03 units/m3), as well as in the sediment and sponge samples (8.18 units/m3) and (8.32 units/m3). Based on an analysis of the polymer structure, it was identified that the dominant light group was MPs: polyethylene (PE); polypropylene (PP); polystyrene (PS); followed by polyamide-nylon (PA); and polycarbonate (PC). Several PAH pollutants were identified in the samples. In particular, naphthalene (NL) types were the most common pollutants in all of the samples, followed by pyrene (PN), and azulene (AZ). Pb+2 and Cu+2 pollutants around BCI were successfully calculated, showing average concentrations in seawater of 0.164 ± 0.0002 mg/L and 0.293 ± 0.0007 mg/L, respectively, while in fish, the concentrations were 1.811 ± 0.0002 µg/g and 4.372 ± 0.0003 µg/g, respectively. Based on these findings, the BCI area is not recommended as a marine tourism destination. Full article
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14 pages, 2537 KiB  
Article
Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Bisphenol A and Heavy Metals
by Jun Yang, Anqi Liao, Shulin Hu, Yiwen Zheng, Shuli Liang, Shuangyan Han and Ying Lin
Toxics 2022, 10(5), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050255 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) and heavy metals are widespread contaminants in the environment. However, the combined toxicities of these contaminants are still unknown. In this study, the bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67 was used to detect the single and combined toxicities of BPA and [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) and heavy metals are widespread contaminants in the environment. However, the combined toxicities of these contaminants are still unknown. In this study, the bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67 was used to detect the single and combined toxicities of BPA and heavy metals, then the joint effects of these contaminants were evaluated. The results show that chronic toxicities of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and BPA were time–dependent; in fact, the acute toxicities of these contaminants were stronger than the chronic toxicities. Furthermore, the combined toxicities of BPA and heavy metals displayed BPA + Hg > BPA + Cr > BPA + As > BPA + Ni > BPA + Pb > BPA + Cd in the acute test and BPA + Hg > BPA + Cd > BPA + As > BPA + Cd in the chronic test, which suggested that the combined toxicity of BPA and Hg was stronger than that of other mixtures in acute as well as chronic tests. Additionally, both CA and IA models underestimated the toxicities of mixtures at low concentrations but overestimated them at high concentrations, which indicates that CA and IA models were not suitable to predict the toxicities of mixtures of BPA and heavy metals. Moreover, the joint effects of BPA and heavy metals mainly showed antagonism and additive in the context of acute exposure but synergism and additive in the context of chronic exposure. Indeed, the difference in the joint effects on acute and chronic exposure can be explained by the possibility that mixtures inhibited cell growth and luminescence in chronic cultivation. The chronic toxicity of the mixture should be considered if the mixture results in the inhibition of the growth of cells. Full article
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15 pages, 784 KiB  
Review
Toxic Metals in a Paddy Field System: A Review
by Yuanliang Duan, Qiang Li, Lu Zhang, Zhipeng Huang, Zhongmeng Zhao, Han Zhao, Jun Du and Jian Zhou
Toxics 2022, 10(5), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050249 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
The threat of toxic metals to food security and human health has become a high-priority issue in recent decades. As the world’s main food crop source, the safe cultivation of rice has been the focus of much research, particularly the restoration of toxic [...] Read more.
The threat of toxic metals to food security and human health has become a high-priority issue in recent decades. As the world’s main food crop source, the safe cultivation of rice has been the focus of much research, particularly the restoration of toxic metals in paddy fields. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the effects of toxic metals on rice, as well as the removal or repair methods of toxic metals in paddy fields. We also provide a detailed discussion of the sources and monitoring methods of toxic metals pollution, the current toxic metal removal, and remediation methods in paddy fields. Finally, several important research issues related to toxic metals in paddy field systems are proposed for future work. The review has an important guiding role for the future of heavy metal remediation in paddy fields, safe production of rice, green ecological fish culture, and human food security and health. Full article
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15 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Genotoxicity Set Up in Artemia franciscana Nauplii and Adults Exposed to Phenanthrene, Naphthalene, Fluoranthene, and Benzo(k)fluoranthene
by Luisa Albarano, Sara Serafini, Maria Toscanesi, Marco Trifuoggi, Valerio Zupo, Maria Costantini, Davide A. L. Vignati, Marco Guida and Giovanni Libralato
Water 2022, 14(10), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101594 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) consist of a group of over 100 different organic compounds mainly generated by anthropogenic activities. Because of their low water solubility, they tend to be accumulated in sediment, where their degradation rate is very low. Few studies have been [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) consist of a group of over 100 different organic compounds mainly generated by anthropogenic activities. Because of their low water solubility, they tend to be accumulated in sediment, where their degradation rate is very low. Few studies have been carried out so far to investigate the effects of PAHs on Artemia franciscana. Artemia is easy to manage at laboratory scale, but it is not a sensitive biological model considering the traditional endpoints (i.e., mortality). In addition to evaluating the lethality on nauplii and adults of A. franciscana after 24 and 48 h, we focused on the genotoxicity to investigate the potential effects of phenanthrene (PHE), naphthalene (NAP), fluoranthene (FLT), and benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF). Results showed that FLT was the most toxic both for nauplii and adults after 48 h of exposure. Real-time qPCR showed that all toxicants, including BkF, which had no negative effects on the survival of the crustacean, were able to switch the gene expression of all nine genes. This work has important ecological implications, especially on contaminated sediment assessment considering that PAHs represent the most abundant organic group of compounds in marine environment, opening new perspectives in understanding the molecular pathways activated by crustaceans. Full article
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13 pages, 1722 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Quantification of Polystyrene Nanoplastics in Tissues by Low Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography
by François Gagné
J. Xenobiot. 2022, 12(2), 109-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jox12020010 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Ecotoxicity investigations of plastic nanoparticles (NPs) should pay more attention to their ability to pass barriers, accumulate, and initiate toxicity in cells. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple size exclusion chromatography (SEC) methodology to measure plastic NPs in biological [...] Read more.
Ecotoxicity investigations of plastic nanoparticles (NPs) should pay more attention to their ability to pass barriers, accumulate, and initiate toxicity in cells. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple size exclusion chromatography (SEC) methodology to measure plastic NPs in biological tissues. A SEC column was prepared using a high-resolution gel for large macromolecules to separate plastic NPs from the protein/lipid pools in tissues. It was necessary to prepare the samples in high salt and non-ionic detergent (0.5 M NaCl and 0.2% Tween-20) and apply 0.2% Tween-20 containing 14 mM NaCl for the elution buffer to limit proteins adsorption to NPs. This methodology was able to resolve 50 and 100 nm polystyrene NPs from the protein/lipid pools in tissue homogenates. The fluorescent dye neutral red (NR) was also used for transparent NPs. Moreover, a sample fractionation step was also proposed for plastic NPs concentration using a salting-out methodology with saturated NaCl (5 M) and acetonitrile. Polystyrene NPs partition in acetonitrile, which were further analyzed by SEC. This methodology was tested in two case studies with clams collected in a high boat traffic (harbor) area and with caged freshwater mussels downstream of a large urban area. Although the present methodology was developed with polystyrene NPs it should be amenable to other plastic polymers that react with the NR fluorescent probe. Full article
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13 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Toxicity Effects of Combined Mixtures of BDE-47 and Nickel on the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae)
by Xiaolai Shi, Ruoyu Guo, Douding Lu, Pengbin Wang and Xinfeng Dai
Toxics 2022, 10(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050211 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Nickel and 2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) are two environmental pollutants commonly and simultaneously present in aquatic systems. Nickel and BDE-47 are individually toxic to various aquatic organisms. However, their toxicity mechanisms are species-dependent, and the toxic effects of combined mixtures of BDE-47 and nickel [...] Read more.
Nickel and 2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) are two environmental pollutants commonly and simultaneously present in aquatic systems. Nickel and BDE-47 are individually toxic to various aquatic organisms. However, their toxicity mechanisms are species-dependent, and the toxic effects of combined mixtures of BDE-47 and nickel have not yet been investigated. The present study investigated the toxic effects of combined mixtures of BDE-47 and nickel in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. BDE-47 and nickel mixtures significantly decreased cell abundance and photosynthetic efficiency, while these cells’ reactive oxygen species (ROS) production significantly increased. The EC50-72 h for BDE-47 and mixtures of BDE-47 and nickel were 16.46 ± 0.93 and 1.35 ± 0.06 mg/L, respectively. Thus, combined mixtures of the two pollutants enhance their toxic effects. Interactions between BDE-47 and nickel were evaluated, revealing synergistic interactions that contributed to toxicity in P. tricornutum. Moreover, transcriptomic analyses revealed photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, the biosynthesis of amino acids, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxoacid metabolism, organic acid metabolism, carboxylic acid metabolism, and oxidation-reduction processes were considerably affected by the mixtures. This study provides evidence for the mechanisms of toxicity from combined BDE-47 and nickel exposure while also improving our understanding of the ecological risks of toxic chemicals on microalgae. Full article
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15 pages, 5646 KiB  
Article
Ecological Impact of End-of-Life-Tire (ELT)-Derived Rubbers: Acute and Chronic Effects at Organism and Population Levels
by Stefano Magni, Erica Tediosi, Daniela Maggioni, Riccardo Sbarberi, Francesca Noé, Fabio Rossetti, Daniele Fornai, Valentina Persici and Maria Chiara Neri
Toxics 2022, 10(5), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050201 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
Considering the large amount of tires that reach the end of life every year, the aim of this study was the evaluation of both acute and chronic effects of end-of-life-tire (ELT)-derived rubber granules (ELT-dg) and powder (ELT-dp) on a freshwater trophic chain represented [...] Read more.
Considering the large amount of tires that reach the end of life every year, the aim of this study was the evaluation of both acute and chronic effects of end-of-life-tire (ELT)-derived rubber granules (ELT-dg) and powder (ELT-dp) on a freshwater trophic chain represented by the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the teleost Danio rerio (zebrafish). Adverse effects were evaluated at the organism and population levels through the classical ecotoxicological tests. Acute tests on D. magna and D. rerio revealed a 50% effect concentration (EC50) > 100.0 mg/L for both ELT-dg and ELT-dp. Chronic exposures had a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of 100.0 mg/L for both ELT-dg and ELT-dp on P. subcapitata grow rate and yield. LOEC decreased in the other model organisms, with a value of 9.8 mg/L for D. magna, referring to the number of living offspring, exposed to ELT-dg suspension. Similarly, in D. rerio, the main results highlighted a LOEC of 10.0 mg/L regarding the survival and juvenile weight parameters for ELT-dg and a LOEC of 10.0 mg/L concerning the survival and abnormal behavior in specimens exposed to ELT-dp. Tested materials exhibited a threshold of toxicity of 9.8 mg/L, probably a non-environmental concentration, although further investigations are needed to clarify the potential ecological impact of these emerging contaminants. Full article
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12 pages, 1553 KiB  
Article
Study of Ultrastructural Abnormalities in the Renal Cells of Cyprinus carpio Induced by Toxicants
by Sumayya Nazir, Md. Niamat Ali, Javeed Ahmad Tantray, Irfan Akram Baba, Arizo Jan, Simona Mariana Popescu, Bilal Ahamad Paray and Aneela Gulnaz
Toxics 2022, 10(4), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040177 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) assessments were performed on the renal cells of common carp Cyprinus carpio to observe the deleterious effects of two organophosphate insecticides, Phorate and Dimethoate. Pesticides such as Phorate and Dimethoate often pollute aquatic systems where they may negatively impact [...] Read more.
Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) assessments were performed on the renal cells of common carp Cyprinus carpio to observe the deleterious effects of two organophosphate insecticides, Phorate and Dimethoate. Pesticides such as Phorate and Dimethoate often pollute aquatic systems where they may negatively impact fish, but so far, the ultrastructural toxicity of these pesticides remains poorly understood. Here, we use Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to determine how acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of these two pesticides may affect the renal cells of common carp Cyprinus carpio. For each insecticide, the fish were divided in four experimental conditions: a control and three different exposure concentrations of the pesticide. The Phorate treated fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of 0.2 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.6 mg/L for a duration of 24, 48 & 72 h. The dimethoate treated fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of 0.005 mL/L, 0.01 mL/L, 0.015 mL/L for a duration of 24, 48 and 72 h. The two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the treated fish renal cells when exposed to two toxicants including deformation in the glomerulus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, degenerative nucleus and damaged mitochondria. Furthermore, the ultrastructural abnormalities were more prominent with the increase in the concentrations of both the insecticides and also with their exposure period. Overall, these results provide important baseline data on the ultrastructural toxicity of Phorate and Dimethoate and will allow important follow-up studies to further elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms of pesticide toxicity in wildlife. Full article
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11 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Coastal Aquatic Ecosystems of Bohai Bay
by Lei Jia, Hao Liu, Na Zhao, Qiuxia Deng, Chunhua Zhu and Bo Zhang
Water 2022, 14(6), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060938 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2472
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are abundant in diverse ecosystems and the resistome may constitute a health threat for humans and animals. It is necessary to uncover ARGs and the accumulation mechanisms from different environmental sources. Various habitats, such as soil, seawater and fish [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are abundant in diverse ecosystems and the resistome may constitute a health threat for humans and animals. It is necessary to uncover ARGs and the accumulation mechanisms from different environmental sources. Various habitats, such as soil, seawater and fish intestines, could overflow a considerable amount of ARGs and the horizontal transfer of ARGs may occur in these environments. Thus, we assessed the composition and abundance of ARGs in seawater, soil and intestinal tracts of Cynoglossus semilaevis collected from different sites in Bohai Bay (China), including a natural area and three fish farms, through a high-throughput qPCR array. In total, 243 ARGs were uncovered, governing the resistance to aminoglycoside, multidrug, beta-lactamase, macrolide lincosamide streptomycin B (MLSB), chloramphenicol, sulfonamide, tetracycline, vancomycin and other antibiotics. The action mechanisms of these ARGs were mainly antibiotic deactivation, efflux pump and cellular protection. Importantly, similar ARGs were detected in different samples but show dissimilar enrichment levels. ARGs were highly enriched in the fish farms compared to the natural sea area, with more genes detected, while some ARGs were detected only in the natural sea area samples, such as bacA-02, tetL-01 and ampC-06. Regarding sample types, water samples from all locations shared more ARGs in common and held the highest average level of ARGs detected than in the soil and fish samples. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were also detected in three sample types, in the same trend as ARGs. This is the first study comparing the resistome of different samples of seawater, soil and intestines of C. semilaevis. This study contributes to a better understanding of ARG dissemination in water sources and could facilitate the effective control of ARG contamination in the aquatic environment. Full article
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13 pages, 942 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Levonorgestrel Leaching in a Landfill and Its Effects on Placental Cell Lines and Sperm Cells
by Ramiro Ríos-Sossa, Juan José García-Londoño, Daniel Gil-Ramírez, Arley Camilo Patiño, Walter D. Cardona-Maya, Juan Carlos Quintana-Castillo and Jhon Fredy Narváez-Valderrama
Water 2022, 14(6), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060871 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
The Buenavista landfill is located east of the city of Medellín, but it has a slope steeper than 30% and is less than 600 m away from the Piedras River, possibly influencing the quality of the drinking water in the city. Many complex [...] Read more.
The Buenavista landfill is located east of the city of Medellín, but it has a slope steeper than 30% and is less than 600 m away from the Piedras River, possibly influencing the quality of the drinking water in the city. Many complex residues are disposed of in this landfill, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) such as levonorgestrel (LNG), which may reach water bodies via runoff and leaching. We assessed the levels of LNG in the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor from the Buenavista landfill by uHPLC–DAD, as well as the endocrine disruptor effect of LNG on placental cell lines (BeWo) and human sperm cells. Additionally, the potential leaching of LNG was assayed under laboratory conditions using soil layers that were sampled from the Buenavista landfill. LNG was detected at levels of 315 μg·L−1 in the effluents of the UASB reactor. Thus, the UASB reactor is not an efficient treatment method for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants. Additionally, we found that a layer of soil used as a cover material may adsorb more than 90% of LNG pollutants, but small amounts may still be leached, which means that a cover material is not a strong enough barrier to fully prevent the leaching of LNG. Finally, our results show that the leachate fraction decreased the levels of β-human chorionic gonadotropin, but not sperm motility or viability. Thus, leached LNG could trigger reproduction disorders, but further studies should be carried out to investigate its potential effects in more detail. Full article
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