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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 11 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The COVID-19 pandemic brought several challenges to education workers across Ontario. Teachers across the province had to make changes to their service provisions with classes taking place virtually. The aim of this study was to examine the specific stressors and coping strategies education workers experienced during this period. The results show that work-related stressors, such as challenges with service provision and increased work demands, were common. Furthermore, education workers also experienced non-work stressors, such as fears of contracting the virus. The findings are important for policymakers and school administrators who can make improvements to lessen stress experienced by education workers and create better working conditions in the workplace. Improving conditions for education workers can help prepare these individuals in case of future emergencies. View this paper
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Article
Pediatric Diabetes Technology Management: An Italian Exploratory Study on Its Representations by Psychologists and Diabetologists
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 919-931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050070 - 21 May 2023
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Abstract
The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased by about 3% per year over the last two decades. Continuous Insulin Subcutaneous Therapy (CSII) is widely used in the pediatric population with diabetes; however, it requires more preparation by the treating team and [...] Read more.
The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased by about 3% per year over the last two decades. Continuous Insulin Subcutaneous Therapy (CSII) is widely used in the pediatric population with diabetes; however, it requires more preparation by the treating team and a careful selection of its potential users. Prescriptive provisions vary from region to region, and the perspective of health workers in this regard remains an unexplored area. The aim of this research project is to explore the representations of a group of diabetologists and psychologists working in pediatric diabetology throughout the country, regarding their roles, functions, and activities as part of a multidisciplinary team; it also aims to investigate their views on the potential benefits of CSII and the types of individuals who apply for the use of this technology. A socio-anagraphic data sheet was administered, and two homogeneous focus groups were conducted, one for each profession, which were then audio recorded. The transcripts produced were analyzed using the Emotional Text Mining (ETM) methodology. Each of the two corpora generated three clusters and two factors. For diabetologists, a focus on patient care emerged at different levels, involving collaboration with other health professionals and engagement with the community, often incorporating technology in medical interventions. Similarly, psychologists’ representations highlighted interdisciplinary networking with a stronger emphasis on the psychological processes involved in managing the disease, from acceptance to the elaboration and integration of diabetes into the family narrative. Understanding the representations of health professionals working in pediatric diabetes with new technologies can contribute to the consolidation of a network of professionals through targeted work on possible critical issues that may arise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
Article
Student Dropout as a Never-Ending Evergreen Phenomenon of Online Distance Education
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 906-918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050069 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 928
Abstract
The research on student dropout demonstrates that there is no consensus on its definition and scope. Although there is an expanding collection of research on the topic, student dropout remains a significant issue, characterized by numerous uncertainties and ambiguous aspects. The primary aim [...] Read more.
The research on student dropout demonstrates that there is no consensus on its definition and scope. Although there is an expanding collection of research on the topic, student dropout remains a significant issue, characterized by numerous uncertainties and ambiguous aspects. The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the research trends of student dropout within the distance education literature by employing data mining and analytic approaches. To identify these patterns, a total of 164 publications were examined by applying text mining and social network analysis. The study revealed some intriguing facts, such as the misinterpretation of the term “dropout” in different settings and the inadequacy of nonhuman analytics to explain the phenomenon, and promising implications on how to lessen dropout rates in open and distance learning environments. Based on the findings of the study, this article proposes possible directions for future research, including the need to provide a precise definition of the term “dropout” in the context of distance learning, to develop ethical principles, policies, and frameworks for the use of algorithmic approaches to predict student dropout, and finally, to adopt a human-centered approach aimed at fostering learners’ motivation, satisfaction, and independence to reduce the rate of dropout in distance education. Full article
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Article
Alcohol and Drug Consumption among Drivers before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Observational Study
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 897-905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050068 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic might have changed recreational habits. In this study, the results of toxicological tests for alcohol and drugs in blood were compared among drivers stopped at roadside checks in the periods before (1 January 2018 to 8 March [...] Read more.
Restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic might have changed recreational habits. In this study, the results of toxicological tests for alcohol and drugs in blood were compared among drivers stopped at roadside checks in the periods before (1 January 2018 to 8 March 2020) and after the lockdown measures (9 March 2020 to 31 December 2021). A total of 123 (20.7%) subjects had a blood alcohol level above the legal limit for driving of 0.5 g/l, 21 (3.9%) subjects tested positive for cocaine, and 29 (5.4%) subjects positive for cannabis. In the COVID-19 period, the mean blood alcohol level was significantly higher than in the previous period. Cannabis use, which was more frequent among younger subjects, was statistically associated with cocaine use. There has also been a quantitative increase in alcohol levels in the population with values above the legal limits, indicative of greater use of alcohol in the population predisposed to its intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic: What Do We Know So Far?)
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Article
Symptomatic, Alexithymic, and Suicidality-Related Features in Groups of Adolescent Self-Harmers: A Case-Control Study
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 883-896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050067 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an increasing phenomenon among both clinical and nonclinical adolescent groups and is associated with several psychopathological symptoms, in addition to being one of the main risk factors for suicidality. Nevertheless, differences between clinical and nonclinical samples of self-harmers in [...] Read more.
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an increasing phenomenon among both clinical and nonclinical adolescent groups and is associated with several psychopathological symptoms, in addition to being one of the main risk factors for suicidality. Nevertheless, differences between clinical and nonclinical samples of self-harmers in symptom dimensions, alexithymia, suicidality, and NSSI-related variables are still scarcely investigated. The current study aimed to fill this gap by enrolling a sample of Italian girls (age range: 12–19 years) that included 63 self-harmers admitted to mental health outpatient services (clinical group), 44 self-harmers without admission to mental health services (subclinical group), and 231 individuals without an NSSI history (control group). Questionnaires investigating psychopathological symptoms, alexithymia, and NSSI-related variables were administered. The results highlighted that all symptom-related variables and alexithymic traits were more severe in the NSSI groups than in the control group; in particular, self-depreciation, anxiety, psychoticism, and pathological interpersonal relationships were distinguished between the clinical and subclinical groups. Compared to the subclinical group, the clinical group was characterized by higher NSSI frequency, NSSI disclosure, self-punishment as the main reason for engagement in NSSI, and suicidal ideation. These findings were then discussed in terms of clinical practice and primary and secondary prevention in the adolescent population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Variables Related to Well-Being in Adolescence)
Article
A Causal Analysis of Young Adults’ Binge Drinking Reduction and Cessation
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 870-882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050066 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Background: This study, using the multiple disadvantage model (MDM), sought to identify factors (disadvantaging social disorganization, social structural, social integration, health/mental health, co-occurring substance use, and substance treatment access factors) in young adults’ binge drinking reduction and cessation in the United States. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: This study, using the multiple disadvantage model (MDM), sought to identify factors (disadvantaging social disorganization, social structural, social integration, health/mental health, co-occurring substance use, and substance treatment access factors) in young adults’ binge drinking reduction and cessation in the United States. Methods: We extracted data on 942 young adult binge drinkers (25–34 years, 47.8% female) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), carrying out a temporal-ordered causal analysis, meaning the evaluation of select variables’ impacts on an outcome at a subsequent time. Results: MDM found a relatively high reduction likelihood for non-Hispanic African Americans and respondents with relatively more education. MDM found a relatively low reduction likelihood accompanying an alcohol-related arrest, higher income, and greater number of close friends. Change to nondrinking was found more likely for non-Hispanic African Americans, other non-Hispanic participants having minority ethnicity, older respondents, those with more occupational skills, and healthier respondents. Such change became less likely with an alcohol-related arrest, higher income, relatively more education, greater number of close friends, close friends’ disapproval of drinking, and co-occurring drug use. Conclusions: Interventions incorporating a motivational-interviewing style can effectively promote health awareness, assessment of co-occurring disorders, friendships with nondrinkers, and attainment of occupational skills. Full article
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Article
The Relationship between Orthorexia Nervosa and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 861-869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050065 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is characterized by an intense avoidance of foods considered unhealthy, obsession with healthy eating behaviors, and pathological fixation on healthy foods. Although there are still debates in the literature about the psychological factors and symptoms of ON, it should be [...] Read more.
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is characterized by an intense avoidance of foods considered unhealthy, obsession with healthy eating behaviors, and pathological fixation on healthy foods. Although there are still debates in the literature about the psychological factors and symptoms of ON, it should be noted that many of the symptoms share common features with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ON and OCD with its subtypes. In this framework, the cross-sectional study was conducted with an opportunistic sample of 587 participants (86% women and 14% men), with an average age of 29.32 (s.d. = 11.29; age range = 15–74). Our work showed that almost all OCD subtypes were largely correlated with ON. The lowest correlation was for “Checking” and the highest for “Obsession”. Overall, the OCD subtypes (i.e., Indecisiveness, Just Right, Obsession, and Hoarding) were more strongly associated with ON measures, while subtypes Checking and Contamination, although positively associated, had lower correlation coefficients. Full article
Article
Scale Measurement of Health Primary Service Utilization among the Migrant International Population
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 850-860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050064 - 12 May 2023
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Abstract
In this article, we analyze the internal structure of the scale for experience in exercising the right to health care (EERHC), based on the focus from the World Health Organization (WHO) on the right to health care, from the perspective of international migrants, [...] Read more.
In this article, we analyze the internal structure of the scale for experience in exercising the right to health care (EERHC), based on the focus from the World Health Organization (WHO) on the right to health care, from the perspective of international migrants, in Chile. The methodology was an instrumental study (n = 563) conducted to analyze the psychometric properties of the EERHC scale. Its reliability and internal consistency were evaluated, while the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) model and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to identify the structure of relationships between the variables measured. The item–dimension correlations obtained present levels of r ≥ 0.3, and the Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω presented ranges >0.9, considered to be acceptable on all models. Results: the model was selected for presenting a good fit index χ2 = 24,850, df = 300, p = 0.000; RMSEA = 0.07; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.95; and SRMR = 0.03. The evidence obtained lets us conclude that the scale has forty-five items and four dimensions. The findings demonstrate a good internal structure and are useful to measure primary health care service utilization based on the framework. Full article
Article
Understanding Education Workers’ Stressors after Lockdowns in Ontario, Canada: A Qualitative Study
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 836-849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050063 - 09 May 2023
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Understanding the experiences and stressors of education workers is critical for making improvements and planning for future emergency situations. Province-specific studies offer valuable information to understand the stressors of returning to the workplace. This study aims to identify the stressors education workers experienced [...] Read more.
Understanding the experiences and stressors of education workers is critical for making improvements and planning for future emergency situations. Province-specific studies offer valuable information to understand the stressors of returning to the workplace. This study aims to identify the stressors education workers experienced when returning to work after months of school closures. This qualitative data is part of a larger study. Individuals completed a survey including a questionnaire and some open-ended questions in English and French. A total of 2349 respondents completed the qualitative portion of the survey, of which most were women (81%), approximately 44 years of age, and working as teachers (83.9%). The open-ended questions were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven themes emerged from our analysis: (1) challenges with service provision and using technology; (2) disruption in work–life balance; (3) lack of clear communication and direction from the government and school administration; (4) fear of contracting the virus due to insufficient health/COVID-19 protocols; (5) increase in work demands; (6) various coping strategies to deal with the stressors of working during the COVID-19 pandemic; (7) lessons to be learned from working amid a global pandemic. Education workers have faced many challenges since returning to work. These findings demonstrate the need for improvements such as greater flexibility, training opportunities, support, and communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic: What Do We Know So Far?)
Article
Factors Affecting the Adoption of Online Database Systems for Learning among Students at Economics Universities in Vietnam
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 820-835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050062 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the determinants that influence the adoption of online databases in the learning process of students at economics universities in Vietnam. A quantitative study with a meta-analysis was conducted by utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the determinants that influence the adoption of online databases in the learning process of students at economics universities in Vietnam. A quantitative study with a meta-analysis was conducted by utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of 492 students from economics universities located in Vietnam who were surveyed using stratified random sampling. The results indicate that the adoption of online databases in student learning is influenced by six determinants, namely: (i) perceived effectiveness, (ii) perceived ease of use, (iii) technical barriers, (iv) personal usefulness, (v) usage attitudes, and (vi) convenience. Our study has revealed that students’ intention to use the online database system is positively influenced by their perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. These findings could be valuable in shaping policies for enhancing the online database system at economics universities, taking into account the students’ characteristics and the institution’s needs. Full article
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Brief Report
Perception of Internet Use in Relation to Health Decision-Making among Nursing Students
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 810-819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050061 - 01 May 2023
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Internet use has increased worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic, to the point where it has inadvertently integrated into our lives. University students use the Internet daily for different purposes: seeking information, entertaining, as a teaching and learning tool, they consider social networks as [...] Read more.
Internet use has increased worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic, to the point where it has inadvertently integrated into our lives. University students use the Internet daily for different purposes: seeking information, entertaining, as a teaching and learning tool, they consider social networks as a means of connection and social interaction, and to seek information to make health decisions. Because of this, the Internet and social networks have gained popularity among this group, to the point of developing an abusive use that is not perceived as an addictive risk. A descriptive analysis was performed through the adaptation of a survey about Internet use, social networks and health perception; this survey was given to nursing students of the Gimbernat School during the academic year 2021–2022. Students completed the ad hoc questionnaire (N = 486; 83.5% female, 16.3% male; only 1 declared to be non-binary gender). Our hypothesis had to do with whether the population of nursing students at Gimbernat School had increased, after the pandemic, its use of the Internet and social networks to make decisions about health problems. The objective of the study was to analyse differences in students’ habits of use of the Internet and social networks as they look for health information, their decision-making when they find the information and their perception of health as nursing students from a gender perspective. The results showed a clear positive relationship between the variables studied. Of nursing students, 60.4% spend between 20 and more than 40 h a week using the Internet, and 43.6% of these hours are spent on social networks. Of students, 31.1% make health decisions by searching for information on the Internet and consider it useful and relevant. The use of the Internet and social media in relation to health decisions is clearly affected. To try to reduce the incidence of the problem, interventions are needed regarding the prevention and/or consequences of Internet abuse and health education of student nurses as future health assets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends and Perspectives for the Positive Use of ICT in Education)
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Article
The Effects of Cognitively Challenging Physical Activity Games versus Health-Related Fitness Activities on Students’ Executive Functions and Situational Interest in Physical Education: A Group-Randomized Controlled Trial
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 796-809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050060 - 26 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1727
Abstract
This study compared cognitively challenging physical activity games and health-related fitness activities in terms of their effects on students’ executive functions and situational interest in physical education. A total of 102 fourth- and fifth-grade students (56 boys, 46 girls) participated in this study. [...] Read more.
This study compared cognitively challenging physical activity games and health-related fitness activities in terms of their effects on students’ executive functions and situational interest in physical education. A total of 102 fourth- and fifth-grade students (56 boys, 46 girls) participated in this study. A group-randomized controlled trial design involving an acute experiment was used. Two intact classes of students (one fourth-grade and one fifth-grade) were randomly assigned to each one of the three groups. Students in Group 1 participated in cognitively challenging physical activity games, students in Group 2 participated in activities for developing their health-related fitness, and Group 3 students were the control group without physical education. Executive functions were measured pre- and post-intervention with the design fluency test, whereas situational interest was only measured post-intervention with the situational interest scale. Group 1 students who played cognitively challenging physical activity games had increased their executive functions’ scores more than the Group 2 students involved in health-related fitness activities. Students of both these groups outperformed control group students. Moreover, Group 1 students reported higher levels of instant enjoyment and total interest than Group 2 students. The results of this study suggest that cognitively challenging physical activity games can be an effective means for enhancing executive functions, and motivate students to be involved in interesting and enjoyable forms of physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Education, Physical Activity and Human Health)
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