Variables Related to Well-Being in Adolescence

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Dear Colleagues,

Adolescence is one of the most complex stages of the life cycle, marked by numerous biological, social, and cognitive changes. For a long time, a negative and conflicting view of this evolutionary stage had been maintained. However, adolescence is currently considered a time of transition that implies facing stressors and complicated situations and therefore requires important adaptations in a relatively short period of time. If it is not successfully overcome, more or less visible and serious problems are likely to manifest, such as substance use, violence, transgression of authority, school failure, psychological disorders, and even suicide. This is why this Special Issue aims to join contributions that investigate those capacities, skills, abilities, and experiences that, from an individual, social, or educational perspective, facilitate the well-being and integral development of adolescents, which results in the improvement of their wellbeing in the short and long term. In short, we welcome original research, reviews, or meta-analyses from the educational, psychological, and health fields with significant and quality contributions to expand the current knowledge on those variables related to adolescent wellbeing.

Some of the topics to highlight as part of this Special Issue dedicated to the adolescent stage are:

  • Burnout and academic engagement
  • Healthy development
  • Social inclusion and school coexistence
  • Youth violence, risk behaviors, and protective factors
  • Emotional intelligence and stress management
  • Well-being and quality of life
  • Etc.

Dr. África Martos Martínez
Dr. Ana Belén Barragán Martín
Dr. María del Mar Simón Márquez
Collection Editors

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Keywords

  • integral development
  • well-being
  • adolescence

Published Papers (12 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

10 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
The Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation Inventory among Portuguese Adolescents: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance
by Marta Brás, Ana Cunha, João Antunes and Cláudia Carmo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1002-1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040065 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Suicide worldwide is an issue that needs to be addressed, and adolescents are an at-risk group. Assessing suicidal ideation is central to tackling the issue of suicide. The Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation inventory is a widely validated measure of suicidal ideation, and [...] Read more.
Suicide worldwide is an issue that needs to be addressed, and adolescents are an at-risk group. Assessing suicidal ideation is central to tackling the issue of suicide. The Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation inventory is a widely validated measure of suicidal ideation, and yet, very little is known about its invariance across various groups. The present study aimed to adapt and test the PANSI’s structure in a Portuguese sample while testing its gender invariance. A total of 750 middle and high school students were recruited for the study, and data were collected on various suicide risk and protective factors, including the Portuguese-translated PANSI. Data were put through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Kaiser’s criterion and scree plot both extracted two factors (64.10% variance explained). Confirmatory factor analysis also supported the PANSI’s structure (TLI = 0.943). The PANSI showed good reliability (α ≥ 0.83) and good construct and discriminative validity. The PANSI also exhibited scalar, but not strict, invariance. Overall, these results were similar to previous versions of this scale. The PANSI is a reliable measure of suicide risk among Portuguese adolescents. Future studies should further replicate these results in other cultures and expand on them by testing for invariance across other demographic variables. Full article

2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

10 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Subjective Well-Being and Self-Assessed Health of Adolescents: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Ivica Matić and Vera Musil
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(12), 2853-2862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13120197 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and predictors of subjective well-being and self-perceived health in adolescents over a two-year period, focusing on the importance of mental health in overall well-being. Methods: Participants in this longitudinal cohort study were [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and predictors of subjective well-being and self-perceived health in adolescents over a two-year period, focusing on the importance of mental health in overall well-being. Methods: Participants in this longitudinal cohort study were surveyed at the ages of 15 (n = 441) and 17 (n = 354) through questionnaires. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Hierarchical regression was employed to investigate significant predictors of subjective well-being. The subjective well-being and self-perceived health dimensions showed a consistent level of stability throughout the two-year period of secondary education. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between well-being at the beginning and end of this education period. Furthermore, self-perceived health dimensions, particularly general health, vitality, and mental health, were positively associated with well-being at the end of secondary education, highlighting their role in overall subjective well-being. The regression analysis revealed that self-perceived health factors, notably “General health” and “Mental health”, significantly predicted overall subjective well-being, enhancing the model’s explanatory power beyond gender and economic status. Nevertheless, baseline subjective well-being has the strongest predictive effect on final well-being. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of psychological and health factors, particularly mental health, that affect the overall well-being of adolescents and emphasizes the need to focus on and improve these factors in order to improve subjective well-being. Full article
16 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Multi-Level Protective Factors of Adolescent Smoking and Drinking
by Réka Dudok and Bettina F. Piko
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(6), 932-947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13060071 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Adolescence is the most critical life stage for experimentation with substance use; however, this is also the most suitable period for strengthening protective factors and thus promoting adult physical and mental health. Since smoking and drinking still appear among the most frequent types [...] Read more.
Adolescence is the most critical life stage for experimentation with substance use; however, this is also the most suitable period for strengthening protective factors and thus promoting adult physical and mental health. Since smoking and drinking still appear among the most frequent types of substance abuse in Europe, this study aims to examine the role of potential protective factors at multiple levels for adolescent smoking and drinking: psychological factors at the individual level, aspects of school attachment at the school level, social support variables at the social level, and measures of quality of life at the level of mental health. This cross-sectional survey involved a sample of adolescents (aged 11–18 years, N = 276) in Budapest and villages in its metropolitan area (Hungary). In addition to descriptive statistics, logistic regression analyses were used to detect odds for potential protective factors. There were no sex differences in adolescents’ substance use. Self-control seems to be a universal and most determining protective factor against substance use, while other potential protective factors (self-esteem, resilience, social support from family or significant others, school attachment, and mental well-being) may also contribute to prevention. However, age and friend support acted as risk factors. Findings suggest that a complex approach to prevention should receive consideration. Full article
14 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Symptomatic, Alexithymic, and Suicidality-Related Features in Groups of Adolescent Self-Harmers: A Case-Control Study
by Alessia Raffagnato, Marina Miscioscia, Rachele Fasolato, Sara Iannattone, Perla Valentini, Eleonora Sale and Michela Gatta
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(5), 883-896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13050067 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an increasing phenomenon among both clinical and nonclinical adolescent groups and is associated with several psychopathological symptoms, in addition to being one of the main risk factors for suicidality. Nevertheless, differences between clinical and nonclinical samples of self-harmers in [...] Read more.
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an increasing phenomenon among both clinical and nonclinical adolescent groups and is associated with several psychopathological symptoms, in addition to being one of the main risk factors for suicidality. Nevertheless, differences between clinical and nonclinical samples of self-harmers in symptom dimensions, alexithymia, suicidality, and NSSI-related variables are still scarcely investigated. The current study aimed to fill this gap by enrolling a sample of Italian girls (age range: 12–19 years) that included 63 self-harmers admitted to mental health outpatient services (clinical group), 44 self-harmers without admission to mental health services (subclinical group), and 231 individuals without an NSSI history (control group). Questionnaires investigating psychopathological symptoms, alexithymia, and NSSI-related variables were administered. The results highlighted that all symptom-related variables and alexithymic traits were more severe in the NSSI groups than in the control group; in particular, self-depreciation, anxiety, psychoticism, and pathological interpersonal relationships were distinguished between the clinical and subclinical groups. Compared to the subclinical group, the clinical group was characterized by higher NSSI frequency, NSSI disclosure, self-punishment as the main reason for engagement in NSSI, and suicidal ideation. These findings were then discussed in terms of clinical practice and primary and secondary prevention in the adolescent population. Full article

2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

17 pages, 859 KiB  
Article
Cross-Sectional Associations between Playing Sports or Electronic Games in Leisure Time and Life Satisfaction in 12-Year-Old Children from the European Union
by Diego Gomez-Baya, Hugo Sarmento, Javier Augusto Nicoletti and Francisco Jose Garcia-Moro
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(8), 1050-1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12080075 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
Leisure time activities in childhood may have a crucial role in the development of subjective well-being. Nevertheless, more research is needed with cross-national samples concerning the differential effects of lifestyles on life satisfaction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the [...] Read more.
Leisure time activities in childhood may have a crucial role in the development of subjective well-being. Nevertheless, more research is needed with cross-national samples concerning the differential effects of lifestyles on life satisfaction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the associations between the frequency of playing sports/exercise or playing electronic games on life satisfaction in a sample of 12-year-old children from nine countries from the European Union. The data used in this publication come from the third wave of the Children’s Worlds project, an international survey of children’s lives and well-being whose administration started in 2017. The sample was composed of 10,626 children (50.9% boys) from Estonia, Belgium, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Poland, Romania, and Spain. They completed the Student Life Satisfaction Scale and answered two questions to assess the frequency of playing sport or exercise, and the frequency of playing electronic games. The results indicated notable scores in life satisfaction in all participating countries. The results showed some differences between boys and girls, and among the countries, in the frequency of sport practice and electronic games in the leisure time, as well as in the overall level of life satisfaction. The results also underlined that sport practice had a greater positive effect on life satisfaction than the use of electronic games. Thus, this study highlights the need to design programs to promote sport practice in leisure time for 12-year-old children in Europe, in order to protect their subjective well-being. Full article
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12 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Impact of Confinement on Coping Strategies and Psychosocial Factors among University Students
by Carla Gutiérrez-Lozano, Inmaculada García-Martínez, José María Augusto-Landa and Samuel P. León
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(8), 933-944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12080067 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
The pandemic has had psychological effects on the university population. Factors such as emotional intelligence, coping strategies and levels of anxiety, depression and stress have been affected by the situation generated by COVID-19. This study aims to analyze how EI, coping strategies and [...] Read more.
The pandemic has had psychological effects on the university population. Factors such as emotional intelligence, coping strategies and levels of anxiety, depression and stress have been affected by the situation generated by COVID-19. This study aims to analyze how EI, coping strategies and levels of anxiety, depression and stress have been affected by the situation generated by the pandemic in a population of 567 students from the University of Jaén (Spain). For this purpose, we administered three instruments: the Wong and Law emotional intelligence scale (WLEIS), the Spanish version of the coping strategies inventory (CSI) and the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS-21). At the same time, we asked students to describe their personal circumstances during confinement and their tendency to follow the measures and recommendations promoted by the Ministry of Health. The results obtained showed a positive relationship between EI and coping strategies and a negative relationship with levels of depression, anxiety and stress. A positive relationship was also found between coping and levels of anxiety, depression and stress. It was also found that the circumstances in which students experienced the period of confinement also modulated their levels of EI, coping strategies and their levels of depression, anxiety and stress. Full article
14 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
Dark Triad Psychopathy Outperforms Self-Control in Predicting Antisocial Outcomes: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
by Pedro Pechorro, Shelby Curtis, Matt DeLisi, João Maroco and Cristina Nunes
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(6), 549-562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12060041 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3571
Abstract
Dark Triad traits and self-control are considered viable causal precursors to antisocial and criminal outcomes in youth. The purpose of the present study is to concurrently compare how Dark Triad traits and self-control differ in terms of predicting self-reported juvenile delinquency, CD symptoms, [...] Read more.
Dark Triad traits and self-control are considered viable causal precursors to antisocial and criminal outcomes in youth. The purpose of the present study is to concurrently compare how Dark Triad traits and self-control differ in terms of predicting self-reported juvenile delinquency, CD symptoms, proactive overt aggression, and crime seriousness. The sample consisted of 567 (M = 15.91 years, SD = 0.99 years, age range = 14–18 years) Southern European youth from Portugal. Structural-equation-modelling procedures revealed that the psychopathy factor of Dark Triad traits presented the strongest significant hypothetical causal associations with the antisocial/criminal outcomes, followed by self-control. Machiavellianism and narcissism presented the lowest causal associations. Our findings indicate that psychopathy, as operationalized in the Dark Triad, concurrently surpasses self-control and the remaining factors of the Dark Triad in terms of predicting antisocial/criminal outcomes in youth. This suggests that behavioral disinhibition, or a core incapacity to regulate one’s conduct, is central for understanding delinquency and externalizing psychopathology. Comparatively, the interpersonal component of dark personality features, such as Machiavellianism and narcissism, are secondary for understanding crime. Full article
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13 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
Mindfulness and Balanced Time Perspective: Predictive Model of Psychological Well-Being and Gender Differences in College Students
by Andrea Fuentes, Cristián Oyanadel, Philip Zimbardo, Melissa González-Loyola, Lening A. Olivera-Figueroa and Wenceslao Peñate
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(3), 306-318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12030022 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5096
Abstract
Background: The aims of the study were to establish an adjustment model to analyze the relationship among mindfulness, balanced time perspective (BTP) and psychological well-being (PWB) in college students and to explore gender differences among the variables. Method: The sample consisted of 380 [...] Read more.
Background: The aims of the study were to establish an adjustment model to analyze the relationship among mindfulness, balanced time perspective (BTP) and psychological well-being (PWB) in college students and to explore gender differences among the variables. Method: The sample consisted of 380 college students, 220 women and 160 men, uniformly distributed according to the university’s faculties. Results: The results indicate that the synergy between mindfulness and BTP predicts the variance of PWB by 55%. Regarding gender differences, it was found that women have a greater tendency towards Past Positive than men and men a higher tendency towards Present Hedonistic than women. In addition, in the group of women, a stronger relationship was found among the variables and, consequently, a greater predictive value for PWB (58%), displaying an enhanced disposition to high PWB compared to men. Conclusions: Together, mindfulness and BTP promote optimal psychological functioning and alleviate or reduce discomfort. Thus, their promotion and training in universities is especially important given the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in college students. Full article
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13 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
Mental Health and Healthy Habits in University Students: A Comparative Associative Study
by José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández, Ángela Guillén, David Pina and Esteban Puente-López
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(2), 114-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12020010 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5236
Abstract
There is evidence of increased psychopathology in university students and its relationship with unhealthy lifestyle habits. The objective of this work is to examine the prevalence and differences in psychopathological symptoms and lifestyle in a sample of university students according to educational levels [...] Read more.
There is evidence of increased psychopathology in university students and its relationship with unhealthy lifestyle habits. The objective of this work is to examine the prevalence and differences in psychopathological symptoms and lifestyle in a sample of university students according to educational levels and area of knowledge. A comparative associative study was conducted with 1405 university students. The results indicated significant differences in psychopathology and habits in the different groups. The prevalence of psychopathology found was high, especially depressive and anxious pathologies. This incidence tends to be higher in undergraduates and/or Arts and Humanities, coinciding with those who tend to have poorer lifestyle habits. The promising contributions from this study facilitate the early detection of university students with a risk profile for the appearance or exacerbation of psychopathology, as well as the design of psychological intervention programs aimed at the psychological well-being of this population. Full article
11 pages, 790 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Exhaustion Scale (ECE) in Chilean Higher Education Students
by Jonathan Martínez-Líbano, María-Mercedes Yeomans and Juan-Carlos Oyanedel
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(1), 50-60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12010005 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6719
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to estimate the psychometric properties of the Emotional Fatigue Scale (ECE) in a sample of 1308 Chilean university students and confirm the unifactorial structure of the scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to estimate the psychometric properties of the Emotional Fatigue Scale (ECE) in a sample of 1308 Chilean university students and confirm the unifactorial structure of the scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The ECE assessment had an internal consistency of 0.893 (Cronbach’s Alpha). An exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation and a confirmatory analysis were performed, obtaining the factor that explains 52.3% of the variance. The results indicated that the ECE has adequate psychometric properties for use with higher education students in Chile. The ECE scale has good psychometric properties to be applied in the Chilean university context. Its usage may be very relevant to contribute to higher education institutions to emphasize students’ mental health and prevent possible severe pathologies in future professionals. It is suggested to use the ECE scale together with the EES-Int, which is the only interpretation table for this instrument. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022

10 pages, 709 KiB  
Review
Assessment of Anxiety in Cognitive-Behavior Therapy in Young University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
by Sarah Sánchez-Cueva, Yurena Alonso-Esteban and Francisco Alcantud-Marín
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(4), 1571-1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040111 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3784
Abstract
The university provides academic support to disabled students, however, few institutions provide academic, extra-academic or preventive support to students with Autism Spectrum Disorders High-Functioning (ASD-HF). Among the most commonly requested needs is support for coping with anxiety arising from academic and social activity [...] Read more.
The university provides academic support to disabled students, however, few institutions provide academic, extra-academic or preventive support to students with Autism Spectrum Disorders High-Functioning (ASD-HF). Among the most commonly requested needs is support for coping with anxiety arising from academic and social activity itself. When planning an intervention program, it is necessary to screen those who have problems and are likely to benefit from such a program. In this article we propose a systematic search for measures of anxiety for young people and adults with ASD-HF. Of a total of 683 documents, only 7 met the selection criteria. Of these, a total of 35 tools were detected, of which only 11 mediated anxiety. Screening should be carried out for all students, so that we can detect the “risk” of anxiety disturbance in all cases and, in particular, in students with ASD-HF. However, the instruments eligible for assessing intervention outcomes should be agreed upon in order to be able to compare results from different trials. Full article
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12 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Aggressiveness among Young Teenage Girls: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
by Haleh Heizomi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Kamiar Kouzekanani, Hossein Matlabi, Mansour Bayrami, Vijay Kumar Chattu and Hamid Allahverdipour
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(4), 1350-1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11040098 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4124
Abstract
Adolescence is a period of transition for developmental and social domains that may also be accompanied by behavioral problems. Aggressive behavior may be a mental health concern for young teens and is defined as a behavioral and emotional trait that may be distressing [...] Read more.
Adolescence is a period of transition for developmental and social domains that may also be accompanied by behavioral problems. Aggressive behavior may be a mental health concern for young teens and is defined as a behavioral and emotional trait that may be distressing for others. This study aimed to understand the factors associated with aggressiveness among young teenage girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 707 female middle school-aged students using multistage random sampling in Tabriz, Iran. The variables of interest were aggressiveness, general health status, happiness, social acceptance, and feelings of loneliness. Structural equation modeling was employed to analyze the data. Low parental support, low satisfaction with body image, high sense of loneliness, and lower perceived social acceptance were found to be the factors influencing aggressiveness. The current study found that the school environment, home environment, individual and interpersonal factors all play a part in aggressiveness. As a result, the contributing elements must be considered when creating and executing successful interventions to improve this population’s psychological well-being. Full article
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