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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 13, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The smartphone has become integral to most aspects of our lives. Objective research into the promise and dangers of this device is critical. While educational uses of the smartphone hold promise, the potential for harm is also present. The topics addressed in smartphone and learning research illuminate trends and potential biases in the field. This study investigates the issues addressed in smartphone and learning research in the past two years. These topics are compared with smartphone research in a similar field, psychology. Using a bibliometric approach, the study identified an overall negative arc of the literature towards topics such as addiction, depression, and anxiety in the psychology literature. The educational literature topics were comparatively more positive than psychology. View this paper
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20 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
Validation of Self-Regulated Writing Strategies for Advanced EFL Learners in China: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis
by Xuan Wang, Jianting Ma, Ximeng Li and Xinyi Shen
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 776-795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040059 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1724
Abstract
This study aims to validate self-regulated writing strategies for advanced EFL learners through a structural equation modeling analysis. Two sets of advanced, university-level EFL learners in China were recruited on the basis of results from a nationwide standardized English test. Sample 1 consisted [...] Read more.
This study aims to validate self-regulated writing strategies for advanced EFL learners through a structural equation modeling analysis. Two sets of advanced, university-level EFL learners in China were recruited on the basis of results from a nationwide standardized English test. Sample 1 consisted of 214 advanced learners and served mainly as a data source for exploratory factor analysis. Sample 2 consisted of 303 advanced learners; data from this group were used to conduct confirmatory factor analyses. The results confirmed the goodness of fit of the hierarchical, multidimensional structure of self-regulated writing strategies. This hierarchic model has the higher order of self-regulation and the second order of nine self-regulated writing strategies that belong to four dimensions. In terms of model comparisons, the indices of Model 1 (nine-factor correlated model of EFL writing strategies for SRL) and Model 2 (four-factor second-order model of EFL writing strategies for SRL) mark significant improvements in terms of fit over the indices of Model 3 (one-factor second-order model of EFL writing strategies for SRL). This means the four-factor model (cognition, metacognition, social behavior, and motivational regulation) offered a better explanation for advanced EFL learners than the model treating self-regulated writing strategies as a single convergent factor. These findings, in some ways, differ from the results of earlier research on EFL learners’ self-regulated writing strategies, and the findings of this study have certain implications for L2 writing teaching and learning. Full article
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14 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Daily Meditative Practices Based on Mindfulness and Self-Compassion on Emotional Distress under Stressful Conditions: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by María Elena Gutiérrez-Hernández, Luisa Fernanda Fanjul Rodríguez, Alicia Díaz Megolla, Cristián Oyanadel and Wenceslao Peñate Castro
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 762-775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040058 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Intervention programs based on self-compassion have demonstrated their efficacy both in reducing psychological distress and increasing well-being. The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of an online intervention to increase mindfulness and self-compassion levels in a non-clinical sample in a [...] Read more.
Intervention programs based on self-compassion have demonstrated their efficacy both in reducing psychological distress and increasing well-being. The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of an online intervention to increase mindfulness and self-compassion levels in a non-clinical sample in a highly stressful context: the ten weeks of lockdown imposed in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. The intervention sessions consisted of thirty-minute guided meditations followed by thirty minutes of inquiry. Sixty-one participants completed two thirds of the sessions or more, and 65 individuals participated in a waiting-list (WL) control group. Self-compassion, anxiety, depression and stress levels were assessed. The analysis of pre-post results suggests that the interventions increased self-compassion levels and decreased anxiety, depression and stress levels, whereas the WL group did not show any significant changes. The emotional changes in the intervention group were associated with the increase in self-compassion. However, at follow-up, the scores of emotional distress variables returned to the initial pre-intervention scores. These data can be interpreted in line with previous results that have shown the efficacy of self-compassion-based intervention programs. Given that this efficacy was not maintained at follow-up, data are discussed according to the pervasive role of a highly stressful context and—as described in other studies—the need for regular practice to maintain the benefits obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Problems and Mindful/Acceptance Frameworks)
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3 pages, 229 KiB  
Editorial
Health Sciences before, during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Mihnea-Alexandru Găman
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 759-761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040057 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has heavily influenced the teaching and practical training required for students enrolled in health sciences courses globally both at undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate levels [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Sciences before, during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic)
11 pages, 1445 KiB  
Article
Smartphones and Learning: Evaluating the Focus of Recent Research
by Kendall Hartley, Bobby Hoffman and Alberto Andújar
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 748-758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040056 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 3148
Abstract
The smartphone has become integral to most aspects of students’ lives and is the primary conduit for accessing the internet. Objective research into the promise and dangers of this device is critical. While educational uses of the smartphone with young adults hold promise, [...] Read more.
The smartphone has become integral to most aspects of students’ lives and is the primary conduit for accessing the internet. Objective research into the promise and dangers of this device is critical. While educational uses of the smartphone with young adults hold promise, the potential for harm is also present. While objectivity is valued, the focus of researchers can subjectively skew towards optimistic or pessimistic views of technology. The topics addressed in smartphone and learning research illuminate trends and potential biases in the field. This study investigates the issues addressed in smartphone and learning research in the past two years. These topics are compared with smartphone research in a similar field: psychology. The study, using a bibliometric approach, identified an overall negative arc of the literature towards topics such as addiction, depression, and anxiety in the psychology literature. The educational literature topics were comparatively more positive than psychology. Highly cited papers in both fields reflected explorations of adverse outcomes. Full article
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12 pages, 2677 KiB  
Article
Muscular and Prefrontal Cortex Activity during Dual-Task Performing in Young Adults
by Marina Saraiva, Maria António Castro and João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 736-747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040055 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Postural control depends on attentional resources besides automatic processes. The dual-task paradigm is a possible approach to analyzing the interference and performance between motor and/or cognitive tasks. Various studies showed that, when individuals simultaneously perform two tasks, the postural stability can decline during [...] Read more.
Postural control depends on attentional resources besides automatic processes. The dual-task paradigm is a possible approach to analyzing the interference and performance between motor and/or cognitive tasks. Various studies showed that, when individuals simultaneously perform two tasks, the postural stability can decline during a dual-task compared with a single-task due to the attentional resources required performing the tasks. However, little is known about the cortical and muscular activity pattern during dual-task performance. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the muscular and prefrontal activity under dual-task performance in healthy young adults. Thirty-four healthy young adults (mean age ± SD = 22.74 ± 3.74 years) were recruited to perform a postural task (standing posture) and a dual-task (maintaining standing posture while performing a cognitive task). Lower-limb muscle activity was bilaterally collected from five muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG), and the co-contraction index (CCI) was also calculated for selected muscle pairings. The oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations (prefrontal cortex activity) were recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Data were compared between single- and dual-task performance. Prefrontal activity increased (p < 0.05), and muscle activity decreased in most analyzed muscles (p < 0.05), from the single-task to cognitive dual-task performing. The co-contraction index patterns changed from single- to dual-task conditions in most selected muscle pairs (p < 0.05). We conclude that the cognitive task negatively interfered with motor performance once the muscle activity decreased and the prefrontal cortex activity increased under a dual-task, suggesting that young adults prioritized cognitive task performance, and they allocated more attentional resources to the cognitive task over the motor performance. Understanding the neuromotor changes can help adopt a better clinical practice to prevent injuries. However, future studies are recommended to assess and monitor muscular and cortical activity during the dual-task performance to provide additional information about the cortical and muscular activity patterns in postural control while performing a dual-task. Full article
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21 pages, 1330 KiB  
Review
Instructional Design Made Easy! Instructional Design Models, Categories, Frameworks, Educational Context, and Recommendations for Future Work
by Hassan Abuhassna and Samer Alnawajha
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 715-735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040054 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
Educators and course designers may face great hurdles when designing courses if they include an online setting. Instructional design (ID) has played a vital role as a change agent in facilitating the pedagogical and technological transformation of educators and students. However, some instructors [...] Read more.
Educators and course designers may face great hurdles when designing courses if they include an online setting. Instructional design (ID) has played a vital role as a change agent in facilitating the pedagogical and technological transformation of educators and students. However, some instructors still find ID challenging and there are information gaps regarding instructional design models, categories, educational context, and recommendations for future work. This systematic literature review (SLR) analyzed 31 publications using PRISMA to address this gap. The results of this review suggest combining ID models with broader theoretical frameworks. Investigations and research on ID should include a bigger number of ID types. It is highly recommended that extra frameworks be added to the ID procedure. To explore and grasp all parties engaged in ID, including the role of the instructor, the ID designer, and the student, it is important for additional educational contexts to be amalgamated. For novices in the field, such as graduate students, it is crucial to pay close attention to the several phases and techniques of ID. This review sheds light on the trends, future agenda, and research requirements associated with ID in educational settings. It might serve as a basis for future research on ID in educational contexts. Full article
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14 pages, 956 KiB  
Article
Inspection Digital Literacy for School Improvement
by María del Carmen Martínez-Serrano, Manuel Angel Romero-García, Inmaculada García-Martínez and Óscar Gavín-Chocano
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 701-714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040053 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Educational inspection, as an essential part of the current educational environment, supports its mission through more pragmatic and comprehensive processes, techniques, and models, which guarantee the right of students to quality education. The aim of the present study was to determine the causal [...] Read more.
Educational inspection, as an essential part of the current educational environment, supports its mission through more pragmatic and comprehensive processes, techniques, and models, which guarantee the right of students to quality education. The aim of the present study was to determine the causal effect of gender and age on the dimensions of the instrument in the inspector population. Specifically, 118 male and female inspectors from the Educational Inspection Service of Andalusia (Spain) participated, with an average age of 47.56 years (±5.70). In terms of gender, 30 were women (25.40%) and 88 were men (74.60%). An instrument was developed specifically for this study with the purpose of assessing the participants’ opinions of the extent to which their work contributes to educational improvement. The results evidenced the relationship between the dimensions of the instrument: attention to members of the educational community (AMEC), supervision of guidance and tutorial action (SGTA), attention and inclusion of diversity (AID), and technological resources (TR) (p < 0.01). Similarly, the multigroup model obtained good structural validity (χ2 = 68.180; RMSEA = 0.078; GFI = 0.923; CFI = 0.959; IFI = 0.967). In terms of gender, no significant differences were obtained, although the results were moderately superior among males compared to females. In relation to age, younger inspectors had better TR results, and older inspectors had better AMEC and SGTA results. The conclusions strengthen the importance of the Education Inspection Service in educational establishments, highlighting the need to supervise the processes of attention and inclusion for diversity. A great deal of resistance was observed, especially as there is a lack of training in information and communication technology (ICT). Full article
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17 pages, 793 KiB  
Article
The Impact of a Challenge-Based Learning Experience in Physical Education on Students’ Motivation and Engagement
by Luis Simón-Chico, Alba González-Peño, Ernesto Hernández-Cuadrado and Evelia Franco
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2023, 13(4), 684-700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040052 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2981
Abstract
The present study investigated how challenge-based learning (CBL) in physical education (PE) may affect students’ basic psychological needs (BPNs), motivational regulations, engagement, and learning in comparison with a traditional teaching (TT) methodology. A quasiexperimental study with experimental and control groups was carried out. [...] Read more.
The present study investigated how challenge-based learning (CBL) in physical education (PE) may affect students’ basic psychological needs (BPNs), motivational regulations, engagement, and learning in comparison with a traditional teaching (TT) methodology. A quasiexperimental study with experimental and control groups was carried out. In total, 50 participants (16 boys and 34 girls) between 13 and 15 years old (Mage = 13.35, SD = 0.62) were involved in the experience for 6 weeks (ncontrol = 24; nexperimental = 26). Validated questionnaires were administered both before and after the intervention in both groups. Furthermore, theoretical knowledge and badminton-specific motor skill tests were carried out in both groups after the intervention. An analysis showed that after the intervention, students in the CBL condition improved their autonomy (Mbefore = 3.15 vs. Mafter = 3.39; ES = 0.26 *), competence (Mbefore = 4.01 vs. Mafter = 4.18; ES = 0.33 *), and relatedness satisfaction (Mbefore = 3.86 vs. Mafter = 4.06; ES = 0.32 *). As for behavioural engagement measures, students in the CBL condition exhibited higher scores after than those from before (Mbefore = 4.12 vs. Mafter = 4.36; ES = 0.35 *). No significant changes were observed for motivational regulations or agentic engagement. On learning outcomes, students in the experimental group achieved higher scores in both theoretical knowledge (Mcontol = 6.48 vs. Mexperimental = 6.79) and badminton-specific motor skills (Mcontol = 6.85 vs. Mexperimental = 7.65) than the control group did. The present study findings highlight that CBL might be a valid and effective methodological approach for students in PE to achieve adaptive motivational, behavioural, and learning outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Education, Physical Activity and Human Health)
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