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Processes, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2024) – 238 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Hydrogen (H2) is considered a clean and green energy source, emitting only H2O vapours as a by-product when burnt to release energy. Biomass electrolysis is a promising process for hydrogen production with a series of recognised advantages: (i) lower temperature conditions (compared to thermochemical processes), (ii) minimal energy consumption and low-cost post-production, (iii) potential to synthesise high-volume H2 and (iv) smaller carbon footprint compared to thermochemical processes. View this paper
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17 pages, 4736 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Pesticides on Activated Carbons from Peach Stones
by Souha Harabi, Sami Guiza, Ariadna Álvarez-Montero, Almudena Gómez-Avilés, Mohamed Bagané, Carolina Belver and Jorge Bedia
Processes 2024, 12(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010238 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1057
Abstract
This study analyzes the adsorption of two model pesticides, namely, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran on activated carbons obtained by chemical activation with phosphoric acid of peach stones. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the surface area development was analyzed. The highest [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the adsorption of two model pesticides, namely, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and carbofuran on activated carbons obtained by chemical activation with phosphoric acid of peach stones. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the surface area development was analyzed. The highest surface area was obtained with an impregnation time of 5 h, an impregnation ratio equal to 3.5, an activation temperature of 400 °C, and 4.5 h of activation time. Under these conditions, the maximum specific surface area was equal to 1182 m2·g−1 which confirms the high porosity of the activated carbon, predominantly in the form of micropores. The surface chemistry of this activated carbon was also characterized using pH at point of zero charge, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both kinetics and equilibrium adsorption tests were performed. Adsorption kinetics confirmed that 2,4-D adsorption follows a pseudo first-order adsorption kinetic model, while carbofuran adsorption is better described by a pseudo second-order one. Regarding the equilibrium adsorption, a higher adsorption capacity is obtained for 2,4-D than carbofuran (c.a. 500 and 250 mg·g−1, respectively). The analysis of the thermodynamics and characterization after use suggest a predominantly physisorption nature of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adsorption Kinetics and Thermodynamics: Analysis and Applications)
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14 pages, 571 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L.) Alcoholic Beverages on the Sensory, Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Characteristics—In Vitro and In Silico Approaches
by Oskar Szczepaniak, Barbara Stachowiak, Henryk Jeleń, Kinga Stuper-Szablewska, Katarzyna Szambelan and Joanna Kobus-Cisowska
Processes 2024, 12(1), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010237 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Food producers have focused on novel and attractive raw materials with functional properties. Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits contain numerous compounds that may be beneficial for health. Objective: This study aimed to compare and assess the physicochemical properties and amygdalin levels [...] Read more.
Food producers have focused on novel and attractive raw materials with functional properties. Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits contain numerous compounds that may be beneficial for health. Objective: This study aimed to compare and assess the physicochemical properties and amygdalin levels in brandy and liquor prepared from frozen cornelian cherry fruits. Density functional theory-based B3LYP functionals were used to analyze the spectral and optical properties of amygdalin. The contents of the compounds and volatile products of amygdalin decay were found in two spirituose beverages of Cornus mas, using HPLC and GC-MS. Significant differences in their physicochemical properties were detected between the samples. Alcoholic beverages based on cornelian cherry fruits were rich in a wide range of functional ingredients with a low concentration of amygdalin. In silico analysis showed that orbital density diffusion has a major effect on the physical properties of amygdalin, while differences between the polarities of water and ethanol had no noticeable effect on the spectral properties of the compound. Cornelian cherry-based alcoholic drinks might be interesting functional products with rich aromatic bouquets. The amygdalin concentration is low enough to pose no toxicological threat, but rather shapes the tastory bouquet of the products. Levels of amygdalin may be controlled using the same analytical methods for solutions with different ethanol–water ratios. Full article
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27 pages, 23140 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Influencing Factors of Imbibition of Fracturing Fluids in Tight Reservoirs
by Jian Liu, Xuefeng Qu, Jiwei Wang, Qiang Liu, Lei Zhang, Tao Huang and Haiyang Yu
Processes 2024, 12(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010236 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Tight reservoirs are the focus of unconventional oil and gas resource development, but most tight reservoirs exhibit complex pore structures, strong non-homogeneity, and limited water drive development. Fracturing fluid imbibition is a critically important way to improve the recovery of tight reservoirs. In [...] Read more.
Tight reservoirs are the focus of unconventional oil and gas resource development, but most tight reservoirs exhibit complex pore structures, strong non-homogeneity, and limited water drive development. Fracturing fluid imbibition is a critically important way to improve the recovery of tight reservoirs. In this paper, an NMR experimental device was used to conduct imbibition experiments in tight reservoirs, and the relationship between temperature, pressure, matrix permeability, and imbibition recovery was investigated. Based on the fracturing fluid imbibition recovery curve, the imbibition process is divided into the fast imbibition stage, slow imbibition stage, and imbibition equilibrium. In addition, based on the pore structure division, the recovery changes of each pore under different experimental conditions were quantitatively analyzed. The results indicate that the highest imbibition recovery is achieved at an experimental pressure of 5 MPa within the range of 0 MPa to 15 MPa. Increasing the experimental pressure can increase the imbibition rate but will not increase imbibition recovery. Within the investigated range in this paper, fracturing fluid imbibition increases with rising temperature and matrix permeability. Moreover, the recovery of each pore gradually increases with the experimental pressure ranging from 0 MPa to 5 MPa. The recovery of each pore is positively correlated with matrix permeability and temperature. During the experiment, micropores contributed the most to the recovery, while macropores contributed the least. The study in this paper guides the efficient development of tight reservoirs. Full article
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18 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effectiveness of the Integral Emergency Response System for Coal Mine Water Hazard Accidents Based on Combination Weighting
by Yu Hao, Huanhuan Yang, Lijun Zhang and Chaolun Sun
Processes 2024, 12(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010235 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 657
Abstract
Improving the emergency response effectiveness of coal mines in response to water hazard accidents not only plays a vital part in minimizing the resultant losses, but also functions as an important index for evaluating the emergency response capability of coal mines. Therefore, it [...] Read more.
Improving the emergency response effectiveness of coal mines in response to water hazard accidents not only plays a vital part in minimizing the resultant losses, but also functions as an important index for evaluating the emergency response capability of coal mines. Therefore, it is of great necessity to test the emergency response capability of coal mines. In this study, an effectiveness measurement index system for the emergency response system that comprises two primary indexes (i.e., response capability and service capability) and six secondary indexes (i.e., accident information transmission, emergency command and control, emergency rescue and mitigation, emergency management, personnel team, and prevention and preparation) was constructed. Additionally, a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) model for evaluating the effectiveness of the integral emergency response system for coal mine water hazard accidents, based on combination weighting, was put forward. Both the empirical evaluation and model validation of the emergency response system for water hazard accidents were carried out by taking five coal mines attached to Henan Coking Coal Group as research objects. The findings suggest that the effectiveness of the emergency response system for water hazard accidents in the Guhanshan Coal Mine and the Zhongmachun Coal Mine is rated as “average”, while those in the Jiulishan Coal Mine, Zhaogu No. 1 Coal Mine, and Zhaogu No. 2 Coal Mine are graded as “good”. This result is consistent with the actual situation, which verifies the capacity of the proposed TOPSIS model to evaluate the emergency response system scientifically and efficiently for coal mine water hazard accidents. This study not only offers new ideas for how to enhance the comprehensive emergency response capability of coal mines with respect to water hazard accidents, but also provides support for making decisions concerning the upgrading of the emergency response capacity of coal mines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Safety Monitoring and Prevention Process in Coal Mines)
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4 pages, 161 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances in Reservoir Stimulation and Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology in Unconventional Reservoirs
by Lufeng Zhang, Linhua Pan, Yushi Zou, Jie Wang, Minghui Li and Wei Feng
Processes 2024, 12(1), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010234 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 799
Abstract
In the past decade, significant advances in reservoir stimulation and enhanced oil recovery technologies have resulted in rapid production growth in unconventional reservoirs [...] Full article
12 pages, 3039 KiB  
Article
Leveraging Dion–Jacobson Interface Hierarchies for Defect Alleviation in High-Efficiency and Durable Perovskite Solar Cells
by Jianxiao Bian, Yuncong Zhang, Yang Liu and Xiaonan Pan
Processes 2024, 12(1), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010233 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 717
Abstract
The noteworthy stability of Dion–Jacobson (DJ) phase two-dimensional perovskites marks them as potential contenders for use in optoelectronic applications. Nonetheless, their proliferation is considerably stymied by the constrained charge transport properties inherent to them. This bottleneck is adeptly navigated by deploying 2D-DJ perovskite [...] Read more.
The noteworthy stability of Dion–Jacobson (DJ) phase two-dimensional perovskites marks them as potential contenders for use in optoelectronic applications. Nonetheless, their proliferation is considerably stymied by the constrained charge transport properties inherent to them. This bottleneck is adeptly navigated by deploying 2D-DJ perovskite top layers, seamlessly integrated on 3D perovskite films. We unveil a novel organic cation salt, 4-(Aminomethyl)piperidine (4AMP), as a potent facilitator for treating perovskite photovoltaic films. By employing the annealing technique, we facilitated the in situ creation of a hybrid 2D/3D architecture. Contrasted with conventional 3D architectures, the delineated perovskite heterojunctions with a 2D/3D structure exhibit superior enhanced charge separation, and mitigate photovoltaic losses by proficiently passivating intrinsic defects. The size-graded perovskite 2D/3D structure engineered herein significantly elevates the charge transfer performance, concurrently attenuating the excess lead iodide induced by bulk defects. This precise method resulted in a significant increase in Power Conversion Efficiency, reaching 23.08%, along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.17 V. Remarkably, the unpackaged modified device robustly retains 92% of its initial PCE post a 3000 h sojourn under ambient conditions. This discourse propounds a novel paradigm for constructing stable planar PSC 2D/3D heterojunctions, thereby enriching the blueprint for advanced perovskite-based photovoltaic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Battery Material Design and Process)
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25 pages, 44711 KiB  
Article
Low Energy Cost Synchronization Strategy for Markovian Switching Complex Systems/Networks: Multiple Perspectives Comparative Analysis
by Qian Xie, Haolan Xu, Jian Dang and Zhe Wang
Processes 2024, 12(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010232 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 693
Abstract
In this paper, the low energy cost synchronization control strategy of Markovian switching complex systems/networks is mainly studied and analyzed through multiple perspectives. Firstly, in order to achieve synchronization of Markovian switching complex networks with low energy cost, a control scheme based on [...] Read more.
In this paper, the low energy cost synchronization control strategy of Markovian switching complex systems/networks is mainly studied and analyzed through multiple perspectives. Firstly, in order to achieve synchronization of Markovian switching complex networks with low energy cost, a control scheme based on the optimal node selection strategy that does not depend on the network coupling strength is improved, and a finite-time controller with a simpler structure is constructed. Secondly, based on the event-triggered control strategy an effective trigger event is designed to achieve the low energy cost synchronization of Markovian switching complex networks on the basis of reducing the information transmission and interaction between networks. Finally, the two control strategies mentioned in this paper are compared and analyzed from multiple perspectives through numerical simulations to better guide practical engineering. Full article
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22 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
The Nutritional Value of Plant Drink against Bovine Milk—Analysis of the Total Concentrations and the Bio-Accessible Fraction of Elements in Cow Milk and Plant-Based Beverages
by Maja Welna, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna Lesniewicz and Pawel Pohl
Processes 2024, 12(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010231 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Four types of non-dairy (plant) drinks—almond, oat, rice, and soy—as well as cow milk with varying fat contents (1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.2%), were examined and compared in terms of the total concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, [...] Read more.
Four types of non-dairy (plant) drinks—almond, oat, rice, and soy—as well as cow milk with varying fat contents (1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.2%), were examined and compared in terms of the total concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Additionally, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to determine the bio-accessible fraction of selected elements, evaluating the nutritional value and risk assessment involved with the consumption of these beverages. A significant difference in the mineral profile was observed depending on the type of plant drink, with the highest content of elements noted in the soy drink and the lowest in the rice drink. Except for Ca and P, the soy drink appears to be a much better source of essential nutrients, including Cu, Fe, and Mn, than cow’s milk. A similar Ca content in plant beverages can be obtained only by adding calcium salt at the stage of its production. Interestingly, by using the multivariate data analysis, the average content of the selected elements (Cu, K, Na, P, and Zn) can be used both to differentiate dairy and non-dairy milk samples according to their type and to distinguish plant drinks from milk of animal origin. The bio-accessibility of essential elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn) in cow milk was within 8.37–98.2% and increased with an increase in its fat content. Accordingly, by drinking 1 L of this milk daily, it is possible to contribute to the recommended dietary intakes of Ca, P, Cu, Mg, and Zn between 5.6–68%. Although the bio-accessibility of elements in the rice drink was the highest (9.0–90.8%), the soy drink seems to be the best source of nutrients in bioavailable forms; its consumption (1 L/day) covers the requirements of Cu, Mn, Mg, Ca, P, and Zn in 7.0–67%. Unfortunately, both groups of beverages are not important sources of Fe (plant drink) and Mn or Fe (cow milk) in the human diet. On the other hand, potentially toxic elements (Al, B, Ba) were found in them in a relatively inert form. Full article
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17 pages, 4677 KiB  
Article
In Silico and In Vitro Analyses of Multiple Terpenes Predict Cryptotanshinone as a Potent Inhibitor of the Omicron Variant of SARS-CoV-2
by Asmita Shrestha, Siddha Raj Upadhyaya, Bimal K. Raut, Salyan Bhattarai, Khaga Raj Sharma, Niranjan Parajuli, Jae Kyung Sohng and Bishnu P. Regmi
Processes 2024, 12(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010230 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1774
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) underwent a substantial number of alterations, and the accompanying structural mutations in the spike protein prompted questions about the virus’s propensity to evade the antibody neutralization produced by prior infection or vaccination. [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) underwent a substantial number of alterations, and the accompanying structural mutations in the spike protein prompted questions about the virus’s propensity to evade the antibody neutralization produced by prior infection or vaccination. New mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have raised serious concerns regarding the effectiveness of drugs and vaccines against the virus; thus, identifying and developing potent antiviral medications is crucial to combat viral infections. In the present study, we conducted a detailed in silico investigation that involves molecular docking, density functional (DFT) analysis, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and pharmacological analysis followed by an in vitro study with the spike protein. Among fifty terpenes screened, cryptotanshinone and saikosaponin B2 were found to be potent S1-RBD spike protein inhibitors, displaying considerable hydrogen bond interactions with key binding site residues, significant binding affinity, and high reactivity attributed to band gap energy. In addition, 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further substantiated these findings, showcasing the stability of the compounds within a biological environment. With favorable pharmacokinetic properties and a low half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 86.06 ± 1.56 μM, cryptotanshinone inhibited S1-RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Our findings account for in-depth research on cryptotanshinone as a SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor. Full article
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15 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
Improving the Feedforward Component for Recent Variants of Predictive Functional Control
by John Anthony Rossiter, Muhammad Abdullah and Muhammad Saleheen Aftab
Processes 2024, 12(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010229 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
A recent study demonstrated that the use of feedforward information with conventional Predictive Functional Control (PFC) leads to unexpected inconsistencies, with subsequent negative impacts on tuning and behaviour. A proposal was made to define the coincident point differently and shown to reduce the [...] Read more.
A recent study demonstrated that the use of feedforward information with conventional Predictive Functional Control (PFC) leads to unexpected inconsistencies, with subsequent negative impacts on tuning and behaviour. A proposal was made to define the coincident point differently and shown to reduce the lag in the closed-loop PFC responses and applied to some systems with benign dynamics. Other recent work has looked at parameterisations of the future input to deal with challenging open-loop dynamics and significantly extended the range of problems for which PFC can be effective. This paper combines the two concepts, and thus proposes an algorithm that has both more effective and simple tuning than original PFC as well as being applicable to a range of challenging dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Automation Control Systems)
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12 pages, 1711 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Chrome Tanned Leather Shavings Modification—Properties and Prospective for Future Application
by Dorota Gendaszewska, Paulina Pipiak, Dorota Wieczorek and Katarzyna Sieczyńska
Processes 2024, 12(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010228 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Chrome tanned leather shavings (CTLS) are considered one of the more difficult wastes to manage in the tanning industry. At the same time, this waste is an important source of good quality collagen. The few methods described in the literature for the valorization [...] Read more.
Chrome tanned leather shavings (CTLS) are considered one of the more difficult wastes to manage in the tanning industry. At the same time, this waste is an important source of good quality collagen. The few methods described in the literature for the valorization of these wastes usually require pre-treatment or activation. In this study, an attempt was made to see if raw chrome tanned leather shavings (CTLS) could be modified to obtain secondary raw materials with new physical properties. Glutaraldehyde, glycerol, EDCs, pectin, and tannins were selected for modification of the CTLS. The effectiveness of the processes carried out was confirmed by FTIR analysis of the materials obtained. Changes in the intensity of the characteristic collagen peak (amide I, amide II, and amide III) and changes in the position of the bands in the 1200–1000 cm−1 region were observed in the recorded spectra. The modifications introduced confirmed changes in the physical properties of samples M1–M5, including an increase in bulk density from 0.15 to 0.59 g cm−3, and improved tensile strength is some cases. The elemental content results of the samples tested showed the resulting modified CTLS were free of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr(VI). It was also confirmed tanning waste contained significant amounts of various valuable elements. The research also included preliminary tests to assess the environmental impact of the modified materials. In a phytotoxicity test conducted on modified CTLS, M1 with pectins showed the highest root stimulation (105%), while samples with glutaraldehyde and unmodified CTLS showed significant root inhibition (75%, 74%). Other samples showed moderate plant toxicity and seed germination was not significantly affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Sustainable Materials and Products)
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14 pages, 3895 KiB  
Article
Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics of Oily Sludge Thermal Desorption
by Kai Li, Ao Cai, Yijun Tang and Xianyong Zhang
Processes 2024, 12(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010227 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Oily sludge is a loose material containing solid and multiple liquid components. Thermal desorption is an efficient method of disposing of liquids from oily sludge. Most existing studies have mainly discussed the effect of some external process parameters on thermal desorption, with little [...] Read more.
Oily sludge is a loose material containing solid and multiple liquid components. Thermal desorption is an efficient method of disposing of liquids from oily sludge. Most existing studies have mainly discussed the effect of some external process parameters on thermal desorption, with little discussion on the heat transfer characteristics and the variation in the wet component mass of oily sludge under heating. Small-scale experiments have been performed to measure the rise in temperature and liquid phase content change of the sludge during heating. The temperature rise rate increases with material density and increases faster during the initial heating stage, while it slows down as the liquid phase evaporates. The adhesive shear stress is determined by measuring the pulling force of the test rod, which decreases with decreasing water content and increases significantly with decreasing oil phase content. Heat transfer and energy distribution models have been developed to calculate the rise in the temperature of materials and the evaporation of contained liquids. The heat and mass transfer processes are obtained from simulation calculations by taking the initial material with a mass content of 25% water and 10% oil under a heating temperature of 500 °C. When the heating time reaches 135 min, the drying region reaches the boundary of the test container, at which the material temperature exceeds 350 °C. During the evaporation of different liquid-phase components, there are multiple segments in the corresponding temperature curves. The processing time and heat source temperature can be reasonably determined by analyzing the temperature rise of the material, and the effect of the disposal of liquids from oily sludge can be predicted by analyzing the changes in liquid content. The results may guide the formulation of process parameters for engineering project schemes for oily sludge disposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Heat Transfer)
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23 pages, 8105 KiB  
Article
Research on the Application of Structural Topology Optimisation in the High-Precision Design of a Press Machine Frame
by Zeqi Tong, Cheng Shen, Jie Fang, Mingming Ding and Huimin Tao
Processes 2024, 12(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010226 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 653
Abstract
This article aims to optimise the structure of a press machine to enhance its stability and accuracy, as well as reduce the frame deformation during processing. The outer supporting frame of the JH31-250 press machine (Zhejiang Weili Forging Machinery Co., Ltd, Shaoxing, China) [...] Read more.
This article aims to optimise the structure of a press machine to enhance its stability and accuracy, as well as reduce the frame deformation during processing. The outer supporting frame of the JH31-250 press machine (Zhejiang Weili Forging Machinery Co., Ltd, Shaoxing, China) is used as a typical sample for exploring optimisation. Commercial software is utilised to conduct a finite element analysis on the three-dimensional model of the press machine frame. A topological optimisation algorithm using the solid isotropic microstructures with penalisation (SIMP) method is then applied to improve the structure of the press frame. The size of the topological structure is further refined with the response surface method and particle swarm optimisation method to ensure it is more relevant to engineering application. The analysis results indicate that the initial frame’s deformation under the static conditions is 0.4229 mm, and after optimisation, the deformed structural displacement is 0.2548 mm, a decrease of 39.75%. Additionally, a simplified experimental method is designed to effectively validate the simulation and the proposed design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Manufacturing and Optimization)
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17 pages, 4460 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Predictive Control of Diesel Engine DOC Outlet Temperature
by Xuan Yu, Yuhua Wang, Guiyong Wang, Qianqiao Shen, Boshun Zeng and Shuchao He
Processes 2024, 12(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010225 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
In the regeneration mode, precise control of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) outlet temperature is crucial for the complete combustion of carbon Particulate Matter (PM) in the subsequent Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and the effective conversion of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) in the Selective [...] Read more.
In the regeneration mode, precise control of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) outlet temperature is crucial for the complete combustion of carbon Particulate Matter (PM) in the subsequent Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and the effective conversion of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) in the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The temperature elevation process of the DOC involves a series of intricate physicochemical reactions characterized by high nonlinearity, substantial time delays, and uncertainties. These factors render effective and stable control of the DOC outlet temperature challenging. To address these issues, this study proposes an approach based on Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks for Model Predictive Control (MPC), emphasizing precise control of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst’s outlet temperature during the regeneration mode. To tackle the system’s nonlinear characteristics, LSTM is employed to construct a predictive model for the outlet temperature of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, thereby enhancing prediction accuracy. Simultaneously, model predictive control is applied to mitigate the significant time delays inherent in the system. The gradient descent algorithm is utilized within a rolling optimization cycle to optimize the objective function, enabling the rapid determination of the control law. To validate the performance of the proposed control strategy, tracking performance and disturbance rejection tests are conducted. Simulation results demonstrate that, compared to the traditional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller, this control strategy exhibits superior tracking performance and disturbance rejection capabilities. In the regeneration mode, the adoption of this control strategy enables more effective and precise control of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst’s outlet temperature. Full article
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19 pages, 8930 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Crust Type Dust Suppression Gel Based on Plant Extraction Technology for Ginkgo biloba Leaves: Characterization, Properties, and Function Mechanism
by Bo Ren, Gang Zhou, Mingkun Song, Bingyou Jiang, Yuannan Zheng, Tao Fan, Shuailong Li, Jing Zhao, Haoyang Li and Hongrui Qu
Processes 2024, 12(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010224 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The coal industry plays an essential role in China’s economic development, and issues such as occupational health and environmental pollution caused by coal dust have attracted a great deal of attention. In accordance with the principles of environmental protection and waste management, this [...] Read more.
The coal industry plays an essential role in China’s economic development, and issues such as occupational health and environmental pollution caused by coal dust have attracted a great deal of attention. In accordance with the principles of environmental protection and waste management, this study used carboxymethyl ginkgo cellulose (CL) extracted and modified from Ginkgo biloba leaves as a matrix, and a graft copolymerized with sodium 3-allyloxy-1-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (AHPS) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomers to prepare low-cost, environmentally friendly, and high-performance coal dust suppression (C-A-N). By optimizing fitting experimental data through three factors and two response surface analyses, the optimal dust suppression efficiency ratio was determined to be 4:8:5, and its swelling and water retention properties were analyzed. The microstructure, chemical reaction process, combustion performance and crusting property of the dust suppression gel were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cone calorimetry, and consolidation layer strength tests. Relevant experiments show that the dust suppression gel prepared in this study has the characteristics of a strong wettability and minor impacts on the calorific value of coal, as well as green and environmental protection. When the wind speed is 10 m/s, the dust suppression effect reaches 93%, and the hardness of the solidified layer reaches 39.6 KPa. This study analyzed the migration and combination of functional groups in the interaction system using molecular dynamics simulation software. The microscopic effect and mechanism between dust suppression gel and coal are revealed from a molecular point of view. The feasibility and accuracy of the molecular dynamics simulation were verified by the consistency between simulation results and experimental data. Therefore, combining the utilization of waste resources with dust suppression can have important economic and social benefits. Full article
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22 pages, 5640 KiB  
Article
Research on Inbound Jobs’ Scheduling in Four-Way-Shuttle-Based Storage System
by Zhaoyun Wu, Yingxu Zhang, Li Li, Zhongwei Zhang, Binbin Zhao, Yehao Zhang and Xuewu He
Processes 2024, 12(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010223 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The four-way-shuttle-based storage and retrieval system is a recent innovative intelligent vertical warehousing system that has been widely applied in manufacturing and e-commerce environments due to its high flexibility and density. As a complex multi-device cooperative operational system, this system features the parallel [...] Read more.
The four-way-shuttle-based storage and retrieval system is a recent innovative intelligent vertical warehousing system that has been widely applied in manufacturing and e-commerce environments due to its high flexibility and density. As a complex multi-device cooperative operational system, this system features the parallel operation of multiple elevators and four-way shuttles. During large-scale-batch inbound operations, the quality of scheduling solutions for inbound-operation equipment significantly impacts the system’s efficiency and performance. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the inbound-operation process in the system is conducted, taking into consideration the motion characteristics of both the elevators and four-way shuttles. Furthermore, we establish operational time constraints that account for equipment acceleration and deceleration characteristics and introduce a flexible flow-shop-scheduling model to address the scheduling problem in the system. Additionally, we propose an improved genetic algorithm based on double-layer encoding to solve this problem. Comparative experiments with a traditional genetic algorithm and ant-colony algorithm demonstrate the superior efficiency and accuracy of our approach. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated through comparisons with large-scale practical experiments. Full article
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29 pages, 12890 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of a Heat Exchanger with a Rotating Tube Using Nanofluids under Transitional Flow
by Mohamed A. El-Magid Mohamed, Andrés Meana-Fernández, Juan M. González-Caballín, Anthony Bowman and Antonio José Gutiérrez-Trashorras
Processes 2024, 12(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010222 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Improvements in heat exchanger thermal efficiency are crucial for achieving energy use and cost reductions. The use of nanofluids and the rotation of the exchanger inner tube may enhance heat transfer and exchanger efficiency. In this work, after having performed experiments on such [...] Read more.
Improvements in heat exchanger thermal efficiency are crucial for achieving energy use and cost reductions. The use of nanofluids and the rotation of the exchanger inner tube may enhance heat transfer and exchanger efficiency. In this work, after having performed experiments on such a heat exchanger, a three dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the transitional forced convection flow of a horizontal double-tube heat exchanger, with the aim of obtaining insight into the effects of the inner tube rotation, fluid flow rate and type of nanofluid employed. It was found that an increase in the nanoparticle concentration up to 3% increased the exchanger efficiency. Al2O3, Al2O3-Cu and Cu-water nanofluids were studied, with the Cu-water being the fluid with the best performance (19.33% improvement). Heat transfer was enhanced with inner tube rotation up to 500 rpm (41.2%). Nevertheless, pressure drop and friction values were increased due to both phenomena, leading to higher pumping power values for the operation of the heat exchanger. Hence, a balance between the performance and pumping power increase must be considered when modifications are made on a heat exchanger. The development of the numerical model might help in further optimizing, redesigning and scaling up heat exchangers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Engineering)
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22 pages, 4795 KiB  
Article
Enhancing LightGBM for Industrial Fault Warning: An Innovative Hybrid Algorithm
by Shuai Li, Nan Jin, Azadeh Dogani, Yang Yang, Ming Zhang and Xiangyun Gu
Processes 2024, 12(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010221 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
The reliable operation of industrial equipment is imperative for ensuring both safety and enhanced production efficiency. Machine learning technology, particularly the Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM), has emerged as a valuable tool for achieving effective fault warning in industrial settings. Despite its success, [...] Read more.
The reliable operation of industrial equipment is imperative for ensuring both safety and enhanced production efficiency. Machine learning technology, particularly the Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM), has emerged as a valuable tool for achieving effective fault warning in industrial settings. Despite its success, the practical application of LightGBM encounters challenges in diverse scenarios, primarily stemming from the multitude of parameters that are intricate and challenging to ascertain, thus constraining computational efficiency and accuracy. In response to these challenges, we propose a novel innovative hybrid algorithm that integrates an Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm (AOA), Simulated Annealing (SA), and new search strategies. This amalgamation is designed to optimize LightGBM hyperparameters more effectively. Subsequently, we seamlessly integrate this hybrid algorithm with LightGBM to formulate a sophisticated fault warning system. Validation through industrial case studies demonstrates that our proposed algorithm consistently outperforms advanced methods in both prediction accuracy and generalization ability. In a real-world water pump application, the algorithm we proposed achieved a fault warning accuracy rate of 90%. Compared to three advanced algorithms, namely, Improved Social Engineering Optimizer-Backpropagation Network (ISEO-BP), Long Short-Term Memory-Convolutional Neural Network (LSTM-CNN), and Grey Wolf Optimizer-Light Gradient Boosting Machine (GWO-LightGBM), its Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) decreased by 7.14%, 17.84%, and 13.16%, respectively. At the same time, its R-Squared value increased by 2.15%, 7.02%, and 3.73%, respectively. Lastly, the method we proposed also holds a leading position in the success rate of a water pump fault warning. This accomplishment provides robust support for the timely detection of issues, thereby mitigating the risk of production interruptions. Full article
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18 pages, 6523 KiB  
Article
Effect of Choice of Drilling Kinematic System on Cylindricity Deviation, Roundness Deviation, Diameter Error and Surface Roughness of Holes in Brass Alloy
by Mateusz Bronis, Bartlomiej Krawczyk and Stanislaw Legutko
Processes 2024, 12(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010220 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
This article presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of the selection of kinematic system for the drilling process on the cylindricity deviation, roundness deviation, diameter error and surface roughness of holes in brass alloy. Three different kinematic systems based [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of the selection of kinematic system for the drilling process on the cylindricity deviation, roundness deviation, diameter error and surface roughness of holes in brass alloy. Three different kinematic systems based on the dependence of the direction of rotation of the workpiece and the drill bit were used. The drill bit was mounted in an axially driven holder that allowed it to be put into motion. Cutting tests were conducted at three different spindle speeds and three different feed rates per revolution (27 tests in total). A static ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate the effect of each input parameter on each output parameter. The results of this work have practical applications in machining. The following input parameters of the drilling process should be used to obtain the smallest values of each output parameter: for CYL, n = 4775 rpm, fn = 0.14 mm/rev and KIN III; for RON, n = 4775 rpm, fn = 0.1 or 0.12 mm/rev and KIN II; for DE, n = 3979 rpm, fn = 0.1 mm/rev and KIN I; and for Rz, n = 4775 rpm, fn = 0.1 mm/rev and KIN II. This research work also used Grey Relational Analysis with which input parameter optimization was derived. The optimal drilling parameters are spindle speeds of 4775 rpm, a feed per revolution of 0.1 mm/rev and the use of the first kinematic system. This paper also includes equations for predicting each parameter that describes the dimensional and shape accuracy and roughness of the hole surface. Using the first kinematic system reduced the roughness of the hole surface by as much as 58%. The correct selection of kinematic system improved its dimensional accuracy by 15%. On the other hand, the roundness deviation of the hole improved by 33% and the cylindricity deviation of the hole by 6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Analysis of Additive Manufacturing Processes)
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20 pages, 12534 KiB  
Article
Effects of the PMMA Molecular Weight on the Thermal and Thermo-Oxidative Decomposition as the First Chemical Stage of Flaming Ignition
by Antonio Galgano and Colomba Di Blasi
Processes 2024, 12(1), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010219 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
The piloted and the spontaneous ignition of low and high molecular weight (LMW and HMW) polymethyl methacrylate are simulated using a one-dimensional condensed-gas phase model for constant heat fluxes in the range of 25–150 kW/m2. Purely thermal (nitrogen) and thermo-oxidative (air) [...] Read more.
The piloted and the spontaneous ignition of low and high molecular weight (LMW and HMW) polymethyl methacrylate are simulated using a one-dimensional condensed-gas phase model for constant heat fluxes in the range of 25–150 kW/m2. Purely thermal (nitrogen) and thermo-oxidative (air) decomposition is considered, described by a single and four-step kinetics for the low and high molecular weight polymer, respectively. Different optical properties are also examined. The same trends of the ignition time and other ignition parameters are always observed. Due to a more significant role of the chemical kinetics, the effects of the sample molecular weight and reaction atmosphere are higher at low heat fluxes. Times are shorter for the black HMW samples and thermo-oxidative kinetics. For piloted ignition, factors are around 2.8–1.6, whereas for thermal decomposition, they are 1.3–1.2. The corresponding figures are 1.8–1.3 and 1.3–1.1, in the same order, for the spontaneous ignition. Overall, the effects of the molecular weight are more important than those related to the reaction kinetics environment. These differences are confirmed by the comparison between predictions and measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Temperature Behavior of Polymers and Composites)
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26 pages, 4452 KiB  
Article
Optimization Strategy for Shared Energy Storage Operators-Multiple Microgrids with Hybrid Game-Theoretic Energy Trading
by Yi Chen, Shan He, Weiqing Wang, Zhi Yuan, Jing Cheng, Zhijiang Cheng and Xiaochao Fan
Processes 2024, 12(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010218 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
To address the issue of low utilization rates, constrained operational modes, and the underutilization of flexible energy storage resources at the end-user level, this research paper introduces a collaborative operational approach for shared energy storage operators in a multiple microgrids (ESO-MGs) system. This [...] Read more.
To address the issue of low utilization rates, constrained operational modes, and the underutilization of flexible energy storage resources at the end-user level, this research paper introduces a collaborative operational approach for shared energy storage operators in a multiple microgrids (ESO-MGs) system. This approach takes into account the relation of electricity generated by MGs and the integration of diverse energy storage resources managed by ESO. A hybrid game-theoretic energy trading strategy is employed to address the challenges associated with energy trading and revenue distribution in this joint operational mode. Firstly, a multi-objective master–slave game optimization model is developed with the objective of maximizing the revenue earned by shared energy storage operators while simultaneously minimizing the operational costs of multiple microgrids. Secondly, acknowledging the peer-to-peer (P2P) energy sharing dynamics inherent in the multiple microgrid system, a non-co-operative game model is formulated. This model seeks to establish a multi-microgrid Nash equilibrium and equitable income allocation. Finally, leveraging the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions and drawing upon the principles of strong duality theory, precise dimensionality reduction is executed on the master–slave game model. The non-co-operative income is iteratively determined using the alternating direction multiplier algorithm. The empirical findings of this study indicate that the integration of electric vehicle clusters contributes to flexible storage resources for shared energy storage operators. Moreover, the proposed hybrid game optimization strategy enhances the overall benefits for shared energy storage operators and multiple microgrids, thereby affirming the economic viability and reliability of this innovative strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Systems)
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24 pages, 6997 KiB  
Article
Autonomous Hydrodistillation with a Digital Twin for Efficient and Climate Neutral Manufacturing of Phytochemicals
by Alexander Uhl, Larissa Knierim, Theresa Höß, Marcel Flemming, Axel Schmidt and Jochen Strube
Processes 2024, 12(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010217 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Hydrodistillation is traditionally a green technology for the manufacturing of natural products that are volatile. As well as acknowledged process intensification methods such as microwave support for energy efficiency to move towards climate neutral operation, digital twins combined with process analytical technology for [...] Read more.
Hydrodistillation is traditionally a green technology for the manufacturing of natural products that are volatile. As well as acknowledged process intensification methods such as microwave support for energy efficiency to move towards climate neutral operation, digital twins combined with process analytical technology for advanced process control enables reliable operation of an optimal operation point regarding lowest cost of goods, as well as lowest global warming potential equivalent. A novel process control enabled by digital twin technology has shown to reduce the ecological footprint of the extraction by up to 46.5%, while reducing the cost of extraction by 22.4%. Additionally, skilled operator time is reduced, and the sustainable plant material is utilized most efficiently. The approach is ready to apply, but broad industrialization seems to be held back by unclear business cases and lack of comprehension of decision makers. This is in drastic contrast to the political demand for climate neutrality goals and the cost pressure by worldwide completion. Full article
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14 pages, 6967 KiB  
Article
Numerical Reservoir Simulation of Supercritical Multi-Source and Multi-Component Steam Injection for Offshore Heavy Oil Development
by Qiang Fu, Zhouyuan Zhu, Junjian Li, Hongmei Jiao, Shuoliang Wang, Huiyun Wen and Yongfei Liu
Processes 2024, 12(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010216 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
We present the workflow for numerical reservoir simulation of supercritical multi-source and multi-component steam injection for offshore heavy oil development. We have developed unique techniques in a commercial reservoir simulator to implement the thermal properties of supercritical multi-source and multi-component steam, the pyrolysis [...] Read more.
We present the workflow for numerical reservoir simulation of supercritical multi-source and multi-component steam injection for offshore heavy oil development. We have developed unique techniques in a commercial reservoir simulator to implement the thermal properties of supercritical multi-source and multi-component steam, the pyrolysis chemical reactions, the temperature-dependent relative permeability, and the process of partially dissolving the sandstone rock to enhance the matrix permeability in a commercial reservoir simulator. Simulations are conducted on the type pattern reservoir model, which represents one of the heavy oil fields in CNOOC’s Bohai Bay oil field. Simulation input parameters are calibrated based on laboratory experiments conducted for supercritical multi-source and multi-component steam injection. Simulation results have shown clear improvements in injecting supercritical multi-source and multi-component steam in offshore heavy oil reservoirs compared to the normal steam injection process using subcritical steam. This serves as a workflow for implementing a numerical simulation of the novel supercritical multi-source and multi-component steam injection recovery process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow in Porous Media and CO2 Storage in Enhanced Oil Recovery)
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16 pages, 4256 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Wettability Effect and Adsorption Thickness on Nanoconfined Methane Phase Behavior: Vapor-Liquid Co-Existence Curves and Phase Diagrams
by Guodai Wu, Chunlin Zeng, Lijun Cheng, Jinhua Luan, Ruigang Zhang, Ziwei Chen, Yu Pang and Zheng Sun
Processes 2024, 12(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010215 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Research interest in the behavior of methane inside nanopores has been growing, driven by the substantial geological reserves of shale gas and coalbed methane. The phase diagram of methane in nanopores differs significantly from its bulk state, influencing its existing form and pertinent [...] Read more.
Research interest in the behavior of methane inside nanopores has been growing, driven by the substantial geological reserves of shale gas and coalbed methane. The phase diagram of methane in nanopores differs significantly from its bulk state, influencing its existing form and pertinent physical properties—such as density and viscosity—at specific pressures and temperatures. Currently, there is a lack of effort to understand the nanoconfinement effect on the methane phase diagram; this is a crucial issue that needs urgent attention before delving into other aspects of nanoconfined methane behavior. In this study, we establish a fully coupled model to predict the methane phase diagram across various scales. The model is based on vapor-liquid fugacity equilibrium, considering the shift in critical pressure and temperature induced by pore size shrinkage and adsorption-phase thickness. Notably, our proposed model incorporates the often-overlooked factor of capillary pressure, which is greatly amplified by nanoscale pore size and the presence of the adsorption phase. Additionally, we investigated the impact of surface wettability, correlated to capillary pressure and the shift in critical properties, on the methane phase diagram. Our results indicate that (a) as pore size decreases, the methane phase diagram becomes more vertical, suggesting a transition from a gaseous to a liquid state for some methane molecules, which is contrary to the conventional phase diagram; (b) enhancing surface wettability results in a more vertical phase diagram, with the minimum temperature corresponding to 0 MPa pressure on the phase diagram, increasing by as much as 87.3%; (c) the influence of capillary pressure on the phase diagram is more pronounced under strong wettability conditions compared to weak wettability, and the impact from the shift in critical properties can be neglected when the pore size exceeds 50 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Systems)
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28 pages, 16516 KiB  
Review
Transition Metal Complexes with Amino Acids, Peptides and Carbohydrates in Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis: A Short Review
by Yuliya Titova
Processes 2024, 12(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010214 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
The present review is devoted to the application of transition metal complexes with such ligands as amino acids, peptides and carbohydrates in catalysis. The literature published over the past 20 years is surveyed. Among the distinctive features of these ligands are their versatility, [...] Read more.
The present review is devoted to the application of transition metal complexes with such ligands as amino acids, peptides and carbohydrates in catalysis. The literature published over the past 20 years is surveyed. Among the distinctive features of these ligands are their versatility, optical activity, stability and availability. Furthermore, depending on the specific synthetic task to be solved, these ligands open up almost infinite opportunity for modification. Largely thanks to their multifaceted reactivity, transition metal complexes with amino acids, peptides and carbohydrates can catalyze most of the known chemical reactions affording optically pure compounds. In this review, the emphasis is placed upon C(sp3)–H activation, cross-coupling and hydrogenation (including traditional hydrogenation in the presence of hydrogen gas and hydrogenation with hydrogen transfer) reactions. The choice is not accidental, since these reactions on the one hand display the catalytic versatility of the above complexes, and on the other hand, they are widely employed in industry. Full article
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22 pages, 11485 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Loading and Deformation of Surface Gas Pipelines for High-Intensity Coalbed Mining and Its Integrity Prediction Methodology
by Yingnan Xu, Shun Liang, Xu Liang, Biao Yang, Zhuolin Shi, Chengle Wu, Jinhang Shen, Miao Yang, Yindou Ma and Pei Xu
Processes 2024, 12(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010213 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
In recent years, the integrity of the gas pipeline in the coal-gas co-mining subsidence area has become a critical problem, restricting the safe and efficient mining of coal resources. This paper establishes a theoretical model for the safety prediction of gas pipelines in [...] Read more.
In recent years, the integrity of the gas pipeline in the coal-gas co-mining subsidence area has become a critical problem, restricting the safe and efficient mining of coal resources. This paper establishes a theoretical model for the safety prediction of gas pipelines in mining subsidence areas based on elastic free theory, constructs a 3D model of pipe-sand soil by using ABAQUS simulation software (2021), analyzes the characteristics of ground surface and pipeline settlement combined with the measured data on-site, and reveals the temporal and spatial evolution law of the pipeline load and deformation under the condition of diagonal intersections of the pipeline and high-strength mining working face. The results show that during the mining cycle, the pipe and the sandy soil body experienced the stage of cooperative deformation, the stage of increasing non-cooperative deformation, and the stage of weakening non-cooperative deformation; the pipe body is most vulnerable to yield failure in the circumferential direction of 180°, 45°, 225°, and 0°; the relative deformation rate of the pipe experienced a slow and rapid increase in the stage, and tends to flatten out when the advancement length is about 1.5–2 times the distance at the taken cross-section. The study’s results are conducive to accurately predicting the pipe failure orientation under high-intensity mining conditions in coal seams, improving the diagnostic efficiency of pipes, and optimizing the advancement speed of the working face. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Mining and Unconventional Oil Exploration)
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22 pages, 19793 KiB  
Article
Control Approach of Grid-Connected PV Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Conditions
by Mohammed Alharbi
Processes 2024, 12(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010212 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 911
Abstract
In grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, power quality and voltage control are necessary, particularly under unbalanced grid conditions. These conditions frequently lead to double-line frequency power oscillations, which worsen Direct Current (DC)-link voltage ripples and stress DC-link capacitors. The well-known dq frame vector control [...] Read more.
In grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, power quality and voltage control are necessary, particularly under unbalanced grid conditions. These conditions frequently lead to double-line frequency power oscillations, which worsen Direct Current (DC)-link voltage ripples and stress DC-link capacitors. The well-known dq frame vector control technique, which is effective under normal conditions, struggles with oscillatory component management in unbalanced grid conditions. To address this issue, this paper presents an advanced control approach designed for grid-connected PV inverters. The proposed approach is effective at reducing oscillations in the DC-link voltage at double the grid frequency, thereby enhancing system stability and component longevity. This method introduces a feedback control method designed to regulate oscillatory components that appeared within the dq frame and suppress the DC-link voltage oscillations under imbalance conditions, including single line-to-ground (SLG) faults. Additionally, the control scheme incorporates a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller to optimize PV efficiency. Comprehensive simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in maintaining sinusoidal current injections and stabilizing DC-link voltage during unbalanced grid conditions. Simulation results show that the control scheme effectively stabilizes DC-link voltage, maintains balanced grid current, and ensures constant active power under various conditions, including SLG faults and solar irradiance changes. Full article
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23 pages, 9180 KiB  
Article
Digital Twin Enabled Process Development, Optimization and Control in Lyophilization for Enhanced Biopharmaceutical Production
by Alex Juckers, Petra Knerr, Frank Harms and Jochen Strube
Processes 2024, 12(1), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010211 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Digital twins have emerged as a powerful concept for real-time monitoring and analysis, facilitating Quality by Design integration into biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Traditionally, lyophilization processes are developed through trial-and-error, incorporating high security margins and inflexible process set points. Digital twins enable the integration of [...] Read more.
Digital twins have emerged as a powerful concept for real-time monitoring and analysis, facilitating Quality by Design integration into biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Traditionally, lyophilization processes are developed through trial-and-error, incorporating high security margins and inflexible process set points. Digital twins enable the integration of adaptable operating conditions and implementation of automation through Advanced Process Control (APC) with Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and validated physicochemical models that rely on heat and mass transfer principles, allowing us to overcome the challenges imposed by the lyophilization process. In this study, a digital twin for freeze-drying processes is developed and experimentally validated. Using the digital twin, primary drying conditions were optimized for controlled nucleation and annealing methods by carrying out a few laboratory tests beforehand. By incorporating PAT and modeling, the digital twin accurately predicts the product’s temperature and drying endpoint, showing smaller errors than the experiments. The digital twin significantly increases productivity by up to 300% while reducing the costs by 74% and the Global Warming Potential by 64%. Full article
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12 pages, 6307 KiB  
Article
Improving the Quality of Tantalum Cylindrical Deep-Drawn Part Formation Using Different Lubricating Media-Coated Dies
by Teng Xu, Shihao Dou, Mingwu Su, Jianbin Huang, Ningyuan Zhu, Shangpang Yu and Likuan Zhu
Processes 2024, 12(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010210 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Lubrication is one of the key factors to improve metal-forming quality. In the process of deep drawing, seizing tumors easily occur on the contact surfaces between the tantalum metal and the mold, which greatly affects the forming quality of the deep-drawn parts. Quality-forming [...] Read more.
Lubrication is one of the key factors to improve metal-forming quality. In the process of deep drawing, seizing tumors easily occur on the contact surfaces between the tantalum metal and the mold, which greatly affects the forming quality of the deep-drawn parts. Quality-forming quality problems that occur during the deep drawing of tantalum metal are studied from the perspective of lubrication in this paper. Three lubrication media, caster oil, PE (polyethylene) film, and DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) film, were adopted in the deep drawing of tantalum cylindrical cups. A universal testing machine and microscope were used to investigate the effect of lubrication media on the limit-drawing ratio, maximum forming force, and surface topography quality during the deep drawing process of the tantalum sheet. The results reveal that the lubrication of the PE film and DLC film can greatly improve the forming quality of the tantalum metal sheet, in which the DLC film has higher wear resistance and lower friction coefficient and can be used as the lubricating medium in the industrial forming process of tantalum deep-drawn parts. Full article
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28 pages, 5395 KiB  
Article
Model Based Optimization of Energy Consumption in Milk Evaporators
by Artemis Tsochatzidi, Achilleas L. Arvanitidis and Michael C. Georgiadis
Processes 2024, 12(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010209 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 999
Abstract
This work explores five falling film evaporator (FFE) simulation approaches combined with energy consumption minimization strategies, namely Mechanical Vapor Recompression and Thermal Vapor Recompression (MVR and TVR, respectively). Global system analysis and advanced dynamic optimization strategies are then investigated to minimize steam consumption, [...] Read more.
This work explores five falling film evaporator (FFE) simulation approaches combined with energy consumption minimization strategies, namely Mechanical Vapor Recompression and Thermal Vapor Recompression (MVR and TVR, respectively). Global system analysis and advanced dynamic optimization strategies are then investigated to minimize steam consumption, the cost of steam, and the total annualized cost and to maximize product yield. The results indicate that higher TVR discharge pressures, or MVR compression ratios, along with higher feed temperatures, enhance evaporation but increase operational costs. The most economical option includes three evaporator effects with TVR to achieve 50% product dry mass content. However, for a 35% dry mass content, MVR becomes cost-effective with an 11% reduction in unit electricity prices or a simultaneous 7% drop in electricity prices and a 5% increase in gas-based steam prices. Furthermore, switching from milk powder production to milk concentrates leads to an annual cost reduction ranging from 10.8 to 44%. Additionally, a forecasted 20% (or more) reduction in biomass-based steam cost can lead to lower annual expenditure compared with the nominal NG-based steam case. Regarding the total annualized cost, for a new plant design, optimization strategies lead to a 9–45% reduction in the total cost depending on the case under consideration. Full article
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