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Children, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 179 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Schroth method is a non-operative treatment for scoliosis and kyphosis, used as a standalone treatment or as an adjunct treatment to bracing. While supporting evidence for its effectiveness is emerging, methodologic standardization and rigor are equivocal. Thus, we aimed to systematically review methods of published Schroth physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercise (PSSE) trials and provide guidance for future research. We searched six databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSIs) investigating the effect of Schroth in children and adults with scoliosis or kyphosis. View this paper
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10 pages, 1441 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Intensive Inpatient Therapy in Infants with Congenital Muscular Torticollis Involving the Entire Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
by Dong Rak Kwon and Sung Cheol Cho
Children 2023, 10(6), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061088 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
The efficacy and frequency of physiotherapy in the prognosis of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) that involves the entire sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle continues to be unclear. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of intensive inpatient therapy given to infants with CMT that involves the [...] Read more.
The efficacy and frequency of physiotherapy in the prognosis of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) that involves the entire sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle continues to be unclear. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of intensive inpatient therapy given to infants with CMT that involves the whole SCM using clinical measurements and ultrasound (US). This study included 54 infants (27 boys and 27 girls; mean corrected age of 18.57 days) evaluated for CMT at our outpatient clinic from January 2014 to May 2021. The included patients were divided into three groups (groups 1, 2, and 3). Patients in group 1 underwent outpatient treatment 12 times. Patients in groups 2 and 3 underwent therapeutic exercise followed by US diathermy with microcurrent twice daily for 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Passive range of motion of the cervical rotation (PCRROM) and SCM thickness were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Among the three groups, the demographic data at baseline were not significantly different, SCM thickness and PCRROM were significantly decreased/increased at post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (p < 0.05), mean PCRROM change was significantly greater in group 3 (p < 0.05), and mean SCM thickness reduction between pre-treatment and 3 months post-treatment was significantly greater in groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05). Therefore, intensive inpatient therapeutic exercise and US diathermy with microcurrent may enhance the prognosis of CMT involving the entire SCM muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rehabilitation of Children with Disabilities)
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13 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Individual and Community-Level Risk Factors for Giardiasis in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan: A Prospective Multi-Regional Study
by Irfan Khattak, Wen-Lan Yen, Tahir Usman, Nasreen Nasreen, Adil Khan, Saghir Ahmad, Gauhar Rehman, Khurshaid Khan, Mourad Ben Said and Chien-Chin Chen
Children 2023, 10(6), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061087 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 3419
Abstract
Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection and identify associated risk factors at both individual and community levels in a pediatric population in different agroecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection and identify associated risk factors at both individual and community levels in a pediatric population in different agroecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to December 2022. Using stratified sampling, 1026 households were recruited from nine agroecological zones. Stool samples were collected from 1026 children up to the age of five years and processed for detection of Giardia using a commercial ELISA kit. Data on potential risk factors were collected using a pre-structured questionnaire. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with giardiasis. Results: The study found that the prevalence of giardiasis in the study area was 3.31%. Children aged 13–24 months were found to be at higher risk for giardiasis. Illiterate mothers and fathers attending daycare institutions/kindergartens, mothers not practicing hand washing during critical times, households with companion animals, and homes where stray dogs/cats enter were identified as predictors of giardiasis at the individual level. Children living in sub-mountain valleys use un-piped water, inadequate domestic water storage vessels, drink un-boiled or unfiltered water, live near rubbish heaps or un-paved streets/pathways, and have unimproved latrine facilities were identified as risk factors of giardiasis at the community level. Conclusions: The study highlights the need for integrated intervention approaches at both individual and community levels to reduce the incidence of giardiasis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Interventions aimed at promoting behavioral change and providing safe and adequate water sources, combined with individual-level interventions such as hand washing and awareness of giardiasis prevention methods, would be critical to addressing this health concern. Inter-sectoral collaboration between the health sector and other sectors would also be necessary to achieve meaningful progress in reducing the incidence of giardiasis in resource-limited areas. Full article
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11 pages, 550 KiB  
Article
Prospective One-Year Follow-Up of Sensory Processing in Phelan–McDermid Syndrome
by Sergio Serrada-Tejeda, Patricia Sánchez-Herrera-Baeza, Rosa M. Martínez-Piédrola, Nuria Máximo-Bocanegra, Nuria Trugeda-Pedrajo, M.ª Pilar Rodríguez-Pérez, Gemma Fernández-Gómez and Marta Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres
Children 2023, 10(6), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061086 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Background: Phelan–McDermid syndrome (PMS) is caused by the loss (deletion) of a small portion of chromosome 22 in a region designated q13.3 (22q13.3 deletion). PMS is one of the most common genetic forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in which sensory reactivity difficulties [...] Read more.
Background: Phelan–McDermid syndrome (PMS) is caused by the loss (deletion) of a small portion of chromosome 22 in a region designated q13.3 (22q13.3 deletion). PMS is one of the most common genetic forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in which sensory reactivity difficulties have been described on limited occasions. Methods: The objective of this study is to identify whether changes in sensory reactivity skills occur after one year of follow-up in a group of 44 participants diagnosed with PMS. All participants completed the Short Sensory Profile (SSP). Two-factor ANOVA tests were performed with repeated measures for the study of the evolution of the scores. Results: Participants with PMS showed significant changes after one year of follow-up in sensory reactivity skills associated with tactile hyperreactivity (p = 0.003). The rest of the study variables did not show significant differences compared to the baseline assessment, showing definite differences associated with patterns of hypo-responsiveness and sensory seeking, low/weak energy, and difficulties in auditory filtering. Conclusions: Understanding the evolution of sensory reactivity skills can facilitate the adjustment to behavioral changes in people with PMS and design-targeted interventions to address sensory reactivity challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Diseases in Children and Adolescent)
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16 pages, 1013 KiB  
Article
The Interplay between Socioeconomic Status, Parenting and Temperament Predicts Inhibitory Control at Two Years of Age
by Ángela Conejero and M. Rosario Rueda
Children 2023, 10(6), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061085 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
This paper investigates the interplay between environmental factors (socioeconomic status (SES) and parenting) and temperament in the development of inhibitory control (IC) at 2 years of age. We administered to toddlers (n = 59) a delay of gratification task which measures IC [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the interplay between environmental factors (socioeconomic status (SES) and parenting) and temperament in the development of inhibitory control (IC) at 2 years of age. We administered to toddlers (n = 59) a delay of gratification task which measures IC in the context of self-regulation. Parents reported their toddlers’ temperament, parenting strategies, and SES. We hypothesized that poorer IC would be associated with more reactive temperament, less effortful control, lower SES and inconsistent/coercive parenting practices. Finally, we explored the interaction between temperament, parenting and SES. We found that both coercive parenting and low-SES were negatively correlated to IC at the age of 2 years. Temperamental reactivity was unrelated to IC, whereas temperamental effortful control (EC) was positively associated with IC. Results revealed a moderation effect of EC on the influence of coercive parenting and SES in toddlers’ IC. Toddlers from lower SES backgrounds and with lower EC were more affected by inconsistent/coercive parenting practices and showed the poorest IC. In contrast, toddlers exhibiting high and average levels of EC seemed to be protected from the detrimental effect of low-SES and inconsistent/coercive parenting on IC. These results suggest that strengthening toddlers’ EC and improving parents’ parenting skills might be especially relevant for the development of IC in the context of self-regulation, particularly by preventing self-regulatory problems in children from socioeconomically deprived environments. Future studies with larger samples, focusing on populations from severe socioeconomically deprived environments, or intervention studies will be needed in order to confirm and expand our findings. Full article
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21 pages, 20999 KiB  
Article
The Therapeutic Aspects of Embroidery in Art Therapy from the Perspective of Adolescent Girls in a Post-Hospitalization Boarding School
by Nurit Wolk and Michal Bat Or
Children 2023, 10(6), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061084 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4226
Abstract
This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experiences of adolescent girls with emotional disorders from post-hospitalization boarding schools who embroidered in an art therapy open studio group. A Youth Participatory Action Research approach and the bioecological model were used to shed light on the [...] Read more.
This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experiences of adolescent girls with emotional disorders from post-hospitalization boarding schools who embroidered in an art therapy open studio group. A Youth Participatory Action Research approach and the bioecological model were used to shed light on the therapeutic process of embroidery. Through a thematic analysis of the focus groups and interviews with 13 participants, we identified five themes specifically related to embroidery: (a) control versus release/freedom; (b) calmness that comes from the repetitive action and focus; (c) the experience of being exceptional versus conventional; (d) the “stitch through time” experience, which involves a dialogue with the past, present, and future through embroidery; and (e) the overt-latent layers of consciousness. The findings suggest that embroidery has therapeutic benefits for this population and supports psychological development. This study reveals that embroidery, whose threads are intricately embedded in society and culture, and may provide a unique and meaningful activity for young people in post-hospitalization boarding schools and enables a social and cultural exploration of self and community. Limitations of this study and recommendations for further research are also discussed. Full article
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10 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Children with ADHD Symptomatology: Does POET Improve Their Daily Routine Management?
by Carmit Frisch, Emanuel Tirosh and Sara Rosenblum
Children 2023, 10(6), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061083 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with executive delays while managing their daily tasks. This is a secondary analysis of existing data from open-label research examining the efficacy of Parental Occupational Executive Training (POET). It further examines POET’s efficacy in increasing young children’s [...] Read more.
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with executive delays while managing their daily tasks. This is a secondary analysis of existing data from open-label research examining the efficacy of Parental Occupational Executive Training (POET). It further examines POET’s efficacy in increasing young children’s (3.83 to 7.08 years) executive control over daily routines, and in decreasing their ADHD symptoms. Additionally, the second analysis investigates which of the children’s increased capabilities is better associated with the change in their daily routine management following the intervention. Parents of children with ADHD symptomatology (N = 72, 55 boys) received eight POET sessions. They completed standardised ADHD symptomatology, executive management of daily routines, and executive functions (EF) questionnaires at pretest, post-test, and 3-month follow-up. Children’s ADHD symptoms and their management of daily routines significantly improved following the POET intervention. The children’s score changes in EF accounted for 37% of the variance in their improved routine management. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to increase children’s executive control over their daily routines should improve their broader array of EF besides decreasing core ADHD symptoms. Full article
11 pages, 488 KiB  
Article
ADHD Symptoms Increase Perception of Classroom Entropy and Impact Teacher Stress Levels
by Rosa Angela Fabio, Carmela Mento, Antonio Gangemi and Giulia Picciotto
Children 2023, 10(6), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061082 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1897
Abstract
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder among school-age children, characterized by persistent behavioral patterns of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. These behaviors can create stress for teachers and negatively affect teacher–student interactions. This study hypothesized that a high frequency of ADHD [...] Read more.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder among school-age children, characterized by persistent behavioral patterns of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. These behaviors can create stress for teachers and negatively affect teacher–student interactions. This study hypothesized that a high frequency of ADHD students in the classroom can increase internal and external entropy, ultimately resulting in a negative stress impact on teachers. The physical concept of entropy, which measures the degree of disorder in a system, was used to better understand this relationship. The study evaluated 177 primary school teachers in their response to interacting with students with ADHD, using the Measurement of Psychological Stress (MPS) to evaluate subjective stress levels and the QUEIs and QUEIp questionnaires to measure structural and personal entropy. Path analysis was applied to identify the factors associated with the total score of MPS. The hypothesis was confirmed, as the frequency of ADHD students had a negative impact on teachers’ entropy levels and personal entropy was found to significantly increase stress levels. The study highlights the negative impact of ADHD symptoms on stress levels and personal entropy of teachers when interacting with students with ADHD. These findings suggest the need for interventions aimed at balancing the frequency of students with ADHD and promoting positive training on stress reduction for teacher–student interactions. Full article
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11 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
2021/22 and 2022/23 Post-Pandemic Bronchiolitis Seasons in Two Major Italian Cities: A Prospective Study
by Anna Camporesi, Rosa Morello, Ugo Maria Pierucci, Francesco Proli, Ilaria Lazzareschi, Giulia Bersani, Piero Valentini, Damian Roland and Danilo Buonsenso
Children 2023, 10(6), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061081 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Objectives: Bronchiolitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 24 months. During the first year of the pandemic, non-pharmacological interventions resulted in a significant reduction of bronchiolitis cases. Early in 2021, a rebound of bronchiolitis was reported with a [...] Read more.
Objectives: Bronchiolitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 24 months. During the first year of the pandemic, non-pharmacological interventions resulted in a significant reduction of bronchiolitis cases. Early in 2021, a rebound of bronchiolitis was reported with a description of out-of-season outbreaks. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the impact of bronchiolitis in two Italian University centers located in different geographical areas, aiming to compare two post-pandemic bronchiolitis seasons (2021/22 and 2022/23) in terms of severity, outcomes, microbiology and temporal distribution. Methods: This was a bicentric prospective observational cohort study. All consecutive children under 24 months of age assessed in the participating institutions during the specified seasons and receiving a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis were included. Results: A total of 900 patients were enrolled. Patients in the second season were globally younger and had comorbidities less often. Temporal distribution changed between the two seasons. Of the patients, 56% were tested for RSV; 60% of these was positive. Patients with RSV were globally younger (3.5 months vs. 4.9, p < 0.001), more often had a need for any kind of respiratory and fluid support and more often needed ward or PICU admission. At the end of the ED visit, 430 patients were discharged home, 372 (41.3%) were admitted to an inpatient ward and 46 (5.1%) to a pediatric intensive care unit. Conclusions: The 2022/23 post-COVID bronchiolitis was mostly similar to that of 2021/22, and was in line with pre-pandemic expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
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18 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Study on the Mechanism of Influencing Adolescents’ Willingness to Participate in Ice Sports
by Zhuoling Liu, Sai Wang and Qian Gu
Children 2023, 10(6), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061080 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Background: Ice sports are an effective means to promote the physical health of adolescents, and the willingness to participate in ice sports is the basis of adolescents’ awareness of their participation in ice sports and an important prerequisite for their participation. The aim [...] Read more.
Background: Ice sports are an effective means to promote the physical health of adolescents, and the willingness to participate in ice sports is the basis of adolescents’ awareness of their participation in ice sports and an important prerequisite for their participation. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms influencing adolescents’ willingness to participate in ice sports. Methods: Using the stimulus-organism-response theoretical framework, the motivation-opportunity-ability model, and the technology acceptance model, a theoretical model of the influencing mechanisms of adolescents’ participation in ice sports was constructed. A total of 3419 secondary school students were surveyed, and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, the mechanisms influencing adolescents’ willingness to participate in ice sports and the moderating role of perceived riskiness and perceived ease of use are proposed and tested. Results: The study found that participation motivation, participation ability, perceived usefulness, and perceived risk all have significant effects on adolescents’ willingness to participate in ice sports. The degree of influence in descending order is as follows: ability to participate, perceived usefulness, motivation to participate, and perceived risk. Perceived risk plays a mediating role in the process of motivation to participate and ability to participate influencing willingness to participate. Perceived ease of use plays a mediating role in the process of motivation to participate influencing perceived usefulness. Conclusions: This study provides a systematic understanding of the mechanisms that influence adolescents’ willingness to participate in ice sports. The findings provide valuable insights into the subject of adolescents’ ice sport participation and can inform the development of strategies to increase participation in these activities. Future research should deepen the investigation of the patterns of willingness to participate in ice sports behavior among adolescents, which is important for promoting the sustainable development of ice sports, improving the health of adolescents, and advancing the construction of a healthy China, a healthy world, and global health. Full article
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15 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Experiences of Healthcare Providers Who Provide Emergency Care to Migrant Children Who Arriving in Spain by Small Boats (Patera): A Qualitative Study
by María del Mar Jiménez-Lasserrotte, Rosalía Artés-Navarro, José Granero-Molina, Isabel María Fernández-Medina, María Dolores Ruiz-Fernández and María Isabel Ventura-Miranda
Children 2023, 10(6), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061079 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Background: The phenomenon of migration from regions with more limited resources is a reality of the globalized world. It is estimated that at the end of 2019, almost 80 million migrants were displaced around the world, with 46% of them being children. Almost [...] Read more.
Background: The phenomenon of migration from regions with more limited resources is a reality of the globalized world. It is estimated that at the end of 2019, almost 80 million migrants were displaced around the world, with 46% of them being children. Almost 20% of the irregular immigrants who arrived in Spain were child irregular migrants, who travelled alone or accompanied by family members after leaving their countries of origin seeking, to find a better future. Child irregular migrants have specific healthcare needs. The objectives of our present study were to describe and understand the experiences of healthcare providers in relation to the healthcare needs and the process of emergency care for child irregular migrants who come to Spain in small vessels. Methods: In this descriptive qualitative study, two focus groups were convened, and in-depth interviews with 21 participants were conducted, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti 9.3 software. Results: Three main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) more vulnerable groups for whom the priority is emergency care; (2) the health and social care of child migrants; and (3) challenges and advances in the care of child migrants. Conclusions: For healthcare providers, protecting children, placing value on the family unit, and ensuring that children feel safe at all times are very important. Learning about the experiences of healthcare providers can contribute towards improving the health and social care of children in emergency care. Full article
17 pages, 3464 KiB  
Review
State of the Art Bowel Management for Pediatric Colorectal Problems: Functional Constipation
by Elizaveta Bokova, Wendy Jo Svetanoff, John M. Rosen, Marc A. Levitt and Rebecca M. Rentea
Children 2023, 10(6), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061078 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3993
Abstract
Background: Functional constipation (FC) affects up to 32% of the pediatric population, and some of these patients are referred to pediatric surgery units to manage their constipation and/or fecal incontinence. The aim of the current paper is to report the recent updates on [...] Read more.
Background: Functional constipation (FC) affects up to 32% of the pediatric population, and some of these patients are referred to pediatric surgery units to manage their constipation and/or fecal incontinence. The aim of the current paper is to report the recent updates on the evaluation and management of children with FC as a part of a manuscript series on bowel management in patients with anorectal malformations, Hirschsprung disease, spinal anomalies, and FC. Methods: A literature search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases and focusing on the manuscripts published within the last 5–10 years. Results: The first step of management of children with FC is to exclude Hirschsprung disease with a contrast study, examination under anesthesia, anorectal manometry (AMAN). If AMAN shows absent rectoanal inhibitory reflex, a rectal biopsy is performed. Internal sphincter achalasia or high resting pressures indicate botulinum toxin injection. Medical management options include laxatives, rectal enemas, transanal irrigations, and antegrade flushes. Those who fail conservative treatment require further assessment of colonic motility and can be candidates for colonic resection. The type of resection (subtotal colonic resection vs. Deloyer’s procedure) can be guided with a balloon expulsion test. Conclusion: Most of the patients with FC referred for surgical evaluation can be managed conservatively. Further studies are required to determine an optimal strategy of surgical resection in children unresponsive to medical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Surgery)
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11 pages, 1953 KiB  
Article
Marginal and Para-Marginal Technique in Late Germectomy of Lower Third Molars
by Francesco Saverio Ludovichetti, Sergio Mazzoleni, Manuel Menin, Roberta Gaia Parcianello, Francielle Romanowski, Edoardo Stellini and Andrea Zuccon
Children 2023, 10(6), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061077 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Introduction: Third molar surgery can cause post-operative complications to the patient due to the presence of a wound from the incision. This study aimed to compare marginal flap with para-marginal flap on postoperative complications by the measurements on pre and post-surgical plaque index [...] Read more.
Introduction: Third molar surgery can cause post-operative complications to the patient due to the presence of a wound from the incision. This study aimed to compare marginal flap with para-marginal flap on postoperative complications by the measurements on pre and post-surgical plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), maximum opening of the mouth (MOM), pain perception (PP) and post-surgical tumefaction (PT). Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 40 patients were recruited and randomly allocated in two groups. In Group 1, third molar extraction was carried out after a marginal flap design was performed, while in Group 2 a para-marginal flap was performed. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, maximum mouth opening, and distal probing were assessed right before and one week after surgery, while post-operative pain perception and post-operative swelling were accounted one week following surgery. Results: Statistically significant differences were reported between treatment groups, as the para-marginal flap led to better outcomes for all the measured indexes. Conclusions: The para-marginal flap design may decrease the occurrence of post-operative complications and discomforts after mandibular third molar surgery, compared to marginal flap design. Full article
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9 pages, 539 KiB  
Article
Schoolteachers Teach First Aid and Trauma Management to Young Primary School Children: An Experimental Study with Educational Intervention
by Eleana Tse, Katerina Plakitsi, Spyridon Voulgaris and George A. Alexiou
Children 2023, 10(6), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061076 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Objectives: The primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching first aid to 6–8-year-old children within their primary school setting. The study aimed to address two key research questions: (1) Can children of this age group acquire first [...] Read more.
Objectives: The primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching first aid to 6–8-year-old children within their primary school setting. The study aimed to address two key research questions: (1) Can children of this age group acquire first aid and trauma management skills from their schoolteachers? (2) How long do children retain the acquired first aid knowledge? Methods: A pilot experimental study with an educational intervention was conducted in a single primary school in Greece. A total of 60 schoolchildren aged 6–8 years were randomly selected for participation, with 30 children assigned to the training group and 30 children assigned to the control group, which did not receive any intervention. To assess the children’s understanding of first aid, a specialized questionnaire was administered to all children one day before the training, as well as to the training group one day after the training, and at two and six months following the training. Results: Prior to the training, there were no significant differences in first aid knowledge between the children in the training group and those in the control group. However, one day after the training, the trained children demonstrated significantly higher scores (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Over time, the first aid knowledge of the trained children gradually declined at the two- and six-month follow-up assessments, although it remained higher than their pre-training level. Conclusions: First aid training provided by their teachers improved the knowledge of 6–8-year-old primary school children in first aid and trauma management. Full article
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14 pages, 3825 KiB  
Article
Genetic Predisposition to Primary Lactose Intolerance Does Not Influence Dairy Intake and Health-Related Quality of Life in Romanian Children: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study
by Corina Pienar, Liviu Pop, Marilena Lăzărescu, Radmila Costăchescu, Mirela Mogoi, Ruxandra Mare and Edward Șeclăman
Children 2023, 10(6), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061075 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1865
Abstract
Background: Primary lactose intolerance (PLI) is characterized by the inability to digest lactose. Homozygotes for the lactase gene polymorphisms (CC or GG) are considered to be genetically predisposed to PLI. Still, symptoms may only be present later in life. The evidence supporting a [...] Read more.
Background: Primary lactose intolerance (PLI) is characterized by the inability to digest lactose. Homozygotes for the lactase gene polymorphisms (CC or GG) are considered to be genetically predisposed to PLI. Still, symptoms may only be present later in life. The evidence supporting a link between PLI, dairy intake, and quality of life (QoL) is limited in children. Aim: This study investigates the link between LCT polymorphisms and suggestive symptoms and the influence of the genetic predisposition to PLI on dairy intake and QoL in Romanian children. Materials and methods: We recruited consecutive children evaluated in our ambulatory clinic. We asked all participants to complete a visual-analog symptoms scale, a dairy intake, and a QoL questionnaire. We used strip genotyping to identify genetic predisposition to PLI. Results: 51.7% of children had a CC genotype, and 34.5% also had a GG genotype. Most children reported no or mild symptoms. Dairy intake and QoL were similar across study groups. Conclusions: Our study shows that genetic predisposition does not necessarily assume the presence of specific symptoms. Genetic predisposition to PLI did not lead to dairy avoidance, nor did it negatively influence our children’s QoL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases in Children)
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14 pages, 1466 KiB  
Article
Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Its Association with Nocturnal Enuresis at the Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Ali Abdullah Alshehri, Mohamed Soliman Hassan Zaki, Sameh Osama Nour, Wala H. Gadi, Basem A. Zogel, Samar M. Alfaifi, Enas M. Masmali, Amani B. Aburasain and Mohamed Osama Nour
Children 2023, 10(6), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061074 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
The correlation between nocturnal enuresis (NE) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) was reported. We aim to determine whether there is an association between NE and SDB in children and to assess the prevalence of SDB and NE in primary school children aged 6–12 years [...] Read more.
The correlation between nocturnal enuresis (NE) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) was reported. We aim to determine whether there is an association between NE and SDB in children and to assess the prevalence of SDB and NE in primary school children aged 6–12 years in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among the caregivers of children aged 6–12 years in all Saudi Arabia regions. The data were gathered through a self-administered online questionnaire. It included demographic information, weight and height, and associated comorbidities, in addition to the weekly frequencies of snoring symptoms and of enuresis, as well as of unrefreshing sleep using Likert-type response scales. Counts and percentages, the mean ± standard deviation, chi-square test, independent samples t-test, and regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis using R v 3.6.3. The questionnaire was completed by 686 respondents. Most respondents did not report any comorbidities in their children (77.1%). Asthma and adenotonsillar hypertrophy were reported in 16.2% and 15.6% of children, respectively. Unrefreshing sleep, mouth breathing at night, snoring, chronic nasal obstruction, and difficulty breathing while asleep were reported once or twice per week in 38%, 34%, 28%, 18%, and 18% of children, respectively. The prevalence of NE was 22.3%, with about 36.6% of children having NE two or more times per week. Significantly, NE was reported in 26.6% of children who slept before 10 PM compared to 19% of children who slept after 10 PM; in 28.6% of children who snored or loudly snored (57.1%) three times or more per week; and in 51.2% and 27.5% of children with difficulty breathing while asleep and who breathed through their mouth at night for one or two nights per week, respectively. A multivariable regression analysis showed that male gender (OR = 1.52, p = 0.010), obesity (OR = 1.24, p = 0.028), early sleeping time (OR = 1.40, p = 0.048), loud snoring for three or more nights per week (OR = 1.54, p = 0.001), difficulty breathing for one or two nights per week (OR = 1.85, p = 0.010), and mouth breathing at night for one or two nights per week (OR = 1.55, p = 0.049) were associated with higher odds of NE. Our study revealed that 22.3% of primary school children reported suffering from NE. SDB is a common problem among children with NE. The exact mechanism that links SDB to the increase in the risk of NE is unknown. Male gender, obesity, early sleeping time, loud snoring, difficulty breathing, and mouth breathing at night are potential independent risk factors of NE in school-age children. Full article
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13 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Metabolic Syndrome and Kidney and Heart Function in Childhood Cancer Survivors
by Aleksandra Janecka, Joanna Stefanowicz, Anna Owczarzak, Marek Tomaszewski, Tomasz Batko and Ninela Irga-Jaworska
Children 2023, 10(6), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061073 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Background: The survivors of childhood cancer suffer from a number of long-term side effects. These include atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) that develop earlier in adulthood than in the rest of the population. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors [...] Read more.
Background: The survivors of childhood cancer suffer from a number of long-term side effects. These include atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) that develop earlier in adulthood than in the rest of the population. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors of developing atherosclerosis before the development of symptomatic CVD. Methods: A total of 141 children that were 7–18 years old were examined; there were 116 survivors of childhood malignancies (hematopoietic and lymphoproliferative malignancies—52; neuroblastoma—22; Wilms tumor—24; other solid tumors—18) and 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements, ultrasonography of the abdomen, echocardiography, and laboratory tests were performed. Results: There were no significant differences in gender distribution, time from the end of the treatment, weight, BMI, prevalence of central obesity, blood pressure and resistive index of the renal arteries, lipid profile, or glucose and fibrinogen levels. Patients with solid tumors had a significantly lower height and worse renal function. Patients with hematological malignancies significantly presented the lowest shortening fraction of the left ventricle. The salusin β levels were significantly higher in the control group than among the patients. Conclusions: The type and severity of side effects are closely related to the type of neoplasm and the treatment that has been undergone. Careful observation and regular follow-up are necessary. Full article
9 pages, 1595 KiB  
Case Report
A New Pattern of Brain and Cord Gadolinium Enhancement in Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency: A Case Report
by Giulia Lucignani, Leonardo Vattermoli, Maria Camilla Rossi-Espagnet, Alessia Guarnera, Antonio Napolitano, Lorenzo Figà-Talamanca, Francesca Campi, Sara Ronci, Carlo Dionisi Vici, Diego Martinelli, Carlo Gandolfo and Daniela Longo
Children 2023, 10(6), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061072 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive in-born error of metabolism caused by the mutation in MOCS1, MOCS2, MOCS3 or GEPH genes, with an incidence ranging between 1 in 100,000 and 200,000 live births. The clinical presentation with seizures, [...] Read more.
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive in-born error of metabolism caused by the mutation in MOCS1, MOCS2, MOCS3 or GEPH genes, with an incidence ranging between 1 in 100,000 and 200,000 live births. The clinical presentation with seizures, lethargy and neurologic deficits reflects the neurotoxicity mediated via sulphite accumulation, and it occurs within the first hours or days after birth, often leading to severe neurodegeneration and the patient’s death within days or months. The Imaging of Choice is a brain-specific MRI technique, which is usually performed without contrast and shows typical radiological findings in the early phase, such as diffuse cerebral oedema and infarction affecting the cortex and the basal ganglia and the white matter, as well as in the late phase, such as multicystic encephalomalacia. Our case report represents a novelty in the field, since the patient underwent a contrast-enhanced MRI to exclude a concomitant infectious disease. In the frame of the clinical presentation and laboratory data, we describe the MoCD Imaging findings for MRI morphological and advanced sequences, presenting a new contrast-enhanced MRI pattern characterized by the diffuse and linear leptomeningeal enhancement of brain, cord and spinal roots. The early identification of molybdenum cofactor deficiency is crucial because it may lead to the best multidisciplinary therapy for the patient, which is focused on the prompt and optimal management of the complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging)
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12 pages, 877 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Perampanel in Children with Drug-Resistant Focal-Onset Seizures: A Retrospective Review
by Ahmed Elmardenly, Zekra Aljehani, Abdullah Tamim, Anas Alyazidi and Osama Muthaffar
Children 2023, 10(6), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061071 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Existing antiseizure medications (ASMs) are still unable to control seizures in one-third of these patients, making the discovery of antiseizure therapies with novel mechanisms of action a necessity. Aim of the Study: This [...] Read more.
Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Existing antiseizure medications (ASMs) are still unable to control seizures in one-third of these patients, making the discovery of antiseizure therapies with novel mechanisms of action a necessity. Aim of the Study: This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of perampanel (PER) as an adjuvant treatment for children with drug-resistant focal-onset seizures with or without focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. Patients and methods: This is a single-center retrospective study of 38 epileptic pediatric patients, aged 2 to 14, at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center whose seizures were pharmaco-resistant to more than two antiseizure medications and followed for at least three months after PER adjuvant therapy initiation. Efficacy was assessed by the PER response rate at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up evaluations, and side effects were also reported. Results: Multiple seizure types were reported. Myoclonic seizures were the predominant type of epilepsy in 17 children (44.7%). At 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months of follow-up, approximately 23.4%, 23.4%, and 18.4% of the patients were seizure-free at these time points, respectively. Adverse events were documented in 14 patients (35.7%) and led to the discontinuation of PER in 26.3%, 31.6%, and 36.8% of the studied group at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. The most common adverse events included dizziness or drowsiness, irritability, gait disturbance, and confusion; however, all were transient, and no serious adverse effects occurred. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the therapeutic efficacy of adjunctive PER in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in children. As an adjunctive treatment for epilepsy, perampanel demonstrated sufficient effectiveness and tolerability. Full article
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20 pages, 560 KiB  
Article
Supporting Preschoolers’ Mental Health and Academic Learning through the PROMEHS Program: A Training Study
by Elisabetta Conte, Valeria Cavioni, Veronica Ornaghi, Alessia Agliati, Sabina Gandellini, Margarida Frade Santos, Anabela Caetano Santos, Celeste Simões and Ilaria Grazzani
Children 2023, 10(6), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061070 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
There is compelling evidence that early school intervention programs enhance children’s development of life skills, with a positive knock-on effect on their behaviors and academic outcomes. To date, most universal interventions have displayed gains in children’s social-emotional competencies with a limited reduction in [...] Read more.
There is compelling evidence that early school intervention programs enhance children’s development of life skills, with a positive knock-on effect on their behaviors and academic outcomes. To date, most universal interventions have displayed gains in children’s social-emotional competencies with a limited reduction in problem behaviors. This may depend on programs’ curricula focused to a greater extent on preschoolers’ social-emotional competencies rather than problem behaviors. Promoting Mental Health at Schools (PROMEHS) is a European, school-based, universal mental health program explicitly focused on both promoting students’ mental health and preventing negative conduct by adopting a whole-school approach. In this study, we set out to evaluate the effectiveness of the program for Italian and Portuguese preschoolers. We recruited 784 children (age range = 4–5 years), assigning them to either an experimental group (six months’ participation in the PROMEHS program under the guidance of their teachers, who had received ad hoc training) or a waiting list group (no intervention). We found that PROMEHS improved preschoolers’ social-emotional learning (SEL) competencies, prosocial behavior, and academic outcomes. The more practical activities were carried out at school, the more children’s SEL competencies increased, and the more their internalizing and externalizing behaviors decreased. Furthermore, marginalized and disadvantaged children were those who benefited most from the program, displaying both greater improvements in SEL and more marked decreases in internalizing problems compared to the rest of the sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Socio-Emotional Development from Childhood to Adulthood)
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18 pages, 2146 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Characterization of Immune Response in a Cohort of Children Hospitalized with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome
by Laura Dotta, Daniele Moratto, Marco Cattalini, Sara Brambilla, Viviana Giustini, Antonella Meini, Maria Federica Girelli, Manuela Cortesi, Silviana Timpano, Anna Galvagni, Anna Viola, Beatrice Crotti, Alessandra Manerba, Giorgia Pierelli, Giulia Verzura, Federico Serana, Duilio Brugnoni, Emirena Garrafa, Francesca Ricci, Cesare Tomasi, Marco Chiarini and Raffaele Badolatoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Children 2023, 10(6), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061069 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Background: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection caused by hyperactivation of the immune system. Methods: this is a retrospective analysis of clinical data, biochemical parameters, and immune cell subsets in 40 MIS-C patients from hospital admission [...] Read more.
Background: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection caused by hyperactivation of the immune system. Methods: this is a retrospective analysis of clinical data, biochemical parameters, and immune cell subsets in 40 MIS-C patients from hospital admission to outpatient long-term follow-up. Results: MIS-C patients had elevated inflammatory markers, associated with T- and NK-cell lymphopenia, a profound depletion of dendritic cells, and altered monocyte phenotype at disease onset, while the subacute phase of the disease was characterized by a significant increase in T- and B-cell counts and a rapid decline in activated T cells and terminally differentiated B cells. Most of the immunological parameters returned to values close to the normal range during the remission phase (20–60 days after hospital admission). Nevertheless, we observed a significantly reduced ratio between recently generated and more differentiated CD8+ T- and B-cell subsets, which partially settled at longer-term follow-up determinations. Conclusions: The characterization of lymphocyte distribution in different phases of MIS-C may help to understand the course of diseases that are associated with dysregulated immune responses and to calibrate prompt and targeted treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome)
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10 pages, 231 KiB  
Article
Recommendations of the Netzwerk Kindersimulation for the Implementation of Simulation-Based Pediatric Team Trainings: A Delphi Process
by Ruth M. Löllgen, Ellen Heimberg, Michael Wagner, Katharina Bibl, Annika Paulun, Jasmin Rupp, Christian Doerfler, Alex Staffler, Benedikt Sandmeyer and Lukas P. Mileder
Children 2023, 10(6), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061068 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Background: Serious or life-threatening pediatric emergencies are rare. Patient outcomes largely depend on excellent teamwork and require regular simulation-based team training. Recommendations for pediatric simulation-based education are scarce. We aimed to develop evidence-based guidelines to inform simulation educators and healthcare stakeholders. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: Serious or life-threatening pediatric emergencies are rare. Patient outcomes largely depend on excellent teamwork and require regular simulation-based team training. Recommendations for pediatric simulation-based education are scarce. We aimed to develop evidence-based guidelines to inform simulation educators and healthcare stakeholders. Methods: A modified three-round Delphi technique was used. The first guideline draft was formed through expert discussion and based on consensus (n = 10 Netzwerk Kindersimulation panelists). Delphi round 1 consisted of an individual and team revision of this version by the expert panelists. Delphi round 2 comprised an in-depth review by 12 external international expert reviewers and revision by the expert panel. Delphi round 3 involved a revisit of the guidelines by the external experts. Consensus was reached after three rounds. Results: The final 23-page document was translated into English and adopted as international guidelines by the Swiss Society of Pediatrics (SGP/SSP), the German Society for Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care (GNPI), and the Austrian Society of Pediatrics. Conclusions: Our work constitutes comprehensive up-to-date guidelines for simulation-based team trainings and debriefings. High-quality simulation training provides standardized learning conditions for trainees. These guidelines will have a sustainable impact on standardized high-quality simulation-based education. Full article
8 pages, 251 KiB  
Opinion
The Notorious Triumvirate in Pediatric Health: Air Pollution, Respiratory Allergy, and Infection
by Anang Endaryanto, Andy Darma, Tonny Sundjaya, Bertri Maulidya Masita and Ray Wagiu Basrowi
Children 2023, 10(6), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061067 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
A plausible association is suspected among air pollution, respiratory allergic disorder, and infection. These three factors could cause uncontrollable chronic inflammation in the airway tract, creating a negative impact on the physiology of the respiratory system. This review aims to understand the underlying [...] Read more.
A plausible association is suspected among air pollution, respiratory allergic disorder, and infection. These three factors could cause uncontrollable chronic inflammation in the airway tract, creating a negative impact on the physiology of the respiratory system. This review aims to understand the underlying pathophysiology in explaining the association among air pollution, respiratory allergy, and infection in the pediatric population and to capture the public’s attention regarding the interaction among these three factors, as they synergistically reduce the health status of children living in polluted countries globally, including Indonesia. Full article
22 pages, 5053 KiB  
Article
From Active Participant to Active Researcher: What Do Young People Understand about Research?
by Amelia Alias, Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasri and Mohd Mahzan Awang
Children 2023, 10(6), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061066 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
This paper discusses the outcomes of an initiative to empower young people as active researchers. It highlights participants’ understandings of their role as researchers in terms of the meaning of research, the research processes, and the participants’ competences, knowledge, and skills. It describes [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the outcomes of an initiative to empower young people as active researchers. It highlights participants’ understandings of their role as researchers in terms of the meaning of research, the research processes, and the participants’ competences, knowledge, and skills. It describes a process that a group of 15 child councillors aged between 15 and 17 years went through that was aimed at equipping them with the knowledge and skills to conduct their research. Based on the data presented, it was clear that from the participants’ point of view, the research process was challenging and time-consuming since it entailed several steps that needed to be carried out with careful attention to detail. Despite this, the participants were confident in their ability to undertake independent research, albeit with guidance from adults. Their research abilities and knowledge of child rights improved because of their having conducted research. The participants also noted that their learning was more meaningful when they were engaged in the subject topic, supporting the notion that learning by doing is vital. Due to its emphasis on acquiring children’s meaningful participation and illustrating the complex reality of being a part of research, this study has made important contributions to the small body of literature on child participation in Malaysia. Full article
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12 pages, 808 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Relationship between Participation in Sports and Harmful Alcohol Drinking in Early Adolescence: Two-Year Prospective Analysis
by Natasa Zenic, Ivan Kvesic, Mate Corluka, Tatjana Trivic, Patrik Drid, Jose M. Saavedra, Nikola Foretic, Toni Modric and Barbara Gilic
Children 2023, 10(6), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061065 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Alcohol drinking is an important health-related problem and one of the major risk factors for a wide array of non-communicable diseases, while there is a lack of studies investigating environment-specific associations between sports participation and alcohol drinking in adolescence. This study prospectively investigated [...] Read more.
Alcohol drinking is an important health-related problem and one of the major risk factors for a wide array of non-communicable diseases, while there is a lack of studies investigating environment-specific associations between sports participation and alcohol drinking in adolescence. This study prospectively investigated the relationship between sports factors (i.e., participation in sports and competitive achievement), with the prevalence of harmful alcohol drinking (HD), and HD initiation in 14-to-16 years old adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 641, 337 females, 43% living in rural community). Participants were tested over 4-time points divided by approximately 6 months, from the beginning of high school to the end of the second grade. Variables included gender, factors related to sport participation, a community of residence (urban or rural), and outcome: alcohol consumption was assessed by the AUDIT questionnaire. Results evidenced that the prevalence of HD increased over the study period from 6 to 19%, with no significant differences between urban and rural youth. Logistic regression for HD as criterion evidenced adolescents who participated in sports and then quit as being at particular risk for drinking alcohol at the study baseline. Sports factors were not correlated with HD initiation in the period between 14 and 16 years of age. It seems that the problem of alcohol drinking should be preventively targeted in all youth, irrespective of living environment. Although sports participation was not evidenced as being a factor of influence on HD initiation, results highlight the necessity of developing targeted preventive campaigns against alcohol drinking for adolescents who quit sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
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11 pages, 1215 KiB  
Article
Riding a Mechanical Scooter from the Inconvenient Side Promotes Muscular Balance Development in Children
by Mantas Mickevicius, Danguole Satkunskiene, Saule Sipaviciene and Sigitas Kamandulis
Children 2023, 10(6), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061064 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Mechanical scooter riding is a popular physical activity among children, but little is known about the differences in muscle loading between the dominant and non-dominant sides during this activity. The objective of this study was to identify the muscle activation patterns in children’s [...] Read more.
Mechanical scooter riding is a popular physical activity among children, but little is known about the differences in muscle loading between the dominant and non-dominant sides during this activity. The objective of this study was to identify the muscle activation patterns in children’s dominant and non-dominant legs as they rode scooters on the convenient and inconvenient sides. The study included nine healthy children aged 6–8. The participants rode 20 m on a mechanical scooter at a self-selected pace using both the convenient and inconvenient sides. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity in the dominant and non-dominant legs during the pushing and gliding phases. A 20 m sprint run was used as a control exercise to estimate the typical differences in muscle activation between the dominant and non-dominant legs. In the pushing phase, the symmetry index for five of the eight analyzed muscles exceeded 50% (p < 0.05); four of these muscles were more active in the pushing leg, and one was more active in the standing leg. In the gliding phase, four muscles were more active in the standing leg, and one was more active in the pushing leg (p < 0.05). Upon observing children who changed sides while riding a scooter, it was found that the pattern of muscle activation displayed a reverse trend that resembled the initial pattern. Our study indicated notable differences in muscle activity patterns between the dominant and non-dominant sides of individual leg muscles during children’s scooter riding. These patterns were reversed when children switched sides on the scooter. These findings suggest that using both legs and switching sides while riding a scooter may be a viable strategy for promoting balanced muscular development. Full article
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10 pages, 11481 KiB  
Article
Endoscopic Pilonidal Sinus Treatment: Preliminary Results, Learning Curve and Comparison with Standard Open Approach
by Giovanni Parente, Francesca Ruspi, Eduje Thomas, Marco Di Mitri, Sara Maria Cravano, Simone D’Antonio, Tommaso Gargano and Mario Lima
Children 2023, 10(6), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061063 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Background: Pilonidal sinus (PNS) is a common disease which can lead to complications including infection and abscess formation. Different surgical approaches have been suggested, based on primary or secondary wound closure intention healing or endoscopic treatment (EPSiT). The aim of this study is [...] Read more.
Background: Pilonidal sinus (PNS) is a common disease which can lead to complications including infection and abscess formation. Different surgical approaches have been suggested, based on primary or secondary wound closure intention healing or endoscopic treatment (EPSiT). The aim of this study is to verify the superior outcomes of EPSiT, especially in comparison with the traditional open approach, and discuss the operators’ learning curve. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted identifying all the patients who underwent surgical treatment for PNS with EPSiT technique between 2019 and 2022 and with open technique between 2002 and 2022. We divided patients in two groups: open procedure (group 1) and EPSiT (group 2). We considered a p value < 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: The mean operative time was 58.6 ± 23.7 min for group 1 and 42.8 ± 17.4 min for group 2 (p < 0.01). The mean hospital stay was 2.6 ± 1.7 days for group 1 patients and of 0.8 ± 0.4 days for group 2 (p < 0.01). Complete healing was obtained in 18.7 ± 5.6 days for group 1 and 38.3 ± 23.5 days for group 2 (p < 0.01). Recurrences were of 23.4% for group 1 and 5.4% for group 2 (p = 0.03). Conclusions: EPSiT is a minimally invasive and effective approach for the treatment of pilonidal cyst that can be safely performed in pediatric patients with promising results concerning aesthetic outcome and pain control, and with a rapid and less complicated recovery compared to traditional open procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Surgery)
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2 pages, 147 KiB  
Editorial
Physical Disease: A Crucial Research Area in the Context of Quality of Life and Mental Health
by Paraskevi Theofilou
Children 2023, 10(6), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061062 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 934
Abstract
The medical literature defines a chronic physical disease as any organic disorder that lasts more than three months or that entails a period of hospitalization of more than of a month, which restricts an individual’s daily abilities or behaviors and causes changes to [...] Read more.
The medical literature defines a chronic physical disease as any organic disorder that lasts more than three months or that entails a period of hospitalization of more than of a month, which restricts an individual’s daily abilities or behaviors and causes changes to their social functions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
9 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Malocclusions, Tonsillar Grading and Mallampati Modified Scale: A Retrospective Observational Study
by Can Serif Kuskonmaz, Giovanni Bruno, Maria Lavinia Bartolucci, Michele Basilicata, Antonio Gracco and Alberto De Stefani
Children 2023, 10(6), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061061 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Aim: to investigate the correlation between growth tendency and different patient malocclusion, tonsillar grading, and tongue size (Mallampati index). Materials and Methods: The sample is composed of 64 males and 40 females; patients aged between 6 and 16 years (median age 11 years, [...] Read more.
Aim: to investigate the correlation between growth tendency and different patient malocclusion, tonsillar grading, and tongue size (Mallampati index). Materials and Methods: The sample is composed of 64 males and 40 females; patients aged between 6 and 16 years (median age 11 years, IQR 9–13) were included. The final sample is therefore 104 patients. After the first orthodontic visit, all the children underwent a collection of documentation (photographs, digital arch models, and X-rays). Patients were classified according to their malocclusion, palatal conformation, tonsillar grading, and Mallampati index. Group comparisons were performed using Fisher’s test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The narrow palate was more frequent in those with Angle class III (p = 0.04), while the other variables considered (tonsillar grading, Mallampati, and lingual frenulum) were not significantly associated with dental class (p > 0.05). Furthermore, a different distribution of tonsillar grading was observed between subjects with normal palate and subjects with narrow palate, while no statistically significant association was found between the palatal shape and Mallampati index (p = 0.88). Conclusions: This study found that children with higher tonsillar grading had a higher prevalence of crossbite or narrow palate compared to other children at the same developmental stage. However, we did not observe any association between tonsil hyperplasia and the prevalence of class II malocclusion, anterior open bite, or patient divergence in this sample. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the Mallampati index and patients’ dental class, narrow palate, or divergence in this study. Full article
9 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Body Image Perception and Satisfaction of Junior High School Students: Analysis of Possible Determinants
by Huizi Song, Yepeng Cai, Qian Cai, Wen Luo, Xiuping Jiao, Tianhua Jiang, Yun Sun and Yuexia Liao
Children 2023, 10(6), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061060 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that refers to one’s perceptions of and attitudes toward one’s own physical characteristics. Adolescence is a critical developmental stage in which concerns about BI increase. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate body image and [...] Read more.
Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that refers to one’s perceptions of and attitudes toward one’s own physical characteristics. Adolescence is a critical developmental stage in which concerns about BI increase. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate body image and aesthetic body shape standards in a sample of middle school students living in China. The researchers gathered demographic information, as well as height and weight data, for their study. They used a body silhouette to assess body image perception and body shape aesthetics and calculated two indexes: BIP, which measures the accuracy of self-perception and the estimation of bodily dimensions, and BIS, which indicates the difference between an individual’s perceived and ideal body images. A total of 1585 students in three grades at two middle schools were included in the study (759 = female, mean age = 13.67 ± 0.90; 839 = male, mean age = 13.70 ± 0.90). The results showed that the BIP bias rate of middle school students was 55.7%, and the BI dissatisfaction rate was 81.0%. Females tended to overestimate their body shape and desire to be thinner compared to males. Students with a higher BMI grading were more prone to underestimating their body shape and aspiring to be thinner. Furthermore, 8.6% of students chose underweight as the ideal body type for boys, while 22.6% chose underweight as the ideal body type for girls. In conclusion, there are significant gender differences in the aesthetic standards of body shape, and adolescents believe that for women, a thin body shape is beautiful. Full article
13 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Psychosocial Factors between Adaptive and Maladaptive Use of Gaming among Korean Adolescents
by Bee Kim and Nami Kim
Children 2023, 10(6), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061059 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
(1) Background: Various studies have been conducted on the effects of video (online, mobile, and console) games on users’ lives and psychological health. However, the effectiveness of a game can vary depending on user characteristics. This study explored the level of game use [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Various studies have been conducted on the effects of video (online, mobile, and console) games on users’ lives and psychological health. However, the effectiveness of a game can vary depending on user characteristics. This study explored the level of game use and its associated psychosocial factors among adolescents. (2) Methods: Survey data were compiled from 582 middle and high school students. Frequency analysis, the chi-square test, and analysis of variance were performed using SPSS Windows software, version 23.0. (3) Results: First, it was confirmed that there were no differences in the levels of self-esteem, morality, or life satisfaction between the adaptive game use and normal groups, but these were higher than those of the maladaptive game use group. However, at the level of self-control, the adaptive group scored lower than the normal group but higher than the maladaptive group. Second, the adaptive and normal groups exhibited comparatively lower levels of aggression, anxiety, depression, loneliness, academic stress, and social stress in school. Third, they also exhibit relatively high levels of social intelligence, social capital, and friendship support. (4) Conclusions: The adaptive and general game-use groups showed similar levels of psychosocial factors, whereas the maladaptive game-use group exhibited lower levels of positive psychological and social factors. Based on these results, developing an intervention program that reduces maladaptation and increases adaptive gaming use is necessary. Future follow-up studies are needed to confirm how positive and negative psychosocial factors affect adaptive and maladaptive game use as protective and risk factors, respectively. Full article
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