New Clinical Evidences in Pediatric Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 11307

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialties, School of Dentistry, Unit of Orthodontics, University of Catania, 95131 Catania, Italy
Interests: 3D imaging; CBCT; digital anatomical segmentation; facial scan; intraoral scan; cephalometry; craniofacial development imaging; CAD-CAM; diagnostic digital workflow; RMI; functional orthodontic appliances; dentofacial orthopedics; interceptive orthodontics; elastodontics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Orthodontics, Department of General Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, 95131 Catania, Italy
Interests: 3D-Imaging; CBCT; oral surgery; oral pediatric surgery; digital anatomical segmentation; facial scan; intra-oral scan; cephalometry; CAD-CAM; diagnostic digital workflow
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The enhancement of the clinical management of growing patients has always been a great challenge for orthodontists and pediatric dentists. In this regard, pediatric orthodontics and dentistry aim to provide complete preventative and therapeutic care for kids and teens.

Most of the new available technologies and equipment aim to improve patients’ experience. New diagnostic and therapeutic tools are available to enhance the diagnosis and treatment plan strategies in orthodontic growing subjects. This care includes diagnosis, treatment, and consulting expertise for newborns, kids, and teenagers of all ages, including those with special care needs.

The present Special Issue will address all topics related to the recent advancements and knowledge in pediatric orthodontics and dentistry. The following topics are warmly encouraged for submission:

  • Innovative concepts, techniques, or early interesting research outcomes in orthodontic and pediatric dentistry.
  • Digital technologies and CAD-CAM systems applied to pediatric orthodontics and dentistry.
  • Orthodontic treatment in subjects with cleft lip and palate and/or speech disorders.
  • Orthodontic treatment in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
  • New materials and technologies for pediatric dentistry and orthodontic treatment in children and adolescents.
  • Evidence-based pediatric orthodontics and dentistry.
  • Caries risk assessment, diagnosis tools, and management strategies.
  • Public health and community-based approaches optimizing the oral health issues in growing subjects.
  • Current trends in pediatric orthodontics and pediatric dentistry.

We invite authors to submit original research articles (trials, cohort studies or case–control or cross-sectional studies), literature reviews (narrative or systematic reviews or meta-analyses), as well as high-quality case reports highlighting the above-mentioned topics.

Prof. Dr. Antonino Lo Giudice
Prof. Dr. Cristina Grippaudo
Dr. Vincenzo Ronsivalle
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • interceptive orthodontics
  • pediatric dentistry
  • pediatric orthodontics
  • caries
  • sedation
  • clear aligners therapy
  • elastodontics
  • CAD/CAM
  • digital dentistry
  • digital orthodontics
  • 3D imaging
  • materials
  • OSAS
  • cleft lip and palate

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Applications in Pediatric Dentistry: A Worldwide Perspective of the Last 13 Years
by Antonino Lo Giudice
Children 2023, 10(10), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10101678 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
The enhancement of the clinical management of growing patients has always been a great challenge for orthodontists and pediatric dentists [...] Full article

Research

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9 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Severe Crowding Associated with Lower Canine Premature Resorption: Interceptive Treatment with Clear Aligners—A Pilot Study
by Francesca Gazzani, Chiara Pavoni, Saveria Loberto, Silvia Caruso and Paola Cozza
Children 2024, 11(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040451 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Background: Early mixed dentition represents a critical phase since crowding conditions can occur. The interceptive resolution of dental crowding allows favorable arch and occlusal development. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate dentoalveolar changes of clear aligner treatment planned to manage [...] Read more.
Background: Early mixed dentition represents a critical phase since crowding conditions can occur. The interceptive resolution of dental crowding allows favorable arch and occlusal development. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate dentoalveolar changes of clear aligner treatment planned to manage lower incisor crowding, loss of arch length, and midline deviation in early mixed dentition. Methods: A total of 13 patients (7 females, 6 males, 9.4 ± 1.2 age) treated with clear aligners were selected. Arch dimensions and incisor inclinations were evaluated before (T0) and at the end of interceptive treatment (T1). A paired t-test was chosen to compare T1–T0 changes. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The greatest significant increase in mandibular width was observed at the level of the first deciduous molars (+2.44 ± 1.4 mm), followed by the second permanent molars (+2.16 ± 1.4 mm). Lower arch length and arch depth showed a statistically relevant increase (2 ± 0.6 mm and 4.5 ± 1.6 mm, respectively). The mean lower dental midline changes were statistically significant (1.42 ± 0.73 mm). Conclusions: Early treatment with clear aligners, including the combination of transversal arch development, maintenance of leeway space, and guidance of eruption, represents a valid treatment strategy in early mixed dentition to manage arch crowding and occlusion development. Full article
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11 pages, 527 KiB  
Article
Cross-Bite and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in Preadolescents Aged 11 to 14 Years Old: A Pilot Case-Control Study
by Adrián Curto, Alberto Albaladejo, Alfonso Alvarado-Lorenzo, Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho and Daniel Curto
Children 2023, 10(8), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10081311 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
Introduction: Malocclusions have a negative impact on oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Posterior cross-bite is one of the most prevalent malocclusions in the preadolescent population. This study investigated the influence of posterior cross-bites (unilateral or bilateral) on OHRQoL in an 11- to 14-year-old [...] Read more.
Introduction: Malocclusions have a negative impact on oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Posterior cross-bite is one of the most prevalent malocclusions in the preadolescent population. This study investigated the influence of posterior cross-bites (unilateral or bilateral) on OHRQoL in an 11- to 14-year-old population. Materials and Methods: A pilot case–control study was carried out at the Dental Clinic of the University of Salamanca between 2021 and 2023. A consecutive sample of 120 preadolescent patients aged 11 to 14 years old was recruited. Three groups were analyzed: a control group (no posterior cross-bite) (n = 40), a group with unilateral posterior cross-bite (n = 40), and a group with bilateral posterior cross-bite (n = 40). To analyze the OHRQoL, the Spanish version of the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ-Esp11–14) was used. Results: The mean age of the sample was 12.2 years old (±0.96 years). The group of patients with a bilateral posterior cross-bite was shown to have higher scores in all dimensions of the CPQ-Esp11–14, as well as a higher total score. Sex only influenced the oral symptom dimension of the CPQ-Esp11–14 questionnaire; in this dimension, the girls described a greater impact. Age did not influence OHRQoL. Conclusion: The presence of a posterior cross-bite had a negative impact on OHRQoL in the preadolescent population that was studied. Full article
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10 pages, 2601 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Skeletal Changes, Occlusal Changes, and Palatal Morphology in Children with Mild Class III Malocclusion Treated with Elastodontic Appliances and Bimaxillary Plates
by Vincenzo Ronsivalle, Vincenzo Quinzi, Salvatore La Rosa, Rosalia Leonardi and Antonino Lo Giudice
Children 2023, 10(7), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10071219 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the changes observed in children after the early treatment of mild class III malocclusion using bimaxillary removable plates supported by class III elastics and elastodontic devices. Methods: Twenty children (mean age 7.6 ± [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the changes observed in children after the early treatment of mild class III malocclusion using bimaxillary removable plates supported by class III elastics and elastodontic devices. Methods: Twenty children (mean age 7.6 ± 1.1 years) with signs of class III malocclusion were treated using by-maxillary plates (PG group) with class III elastics (10 subjects = mean age 7.9 ± 1.3 years) or using class III elastodontic devices (EG group) (10 subjects = mean age 7.4 ± 0.8 years). Digital models and lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T0) and at the end of treatment (T1). The digital models were analyzed to assess occlusal changes and maxillary morphology using the surface-to-surface matching technique. Changes in cephalometric parameters were also analyzed. The data outcomes were statistically analyzed using the paired Student’s t test for inter-timing assessments and the independent Student’s t test for inter-group assessments. Results: Both groups showed correction of class III malocclusions, with a significant increase in the ANB angle and the overjet (p < 0.05). Subjects in the PG group exhibited a greater reduction in the inter-incisal angle compared to the EG group (p < 0.05). The children in the EG group had a significantly lower percentage of palatal morphology matching between T0 and T1 compared to the PG group (p < 0.05), suggesting greater morphological changes in the palate. Conclusions: Elastodontic appliances (EAs) and bi-maxillary plates successfully correct class III malocclusions in children. However, elastodontic devices significantly improved the morphology of the palate, both in the transverse and anteroposterior directions. Full article
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9 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Malocclusions, Tonsillar Grading and Mallampati Modified Scale: A Retrospective Observational Study
by Can Serif Kuskonmaz, Giovanni Bruno, Maria Lavinia Bartolucci, Michele Basilicata, Antonio Gracco and Alberto De Stefani
Children 2023, 10(6), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10061061 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Aim: to investigate the correlation between growth tendency and different patient malocclusion, tonsillar grading, and tongue size (Mallampati index). Materials and Methods: The sample is composed of 64 males and 40 females; patients aged between 6 and 16 years (median age 11 years, [...] Read more.
Aim: to investigate the correlation between growth tendency and different patient malocclusion, tonsillar grading, and tongue size (Mallampati index). Materials and Methods: The sample is composed of 64 males and 40 females; patients aged between 6 and 16 years (median age 11 years, IQR 9–13) were included. The final sample is therefore 104 patients. After the first orthodontic visit, all the children underwent a collection of documentation (photographs, digital arch models, and X-rays). Patients were classified according to their malocclusion, palatal conformation, tonsillar grading, and Mallampati index. Group comparisons were performed using Fisher’s test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The narrow palate was more frequent in those with Angle class III (p = 0.04), while the other variables considered (tonsillar grading, Mallampati, and lingual frenulum) were not significantly associated with dental class (p > 0.05). Furthermore, a different distribution of tonsillar grading was observed between subjects with normal palate and subjects with narrow palate, while no statistically significant association was found between the palatal shape and Mallampati index (p = 0.88). Conclusions: This study found that children with higher tonsillar grading had a higher prevalence of crossbite or narrow palate compared to other children at the same developmental stage. However, we did not observe any association between tonsil hyperplasia and the prevalence of class II malocclusion, anterior open bite, or patient divergence in this sample. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the Mallampati index and patients’ dental class, narrow palate, or divergence in this study. Full article
12 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Relationship of Impacted Maxillary Canines with Orthodontic Malocclusion: A Retrospective Study
by Orhan Cicek, Turhan Gurel and Busra Demir Cicek
Children 2023, 10(6), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10060950 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Impacted canines, which play an important role in smile aesthetics and functional occlusion, can lead to dental and skeletal malocclusions. In this study the aim was to evaluate the relationship between impacted maxillary canines and malocclusion. A total of 151 patients comprising 101 [...] Read more.
Impacted canines, which play an important role in smile aesthetics and functional occlusion, can lead to dental and skeletal malocclusions. In this study the aim was to evaluate the relationship between impacted maxillary canines and malocclusion. A total of 151 patients comprising 101 females and 50 males aged between 13 and 33 years were included. The groups were divided based on age, gender, skeletal and dental classification, and sector classification. Angular and linear measurements were performed on lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs. In panoramic radiographs, the vertical distance of the impacted canine to the occlusal plane and the angle between it and the bicondylar plane were measured and sector classification was performed according to its relationship with the root of the lateral incisor. Skeletal classification was performed according to the ANB angle on lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental classification by molar relationship via the intraoral photographs. The Chi-square test analyzed independent qualitative and quantitative data using Kruskal–Wallis and Man–Whitney U tests. The statistical significance level was accepted as p < 0.05. According to the intraclass correlation test, an excellent positive correlation was found with 0.985 for canine distance and 0.993 for canine angle between the repeated measurements. The impaction of the maxillary right canine was significantly highest in females and lowest in males. The impacted canine angle was significantly highest in sector 1 and lowest in sector 4. Distance to the occlusal plane was significantly higher in dental Class II and sector 4. It was observed that there was a considerable relationship between impacted maxillary canines and malocclusion; bilateral impacted canines were more frequent in skeletal Class III, and the distance of impacted canines to the occlusal plane increased while their angles decreased both in dental Class II and from sectors 1 to 4. Full article
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Other

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18 pages, 2198 KiB  
Systematic Review
Primary Failure Eruption: Genetic Investigation, Diagnosis and Treatment: A Systematic Review
by Francesco Inchingolo, Irene Ferrara, Fabio Viapiano, Anna Maria Ciocia, Irene Palumbo, Mariafrancesca Guglielmo, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Andrea Palermo, Ioana Roxana Bordea, Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Daniela Di Venere and Gianna Dipalma
Children 2023, 10(11), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10111781 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to explore the pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and genetic basis of Primary Failure of Eruption (PFE) in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to explore the pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and genetic basis of Primary Failure of Eruption (PFE) in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for this review. The databases PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from 1 July 2013 to 1 July 2023, using keywords “primary failure of tooth eruption” OR “primary failure of eruption” OR “tooth eruption failure” OR “PFE” AND “orthodontics”. The study selection process involved screening articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 1151 results were obtained from the database search, with 14 papers meeting the inclusion criteria. The review covers various aspects of PFE, including its clinical features, diagnosis, treatment options, and genetic associations with mutations in the PTH1R gene. Differentiation between PFE and Mechanical Failure of Eruption (MFE) is crucial for accurate treatment planning. Orthodontic and surgical interventions, along with multidisciplinary approaches, have been employed to manage PFE cases. Genetic testing for PTH1R mutations plays a significant role in confirming the diagnosis and guiding treatment decisions, although some cases may not be linked to this mutation. Conclusions: This systematic review provides valuable insights into the diagnosis, treatment, and genetic basis of PFE. Early diagnosis and personalized treatment planning are crucial for successful management. Genetic testing for PTH1R mutations aids in accurate diagnosis and may influence treatment decisions. However, further research is needed to explore the complex genetic basis of PFE fully and improve treatment outcomes for affected individuals. Full article
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10 pages, 3468 KiB  
Case Report
Guided Autotransplantation of Impacted Canines Using a CAD/CAM Surgical Template
by Soyoung Park, Haena Lee, Eungyung Lee, Taesung Jeong, Hyeonjong Lee and Jonghyun Shin
Children 2023, 10(4), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040708 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Autotransplantation is a potential treatment alternative when orthodontic traction of an impacted tooth is difficult. In this article, we describe two cases of guided autotransplantation of an impacted canine using a computer-aided designed and manufactured surgical template. The impacted canine was segmented on [...] Read more.
Autotransplantation is a potential treatment alternative when orthodontic traction of an impacted tooth is difficult. In this article, we describe two cases of guided autotransplantation of an impacted canine using a computer-aided designed and manufactured surgical template. The impacted canine was segmented on preoperative cone-beam computed tomography images to ensure a sufficient periodontal ligament space and placement of the donor tooth with the least pressure on it. The canine was virtually transposed using a simulation program considering the adjacent teeth. The surgical template, which was connected to the occlusal stop on adjacent teeth, was designed and 3D-printed with polymer resin. The recipient site was prepared using the surgical template, followed by immediate transplantation of the surgically extracted canine into the socket. The transplanted donor tooth was positioned in planned infra-occlusion to prevent occlusal interference. It was then splinted with the adjacent teeth for initial stabilization. During follow-up, one transplanted tooth showed pulp canal obliteration and the other had suspected pulp necrosis; endodontic treatment was performed. One year after the procedure, the periradicular condition of both teeth was favorable. Full article
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