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Systems, Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 42 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Complex Systems Science (CSS) and Community-Based Research (CBR) have emerged as complementary disciplines. Yet, understanding their recent integration to tackle complex issues remains incomplete. Using DistillerSR, we conducted a scoping review of articles employing both CSS and CBR. Employing natural language processing, including a named entity recognition model and dynamic topic modeling, we analyzed the manuscript data. The findings show CBR topic frequency surpassing CSS, often utilizing CSS concepts and analytical techniques. Key topics driving this trend include social system collaboration, business management, food and land use, and watershed management. This review sheds light on the integration of CSS and CBR and its implications for addressing complex social, economic, and health-related issues. View this paper
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50 pages, 791 KiB  
Article
Diagnosing Complex Organisations with Diverse Cultures—Part 2: Application to ASEAN
by Tuomo Rautakivi and Maurice Yolles
Systems 2024, 12(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030107 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 722
Abstract
In this paper, the second part of a two-part series, we explore the cultural stability of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The analytical framework adopted, formulated on a background of social cybernetics, uses Mindset Agency Theory (MAT) within a metacybernetic framework. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the second part of a two-part series, we explore the cultural stability of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The analytical framework adopted, formulated on a background of social cybernetics, uses Mindset Agency Theory (MAT) within a metacybernetic framework. Our exploration involves a thorough investigation of signs pointing to cultural instability, identification of potential pathologies, and the provision of insights into the underlying dynamics within ASEAN. Expanding on the theoretical foundation established in the first part, we explore the notion that regional organisations (ROs) like ASEAN can be viewed as complex adaptive systems with agency. Heterogeneity of RO membership can be both beneficial and detrimental, especially when this delivers cultural diversity. If detrimental, pathologies can arise that affect both ROs’ institutional dynamics and their affiliated regional organisations, a significant interest of this paper. In response to certain cybernetic aspects introduced in part 1 of the research, MAT is shown to be a specialised framework imbued with systemic and reflexive elements. Through this, the analysis sheds light on how an agency’s mindset connects with its behaviour and performance. ROs exhibit coherence in their operations when they successfully achieve adaptive goals. ROs, as agencies defined through a population of state agents, have mutual relationships and are encouraged to pursue shared regional objectives, such as economic growth, social welfare, security, and democracy. However, in highly diverse cultural environments, this poses unique challenges to achieving and maintaining cultural stability. The analysis scrutinises ASEAN’s behaviour, relating it to manifestations of cultural instability, and deduces conditions that encompass an inability to undertake collective action, covert narcissism, and a lack of authority. Employing MAT as a diagnostic tool to comprehend ASEAN’s intricate nature, the paper concludes with practical recommendations aimed at enhancing ASEAN’s cultural health and sustainability. The ultimate vision is to foster a more integrated and proactive regional entity. Full article
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30 pages, 4675 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Learning-Based Multi-Objective Optimization for Generation Scheduling in Power Systems
by Awol Seid Ebrie and Young Jin Kim
Systems 2024, 12(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030106 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Multi-objective power scheduling (MOPS) aims to address the simultaneous minimization of economic costs and different types of environmental emissions during electricity generation. Recognizing it as an NP-hard problem, this article proposes a novel multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (MADRL)-based optimization algorithm. Within a custom [...] Read more.
Multi-objective power scheduling (MOPS) aims to address the simultaneous minimization of economic costs and different types of environmental emissions during electricity generation. Recognizing it as an NP-hard problem, this article proposes a novel multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (MADRL)-based optimization algorithm. Within a custom multi-agent simulation environment, representing power-generating units as collaborative types of reinforcement learning (RL) agents, the MOPS problem is decomposed into sequential Markov decision processes (MDPs). The MDPs are then utilized for training an MADRL model, which subsequently offers the optimal solution to the optimization problem. The practical viability of the proposed method is evaluated across several experimental test systems consisting of up to 100 units featuring bi-objective and tri-objective problems. The results demonstrate that the proposed MADRL algorithm has better performance compared to established methods, such as teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO), real coded grey wolf optimization (RCGWO), evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (EAD), non-dominated sorting algorithm II (NSGA-II), and non-dominated sorting algorithm III (NSGA-III). Full article
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13 pages, 2447 KiB  
Article
Setting the Public Sentiment: Examining the Relationship between Social Media and News Sentiments
by Catherine U. Huh and Han Woo Park
Systems 2024, 12(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030105 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 861
Abstract
This study investigates whether news sentiment plays a role in setting social media sentiment to explore the dynamics of sentiment develop and diffusion within the public agenda. Based on the agenda-setting theory, this study analyzed the public and media sentiments towards the 2016 [...] Read more.
This study investigates whether news sentiment plays a role in setting social media sentiment to explore the dynamics of sentiment develop and diffusion within the public agenda. Based on the agenda-setting theory, this study analyzed the public and media sentiments towards the 2016 US election and the candidates using data from Twitter, CNN, and Fox News. Focusing on the Twitter messages created by the supporters of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, over 1.3 million Twitter messages were collected associated with the election, employing hashtags as indicators of support. The Granger causality test between social media and news sentiments revealed that there is a mutual influence between social media and news sentiments; CNN’s overall sentiment was influenced by the sentiment of Hillary Clinton’s supporters, whereas Trump supporters’ sentiment was influenced by Fox News’ negative sentiment. The results suggest that public sentiment is formed in response to public agenda and mass media, indicating that sentiment is a critical component in understanding public opinion. Implications for future studies and limitations are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication for the Digital Media Age)
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29 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
A Subsidization Scheme for Maximizing Social Welfare in Mobile Communications Markets
by Carlos Agualimpia-Arriaga, José Vuelvas, Carlos-Iván Páez-Rueda, Carlos Adrián Correa-Flórez and Arturo Fajardo
Systems 2024, 12(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030104 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
In contemporary mobile communications markets, various agents or players interact to pursue welfare. Regulatory policies enacted by governments in certain markets aim to maximize social welfare. However, some countries, both least developed and developing, often adopt successful models from developed nations without local [...] Read more.
In contemporary mobile communications markets, various agents or players interact to pursue welfare. Regulatory policies enacted by governments in certain markets aim to maximize social welfare. However, some countries, both least developed and developing, often adopt successful models from developed nations without local market validation. Therefore, network economics serves as a pertinent framework for analyzing such policies. This paper introduces a novel scheme based on constrained optimization problems, where the constraints represent multilevel economic game equilibria within a system model involving three agents: the central planner, the mobile network operator, and the mobile data users. These agents strategically optimize their payoff functions by considering benefit factors and decision variables such as the subsidization factor, pricing, and data consumption. To this end, a three-stage dynamic game is proposed to model the players’ interactions, employing the backward induction method to ascertain the subgame perfect equilibrium from the Nash equilibrium. A case study is presented, demonstrating a 31.16% increase in social welfare between scenarios involving no adoption of the subsidization factor and its adoption at the optimal value when the central planner enacts it to other players in the game, even if they do not necessarily attain maximum payoff values. In countries aligning with this proposed model, social welfare is maximized through a subsidization scheme. Full article
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0 pages, 1013 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Evaluation of a Generative Artificial Intelligence Technology Adoption Model from Entrepreneurs’ Perspectives
by Varun Gupta
Systems 2024, 12(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030103 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Technologies, such as Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT), are prime examples of Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI), which is a constantly evolving area. SMEs, particularly startups, can obtain a competitive edge, innovate their business models, gain business value, and undergo a digital transformation by [...] Read more.
Technologies, such as Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT), are prime examples of Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI), which is a constantly evolving area. SMEs, particularly startups, can obtain a competitive edge, innovate their business models, gain business value, and undergo a digital transformation by implementing these technologies. Continuous but gradual experimentation with these technologies is the foundation for their adoption. The experience that comes from trying new technologies can help entrepreneurs adopt new technologies more strategically and experiment more with them. The urgent need for an in-depth investigation is highlighted by the paucity of previous research on ChatGPT uptake in the startup context, particularly from an entrepreneurial perspective. The objective of this research study is to empirically validate the Generative AI technology adoption model to establish the direction and strength of the correlations among the adoption factors from the perspectives of the entrepreneurs. The data are collected from 482 entrepreneurs who exhibit great diversity in their genders, the countries in which their startups are located, the industries their startups serve, their age, their educational levels, their work experience as entrepreneurs, and the length of time the startups have been on the market. Collected data are analyzed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique, which results in a statistical examination of the relationships between the adoption model’s factors. The results indicate that social influence, domain experience, technology familiarity, system quality, training and support, interaction convenience, and anthropomorphism are the factors that impact the pre-perception and perception phase of adoption. These factors motivate entrepreneurs to experiment more with the technology, thereby building perceptions of its usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment, three factors that in turn affect emotions toward the technology and, finally, switching intentions. Control variables like age, gender, and educational attainment have no appreciable effect on switching intentions to alternatives of the Generative AI technology. Rather, the experience factor of running businesses shows itself to be a crucial one. The results have practical implications for entrepreneurs and other innovation ecosystem actors, including, for instance, technology providers, libraries, and policymakers. This research study enriches the Generative AI technology acceptance theory and extends the existing literature by introducing new adoption variables and stages specific to entrepreneurship. Full article
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22 pages, 10286 KiB  
Article
A Method for Inspiring Radical Innovative Design Based on Cross-Domain Knowledge Mining
by Fei Yu, Xiuchuan Jia, Xiaowei Zhao and Jing Li
Systems 2024, 12(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030102 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 712
Abstract
The reasonable application of cross-domain knowledge tends to promote the generation of radical innovation. However, it is difficult to accurately capture the cross-domain knowledge needed for radical innovation. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for inspiring radical innovative design based [...] Read more.
The reasonable application of cross-domain knowledge tends to promote the generation of radical innovation. However, it is difficult to accurately capture the cross-domain knowledge needed for radical innovation. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for inspiring radical innovative design based on FOS and technological distance measurement. First, the functional analysis of the problem product is carried out to determine the target function. Second, the patent sets of problem domain and target domains are constructed based on FOS. Then, this study optimizes the method of technological distance measurement and uses it to determine the optimal target domain. After further categorizing and screening the patents contained in the optimal target domain, specific cross-domain knowledge is pushed to designers. This method can help firms select the most appropriate cross-domain knowledge to design solutions for different problems, thus increasing the possibility of generating radical innovation. In the end, the method is validated in the design of a stovetop cleaning device. Full article
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3 pages, 246 KiB  
Editorial
Systems Thinking and Models in Public Health
by Philippe J. Giabbanelli and Andrew Page
Systems 2024, 12(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030101 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
In responding to population health challenges, epidemiologists want to identify causal associations between an exposure (e [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Thinking and Models in Public Health)
22 pages, 2278 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the Digital Economy on Total-Factor Carbon Emission Efficiency in the Yellow River Basin from the Perspectives of Mediating and Moderating Roles
by Lei Nie, Xueli Bao, Shunfeng Song and Zhifang Wu
Systems 2024, 12(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030099 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
China’s digital economy has been expanding rapidly in the past decade. This expansion is having a profound impact on the country’s economy. Using panel data on 97 prefecture-level cities in the Yellow River Basin from 2011 to 2020, this study investigates the multifaceted [...] Read more.
China’s digital economy has been expanding rapidly in the past decade. This expansion is having a profound impact on the country’s economy. Using panel data on 97 prefecture-level cities in the Yellow River Basin from 2011 to 2020, this study investigates the multifaceted relationship between the digital economy and total-factor carbon emission efficiency. The research yields three key findings: (1) The digital economy positively enhances overall carbon emission efficiency. This conclusion is drawn with robustness tests. (2) Green technology innovation serves as a partial mediator between the digital economy and total-factor carbon emission efficiency, and this mediation role is influenced by government intervention, which negatively moderates the relationship between the digital economy and green technology innovation but positively impacts the mediation role of green technology innovation between the digital economy and total-factor carbon emission efficiency. (3) The positive impact of the digital economy on total-factor carbon emission efficiency is more significant in the upper reaches, lower reaches, and resource-based cities of the Yellow River Basin. These findings provide new perspectives and empirical evidence for better understanding the relationship between digital economy development and total-factor carbon emission efficiency. They also provide policy recommendations for achieving strategic objectives, including digital economy development, carbon emission reduction, carbon peaking, and carbon neutrality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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26 pages, 10833 KiB  
Article
Effective Evolutionary Principles for System-of-Systems: Insights from Agent-Based Modeling in Vehicular Networks
by Junjie Liu, Junxian Liu and Mengmeng Zhang
Systems 2024, 12(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030098 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 727
Abstract
System-of-systems (SoS) evolution is a complex and unpredictable process. Although various principles to facilitate collaborative SoS evolution have been proposed, there is a lack of experimental data validating their effectiveness. To address these issues, we present an Agent-Based Model (ABM) for SoS evolution [...] Read more.
System-of-systems (SoS) evolution is a complex and unpredictable process. Although various principles to facilitate collaborative SoS evolution have been proposed, there is a lack of experimental data validating their effectiveness. To address these issues, we present an Agent-Based Model (ABM) for SoS evolution in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), serving as a quantitative analysis tool for SoS research. By integrating multiple complex and rational behaviors of individuals, we aim to simulate real-world scenarios as accurately as possible. To simulate the SoS evolution process, our model employs multiple agents with autonomous interactions and incorporates external environmental variables. Furthermore, we propose three evaluation metrics: evolutionary time, degree of variation, and evolutionary cost, to assess the performance of SoS evolution. Our study demonstrates that enhanced information transparency significantly improves the evolutionary performance of distributed SoS. Conversely, the adoption of uniform standards only brings limited performance enhancement to distributed SoSs. Although our proposed model has limitations, it stands out from other approaches that utilize Agent-Based Modeling to analyze SoS theories. Our model focuses on realistic problem contexts and simulates realistic interaction behaviors. This study enhances the comprehension of SoS evolution processes and provides valuable insights for the formulation of effective evolutionary strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Agents and Multi-Agent Systems)
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14 pages, 1103 KiB  
Article
Data Science Supporting Lean Production: Evidence from Manufacturing Companies
by Rossella Pozzi, Violetta Giada Cannas and Tommaso Rossi
Systems 2024, 12(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030100 - 15 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Research in lean production has recently focused on linking lean production to Industry 4.0 by discussing the positive relationship between them. In the context of Industry 4.0, data science plays a fundamental role, and operations management research is dedicating particular attention to this [...] Read more.
Research in lean production has recently focused on linking lean production to Industry 4.0 by discussing the positive relationship between them. In the context of Industry 4.0, data science plays a fundamental role, and operations management research is dedicating particular attention to this field. However, the literature on the empirical implementation of data science to lean production is still under-investigated and details are lacking in most of the reported contributions. In this study, multiple case studies were conducted involving the Italian manufacturing sector to collect evidence of the application of data science to support lean production and to understand it. The results provide empirical proof of the link and examples of a variety of data science techniques and tools that can be combined to support lean production practices. The findings offer insights into the applications of the traditional lean plan–do–check–act cycle, supporting feedback on performance metrics, total productive maintenance, total quality management, statistical process control, root cause analysis for problem-solving, visual management, and Kaizen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lean Manufacturing in Industry 4.0)
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26 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Business Practices and the Role of Digital Technologies: A Cross-Regional Analysis
by Samuel Plečko and Barbara Bradač Hojnik
Systems 2024, 12(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030097 - 14 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between digital transformation and sustainable practices within enterprises against the backdrop of global transformative forces framed within the holistic paradigm of systems thinking. It examines the extent to which digital advances either facilitate or impede the sustainable development [...] Read more.
This study examines the relationship between digital transformation and sustainable practices within enterprises against the backdrop of global transformative forces framed within the holistic paradigm of systems thinking. It examines the extent to which digital advances either facilitate or impede the sustainable development of companies, while also considering the systemic impact of demographic variables (such as gender, age, education), national income levels, and geographical regions on business sustainability. Using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), which encompasses 26,790 entrepreneurs in 47 countries, this research uses multinomial regression to assess how these factors influence companies’ commitment to social and environmental goals. A key finding is that the strategic use of digital technologies in sales processes significantly increases the likelihood that entrepreneurs will integrate social and environmental considerations into their decision-making. Notably, this conscientious approach to business is most prevalent among entrepreneurs in Latin America and the Caribbean. Our findings underscore the central role of digital technologies in driving sustainable business transformation while also highlighting the significant influence of regional socio-environmental contexts on business sustainability orientations. Full article
27 pages, 1782 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Complexity and Efficiency of Composable Modeling Techniques for Multi-Scale and Multi-Domain Complex System Modeling and Simulation Applications: A Probabilistic Analysis
by Neal Wagner
Systems 2024, 12(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030096 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Modeling and simulation of complex systems frequently requires capturing probabilistic dynamics across multiple scales and/or multiple domains. Cyber–physical, cyber–social, socio–technical, and cyber–physical–social systems are common examples. Modeling and simulating such systems via a single, all-encompassing model is often infeasible, and thus composable modeling [...] Read more.
Modeling and simulation of complex systems frequently requires capturing probabilistic dynamics across multiple scales and/or multiple domains. Cyber–physical, cyber–social, socio–technical, and cyber–physical–social systems are common examples. Modeling and simulating such systems via a single, all-encompassing model is often infeasible, and thus composable modeling techniques are sought. Co-simulation and closure modeling are two prevalent composable modeling techniques that divide a multi-scale/multi-domain system into sub-systems, use smaller component models to capture each sub-system, and coordinate data transfer between component models. While the two techniques have similar goals, differences in their methods lead to differences in the complexity and computational efficiency of a simulation model built using one technique or the other. This paper presents a probabilistic analysis of the complexity and computational efficiency of these two composable modeling techniques for multi-scale/multi-domain complex system modeling and simulation applications. The aim is twofold: to promote awareness of these two composable modeling approaches and to facilitate complex system model design by identifying circumstances that are amenable to either approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Complex Systems)
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23 pages, 7363 KiB  
Article
Navigating Resource Challenges in Health Emergencies: The Role of Information Diffusion and Virus Spread in Demand Dynamics
by Yizhuo Zhou, Jianjun Zhang and Yundan Yang
Systems 2024, 12(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030095 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
The dynamics of medical resource demand during public health crises pose significant challenges to emergency supply chain management, particularly within an evolving and complex social environment. To explore this, the interactive effects of information diffusion and virus spreading on medical resource demand are [...] Read more.
The dynamics of medical resource demand during public health crises pose significant challenges to emergency supply chain management, particularly within an evolving and complex social environment. To explore this, the interactive effects of information diffusion and virus spreading on medical resource demand are investigated using a novel three-layer coevolution “information–epidemic–resource” model through Markov process simulations. The study firstly identifies eight factors influencing demand fluctuations in terms of some city characteristics, such as media exposure, consistency of public opinion, self-protection level, and restrictive protection level, while categorizing resources into individual holdings and centralized storage. Then, extensive simulations are examined to elucidate the impact of these factors. The results reveal that various city characteristics can affect fluctuation in demand for both individual holdings and centralized storage. Inaccurate media information tends to inflate fluctuations, while higher public opinion consistency can reduce it. Reinforcing self-protection decreases the demand fluctuations of individuals, and effective restrictive protections can reduce fluctuations in centralized resource storage. Moreover, an analytical simulation of various city scenarios, underpinned by statistical data from selected Chinese and German cities, demonstrates that distinct city characteristics significantly influence medical resource demand changes during epidemics. This underscores the importance of tailoring emergency medical supply strategies to the specific developmental traits of different countries and cities. This study provides valuable insights to researchers, governments, and enterprises, enhancing their preparedness and response for emergency supply chain disruptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Risk Management in Public Sector)
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24 pages, 2617 KiB  
Article
Leveraging Business Intelligence Systems for Enhanced Corporate Competitiveness: Strategy and Evolution
by Montserrat Jiménez-Partearroyo and Ana Medina-López
Systems 2024, 12(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030094 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
This study contextualizes the transformative role of Business Intelligence (BI) over the past two decades, emphasizing its impact on business strategy and competitive advantage. Employing a dual-method approach, it integrates a bibliometric analysis using SciMAT with a qualitative examination of six key articles [...] Read more.
This study contextualizes the transformative role of Business Intelligence (BI) over the past two decades, emphasizing its impact on business strategy and competitive advantage. Employing a dual-method approach, it integrates a bibliometric analysis using SciMAT with a qualitative examination of six key articles from the Web of Science (WoS), analyzed through the Gioia methodology, focusing on BI and competitiveness. The aim is to examine the metamorphosis of Business Intelligence (BI) and how it has evolved from a traditionally supporting role to a central strategic player in shaping corporate strategy and business competitive advantage over the past two decades. It discusses the overall transformation of BI and provides an in-depth examination of the specific ways in which Business Intelligence tools have redefined the landscape in contemporary business practices. Key findings reveal BI’s pivotal role in enhancing knowledge management, innovation, and marketing capabilities. Challenges in BI implementation, such as the necessity for skilled personnel and adaptability to swift technological shifts, are also highlighted. Results advocate for a dynamic BI approach, adaptable to market trends and technological evolutions. The research demonstrates that BI tools, especially when integrated with technologies like AI, IoT, and machine learning, significantly enhances decision making and efficiency in socio–technical and management systems, leading to a paradigm shift in handling complex systems and adapting to changing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Business Intelligence as a Tool for Business Competitiveness)
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18 pages, 432 KiB  
Article
Risk Perception-Based Project Contingency Management Framework
by Filippo Maria Ottaviani, Alberto De Marco, Carlo Rafele and Gabriel Castelblanco
Systems 2024, 12(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030093 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Project risk management (PRM) involves identifying risks, assessing their impact, and developing a contingency plan. A structured contingency management (CM) approach prevents subjective biases in analyzing risks and developing responses. Previous studies have either focused on improving the accuracy of risk estimates or [...] Read more.
Project risk management (PRM) involves identifying risks, assessing their impact, and developing a contingency plan. A structured contingency management (CM) approach prevents subjective biases in analyzing risks and developing responses. Previous studies have either focused on improving the accuracy of risk estimates or analyzed, from a qualitative perspective, the relationships between perceived risk and project performance. This study aimed to improve PRM by providing a risk-perception-based contingency management framework (CMF). The CMF guides contingency depletion based on two short- and long-term cost overrun indicators and their respective thresholds. Thresholds and the initial contingency reserve amount are determined by applying the Monte Carlo method to a stochastic, discrete-event, finite-horizon, dynamic project simulation model. The study developed the CMF through a structured approach, validating the simulation model on eight specific project configurations. The results prove that the framework can be applied to any project, shaping the risk response strategy. This study contributes to PRM by explaining the relationships between risk perception and risk responses and providing a prescriptive CM tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Project Management)
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23 pages, 16425 KiB  
Article
Methods for Coordinating Optimization of Urban Building Clusters and District Energy Systems
by Peng Wu and Yisheng Liu
Systems 2024, 12(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030092 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
In the face of increasingly severe global climate change, achieving zero-carbon development goals has gradually become a consensus across various industries. Enhancing the electrification level of building energy use and increasing the proportion of renewable energy applications are primary means to achieve zero-carbon [...] Read more.
In the face of increasingly severe global climate change, achieving zero-carbon development goals has gradually become a consensus across various industries. Enhancing the electrification level of building energy use and increasing the proportion of renewable energy applications are primary means to achieve zero-carbon development in the construction sector, which also imposes higher demands on energy system planning and operation. This study focuses on urban building clusters and district energy systems, proposing coordinated optimization methods for energy supply and demand. On the demand side, strategies such as utilizing energy storage from electric vehicles are applied to enhance the flexibility of building energy use, along with methods to improve building load leveling rates and increase renewable energy penetration rates. On the supply side, a dual-layer planning method is proposed for the optimal configuration and operation of district energy systems considering the construction of shared energy storage stations. Results indicate that the optimization methods for urban building clusters significantly improve the flexibility of building energy use, and different functional compositions of building clusters can enhance load leveling and renewable energy penetration rates to a certain extent. The dual-layer optimization method for district energy systems can further exploit the potential of building energy flexibility, thereby achieving a balance between economic and environmental benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic SDGs 2030 in Buildings and Infrastructure)
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15 pages, 2155 KiB  
Article
Research on the Decision Making of Value Chain Reconstruction of Chinese Port Enterprises under the Background of Free Trade Zone Policy
by Min Wan, Haibo Kuang, Peng Jia and Sue Zhao
Systems 2024, 12(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030091 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 778
Abstract
This paper aims to solve the decision-making problem of value chain reconstruction of Chinese port enterprises under the background of the Free Trade Zone policy. Based on value chain theory and system dynamics method, this paper constructs a simulation model that can simulate [...] Read more.
This paper aims to solve the decision-making problem of value chain reconstruction of Chinese port enterprises under the background of the Free Trade Zone policy. Based on value chain theory and system dynamics method, this paper constructs a simulation model that can simulate the value-added change process of port enterprises under different combination input conditions. Furthermore, it conducts simulation case studies. The research indicates that the Free Trade Zone policy has a significant promoting effect on the restructuring of port enterprise value chains and the transformation and upgrading of enterprises. Moreover, considering the impact of the Free Trade Zone policy and limited resources, the overall benefits to port enterprises from combined investments are superior to those from single-factor investments. According to the value chain theory, the business segments of a port are decomposed into ancillary value activities, basic value activities, and external value activities. The investments in these three types of value activities play roles, respectively, in enhancing the operational efficiency of port enterprises, expanding the business scope of port enterprises, and strengthening the core competitiveness of port enterprises. From the overall perspective of the system, Shanghai Port can obtain the maximum operating profit when the endogenous factor input rate is 13%, the basic factor input rate is 4%, and the exogenous factor input rate is 13%. The findings of this research provide a decision-making reference for Chinese port enterprises to realize value reconstruction, transformation, and upgrading in the context of the Free Trade Zone policy. Full article
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26 pages, 7987 KiB  
Article
Using a Metadata Approach to Extend the Functional Resonance Analysis Method to Model Quantitatively, Emergent Behaviours in Complex Systems
by Rees Hill and David Slater
Systems 2024, 12(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030090 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 712
Abstract
In an increasingly complex world there is a real, urgent need for methodologies to enable engineers to model complex sociotechnical systems, as these now seem to describe the majority of systems in use today. This is, of course, exacerbated by the increasing involvement [...] Read more.
In an increasingly complex world there is a real, urgent need for methodologies to enable engineers to model complex sociotechnical systems, as these now seem to describe the majority of systems in use today. This is, of course, exacerbated by the increasing involvement and augmentation with “black box” AI contributions. Hollnagel produced a methodology (FRAM) which did allow the analyst insights into these systems’ behaviour, but the model-based system engineering applications demand numbers and a quantitative approach. In the last 10 years, this original approach, developed to model systems as sets of interactive, interdependent “functions” (abstracted from agent or component details), has been further developed to the point where it can take the basic data and structures from the current component-focussed system engineering “models”, and can pull them all together into dynamic models (as opposed to the static, fixed System Theoretic Process Accimaps) from which analysts can discern how they really work in practice, and predict the emergent behaviours characteristic of complex systems. This paper describes how the FRAM methodology has now been extended to provide these extra, essential attributes. It also describes its implementation using an open-source software, freely available for use and verification on the GitHub site. Full article
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24 pages, 1423 KiB  
Article
Impact of Static Urban Traffic Flow-Based Traffic Weighted Multi-Maps Routing Strategies on Pollutant Emissions
by Alvaro Paricio-Garcia and Miguel A. Lopez-Carmona
Systems 2024, 12(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030089 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Addressing urban traffic congestion is a pressing issue requiring efficient solutions that need to be analyzed regarding travel time and pollutant emissions. The traffic weighted multi-maps (TWM) method has been proposed as an efficient mechanism for congestion mitigation that enables differential traffic routing [...] Read more.
Addressing urban traffic congestion is a pressing issue requiring efficient solutions that need to be analyzed regarding travel time and pollutant emissions. The traffic weighted multi-maps (TWM) method has been proposed as an efficient mechanism for congestion mitigation that enables differential traffic routing and path diversity by strategically distributing different network views (maps) to the drivers. Previous works have focused on TWM generation by creating optimal edge weights, but the complexity exponentially increases with the network size and traffic group diversity. This work describes how congestion and emissions can be addressed using TWM maps based on the k-shortest paths for the traffic flows (instead of individuals) that are optimally assigned and distributed to the components of the traffic flow. The map allocation strategies optimal TWM (OTV), optimal TWM per path flow with linear constraints (LCTV), and its variant unconstrained optimal TWM per path flow (UCTV) are described. They use maps generated from the k-shortest paths of the traffic flows (kSP-TWM). The heuristic solution obtained is compared with the theoretical static traffic assignment estimation baseline with different configurations, regarding congestion reduction, total travel time enhancement, and pollutant emissions. Experiments are developed using a synthetic traffic grid network scenario with a mesoscopic simulation. They show that the solution provided is adequate for its proximity to the theoretical equilibrium solutions and can generate minimum emissions patterns. The presented solution opens new possibilities for further congestion and pollutant management studies and seamless integration with existing traffic management frameworks. Full article
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17 pages, 2157 KiB  
Review
The Integration of Complex Systems Science and Community-Based Research: A Scoping Review
by Travis R. Moore, Nicholas Cardamone, Helena VonVille and Robert W. S. Coulter
Systems 2024, 12(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030088 - 09 Mar 2024
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Complex systems science (CSS) and community-based research (CBR) have emerged over the past 50 years as complementary disciplines. However, there is a gap in understanding what has driven the recent proliferation of integrating these two disciplines to study complex and relevant issues. In [...] Read more.
Complex systems science (CSS) and community-based research (CBR) have emerged over the past 50 years as complementary disciplines. However, there is a gap in understanding what has driven the recent proliferation of integrating these two disciplines to study complex and relevant issues. In this review, we report on the results of a scoping review of articles that utilized both disciplines. After two levels of reviewing articles using DistillerSR, a web-based platform designed to streamline and facilitate the process of conducting systematic reviews, we used two forms of natural language processing to extract data. We developed a novel named entity recognition model to extract descriptive information from the corpus of articles. We also conducted dynamic topic modeling to deductively examine in tandem the development of CSS and CBR and to inductively discover the specific topics that may be driving their use in research and practice. We find that among the CSS and CBR papers, CBR topic frequency has grown at a faster pace than CSS, with CBR using CSS concepts and techniques more often. Four topics that may be driving this trend are collaboration within social systems, business management, food and land use and knowledge, and water shed management. We conclude by discussing the implications of this work for researchers and practitioners who are interested in studying and solving complex social, economic, and health-related issues. Full article
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18 pages, 6075 KiB  
Article
Spatial Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Intercity Innovative Competition Relations in China
by Xinyu Yang, Lizhen Shen, Xia Wang and Xiao Qin
Systems 2024, 12(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030087 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 785
Abstract
In the knowledge economy era, innovation has become a key emphasis for urban competitions. This paper constructs a theoretical research framework that integrates the basic understandings, influencing factors and ensuing results of intercity innovative competition relations. On the basis of data from the [...] Read more.
In the knowledge economy era, innovation has become a key emphasis for urban competitions. This paper constructs a theoretical research framework that integrates the basic understandings, influencing factors and ensuing results of intercity innovative competition relations. On the basis of data from the general programs of the National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2005 to 2019, this paper constructs intercity innovative competition relations in China, analyses their spatial distribution and quantitative characteristics, and quantitatively investigates the impact of urban innovation capacity and multidimensional proximity (e.g., geographical proximity, institutional proximity and cognitive proximity) on intercity innovative competition relations through a negative binomial model. The study obtained the following findings: (1) In terms of the overall intercity innovative competition relations, the intensity of China’s intercity innovative competition relations gradually increased from 2005 to 2019, with a spatial clustering towards cities with high administrative ranks (e.g., municipalities directly under the central government, sub-provincial cities and provincial capitals); Beijing is always at the centre of innovative competition relations, but its standing has slightly slipped in recent years. (2) From the perspective of disciplines, cities can become benchmarks in particular fields of innovative competitions by competing according to their disciplinary strengths; intercity innovative competition relations in China vary across various academic disciplines. (3) In terms of influencing factors, urban innovation capacity has significant positive effects on intercity innovative competition relations; geographical proximity, institutional proximity and cognitive proximity all have significant positive effects on innovative competition relations; and interactions occur between multidimensional proximities, including a complementary effect between geographical proximity and institutional proximity, a substitutive effect between cognitive proximity and geographical proximity, and a substitutive effect between cognitive proximity and institutional proximity. Full article
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20 pages, 6287 KiB  
Article
A Dynamic Collision Risk Assessment Model for the Traffic Flow on Expressways in Urban Agglomerations in North China
by Bing Li, Xiaoduan Sun, Yulong He and Meng Zhang
Systems 2024, 12(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030086 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Expressways in urban agglomerations are important in connecting cities, thus attracting great attention from researchers in the expressways risk assessment. However, there is a lack of safety assessment models suitable for the characteristics of expressways in Chinese urban agglomerations, and the nature and [...] Read more.
Expressways in urban agglomerations are important in connecting cities, thus attracting great attention from researchers in the expressways risk assessment. However, there is a lack of safety assessment models suitable for the characteristics of expressways in Chinese urban agglomerations, and the nature and mode of dynamic risks on Chinese highways are still unclear. Therefore, this study adopts the Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and the method of decision tree, combined with data from the Beijing section of the Beijing Harbin Expressway, to model the risk of accident-prone highways in urban agglomerations. To determine the optimal model, we evaluated the model’s bias at different time intervals. In addition, key factors affecting highway safety were analyzed, providing scientific support for the risk prevention of highways in urban agglomerations in China. Full article
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20 pages, 1860 KiB  
Article
Spatial Effects of Service Industry’s Heterogeneous Agglomeration on Industrial Structure Optimization: Evidence from China
by Lei Nie and Yuanyuan Wang
Systems 2024, 12(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030085 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Elucidating the impacts of service industry’s agglomeration on the optimization of industrial structures holds paramount significance in advancing urban economic growth and fostering the coordinated and sustainable development of city economies. This study leverages panel data encompassing 251 prefecture-level cities spanning from 2003 [...] Read more.
Elucidating the impacts of service industry’s agglomeration on the optimization of industrial structures holds paramount significance in advancing urban economic growth and fostering the coordinated and sustainable development of city economies. This study leverages panel data encompassing 251 prefecture-level cities spanning from 2003 to 2019, employing a spatial Dubin model to scrutinize the influence of distinct types of service industry agglomeration on industrial structure optimization. The results show that specialized agglomeration within the service sector significantly inhibits the rationalization of industrial structures and their underlying fundamentals. Conversely, heightened levels of agglomeration in diversified service industries facilitate the rationalization of industrial structure, predominantly driven by regional spatial spillover effects. Further analysis reveals heterogeneity in service industry agglomeration across cities of varying sizes concerning industrial structure optimization, notably accentuating underutilized spatial spillover effects in smaller cities. In light of these insights, this paper advocates for cities to capitalize on the agglomeration and spillover effects between the service industry and other sectors, strategically selecting optimal service industry agglomeration modes to propel industrial structure optimization. Full article
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21 pages, 6906 KiB  
Article
A Proposal for a Tokenized Intelligent System: A Prediction for an AI-Based Scheduling, Secured Using Blockchain
by Osama Younis, Kamal Jambi, Fathy Eassa and Lamiaa Elrefaei
Systems 2024, 12(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030084 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Intelligent systems are being proposed every day as advances in cloud systems are increasing. Mostly, the services offered by these cloud systems are dependent only on their providers, without the inclusion of services from other providers, specialized third parties, or individuals. This ‘vendor [...] Read more.
Intelligent systems are being proposed every day as advances in cloud systems are increasing. Mostly, the services offered by these cloud systems are dependent only on their providers, without the inclusion of services from other providers, specialized third parties, or individuals. This ‘vendor lock-in’ issue and the limitations related to offering tailored services could be resolved by allowing multiple providers or individuals to collaborate through intelligent task scheduling. To address such real-world systems’ limitations in provisioning and executing heterogeneous services, we employed Blockchain and Deep Reinforcement Learning here; the first is used for the token-based secured communication between parties, and the latter is to predict the appropriate task scheduling; hence, we guarantee the quality of not only the immediate decision but also the long-term. The empirical results show a high reward achieved, meaning that it accurately selected the candidates and adaptably assigned the tasks based on job nature and executors’ individual computing capabilities, with 95 s less than the baseline in job completion time to maintain the Quality of Service. The successful collaboration between parties in this tokenized system while securing transactions through Blockchain and predicting the right scheduling of tasks makes it a promising intelligent system for advanced use cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Systems and Cybersecurity)
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16 pages, 935 KiB  
Article
How Contingency Adjusts Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Tourism Industry: A Quasi-Experiment in China
by Hao Wang, Tao Zhang, Xi Wang, Jiansong Zheng, You Zhao, Rongjiang Cai, Xia Liu, Qiaoran Jia, Zehua Zhu and Xiaolong Jiang
Systems 2024, 12(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030083 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Numerous organizational researchers have acknowledged that COVID-19 reduced the profit in the tourism industry. Some tourism firms decreased the cost by reducing the investment of CSR in order to increase the profit. However, the relevant literature remains scarce. The main purpose of this [...] Read more.
Numerous organizational researchers have acknowledged that COVID-19 reduced the profit in the tourism industry. Some tourism firms decreased the cost by reducing the investment of CSR in order to increase the profit. However, the relevant literature remains scarce. The main purpose of this study is to explore the effect of COVID-19 on CSR investment in the tourism industry. This study fills the gap between stakeholder and cost stickiness theories. Based on a quasi-experiment of listed Chinese tourism companies from 2017 to 2021, the study finds that COVID-19 caused tourism firms to increase strategic CSR and decrease a responsive one. In addition, tourism firms that adopted cost leadership strategies trimmed responsive CSR more than strategic CSR. Tourism firms with differentiation leadership strategies increased strategic and decreased responsive CSR. Tourism firms with higher levels of political connections increased responsive CSR, while tourism firms with higher organizational resilience increased strategic CSR. At the theoretical level, this study reveals the theoretical mechanism of COVID-19 on tourism firms’ adjustment of CSR from the perspective of cost stickiness. On a practical level, it helps inform tourism firms’ decision-making regarding CSR adjustments for sustainable development when they face widespread crisis scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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30 pages, 1009 KiB  
Article
An Interdisciplinary and Multilevel Analysis of Local Economy Determinants and Their Impact on Firm Performance—Considering Porter’s Diamond Model, Clusters, and Industry
by Cosmin Florin Lehene, Mohammad Jaradat and Răzvan Liviu Nistor
Systems 2024, 12(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030082 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Industrial Organization, the Resource-Based View, and the Relational View are some classical, well-established, and widely accepted theories in the strategic management domain regarding the understanding, explanation, and prediction of competitive advantage of firms and above-average firm performance. Recent evidence of economic geography and [...] Read more.
Industrial Organization, the Resource-Based View, and the Relational View are some classical, well-established, and widely accepted theories in the strategic management domain regarding the understanding, explanation, and prediction of competitive advantage of firms and above-average firm performance. Recent evidence of economic geography and regional economics added to this stream of research new perspectives like cluster theory and microeconomic competitiveness. Despite the high enthusiasm with which companies and policymakers embraced the new advancements, there is some contradictory evidence regarding the positive effect of local conditions on firm performance. Thus, in this paper, we aim to empirically test some aspects of a modern regional development theory, proposed mainly by Michael Porter and collaborators, and the impact of these aspects on firm performance. External determinants considered at three levels of analysis (local economy, local clusters, and industry) will be investigated in relation to firm performance. We will analyze empirical data through detailed correlational analyses and by building multilinear regression models. After the statistical analysis of the answers provided directly by 67 medium and large manufacturing companies operating in Romania, we will provide empirical support for some external determinants, while for other determinants, we will show that the data rejected the proposed associations. The main conclusion derived from this study is that different combinations of external determinants, considered at all three levels of analysis, have a positive and significant effect on different measures of firm performance. The findings in our paper are important for both regional economics and the strategic management literature, suggesting the importance of creating local or urban conditions depending on the type of performance that the firms in the local economy are underperforming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Theory and Methodology)
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17 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Towards a Digital Relational Administration Model for Small and Medium Enterprise Support via E-Tutoring in Spain
by Antonio Juan Briones-Peñalver, Francisco Campuzano-Bolarin, Francisco Acosta Hernández and José Rodrigo Córdoba-Pachón
Systems 2024, 12(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030081 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 936
Abstract
In the context of public administrations after COVID-19, this paper formulates and validates a digital model of tutoring (e-tutoring) for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by public administrations or PAs to help the former reduce their risks to fold in their first few [...] Read more.
In the context of public administrations after COVID-19, this paper formulates and validates a digital model of tutoring (e-tutoring) for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by public administrations or PAs to help the former reduce their risks to fold in their first few years of existence and with the support of private professionals (economists, accountants, business advisors, managers, etc.). The model draws on ideas about relational administration (RA), a concept that is yet to be fully exploited or assessed in the literature. Several hypotheses derived from the model are formulated and tested using a polytomic-nominal logistic regression. A questionnaire was sent to and returned by 236 small and medium entrepreneurs in Spain facing insolvency proceedings to identify main reasons for business failure and if or how they would accept online tutoring from private professionals associated with PAs. Findings suggest that SM entrepreneurs agree with receiving selected forms of tutoring, requiring public administrations to enhance capabilities for joint information provision and decision making through the use of information and communication technologies or ICTs. These findings have important implications for the potential restructuring of public administrations, their collaborations with professionals, and the future co-design and implementation of e-government services by PAs Full article
16 pages, 3764 KiB  
Article
Discrete Event Systems Theory for Fast Stochastic Simulation via Tree Expansion
by Bernard P. Zeigler
Systems 2024, 12(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030080 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Paratemporal methods based on tree expansion have proven to be effective in efficiently generating the trajectories of stochastic systems. However, combinatorial explosion of branching arising from multiple choice points presents a major hurdle that must be overcome to implement such techniques. In this [...] Read more.
Paratemporal methods based on tree expansion have proven to be effective in efficiently generating the trajectories of stochastic systems. However, combinatorial explosion of branching arising from multiple choice points presents a major hurdle that must be overcome to implement such techniques. In this paper, we tackle this scalability problem by developing a systems theory-based framework covering both conventional and proposed tree expansion algorithms for speeding up discrete event system stochastic simulations while preserving the desired accuracy. An example is discussed to illustrate the tree expansion framework in which a discrete event system specification (DEVS) Markov stochastic model takes the form of a tree isomorphic to a free monoid over the branching alphabet. We derive the computation times for baseline, non-merging, and merging tree expansion algorithms to compute the distribution of output values at any given depth. The results show the remarkable reduction from exponential to polynomial dependence on depth effectuated by node merging. We relate these results to the similarly reduced computation time of binomial coefficients underlying Pascal’s triangle. Finally, we discuss the application of tree expansion to estimating temporal distributions in stochastic simulations involving serial and parallel compositions with potential real-world use cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theoretical Issues on Systems Science)
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18 pages, 1207 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Intrusion Detection Systems Using a Deep Learning and Data Augmentation Approach
by Rasheed Mohammad, Faisal Saeed, Abdulwahab Ali Almazroi, Faisal S. Alsubaei and Abdulaleem Ali Almazroi
Systems 2024, 12(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030079 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Cybersecurity relies heavily on the effectiveness of intrusion detection systems (IDSs) in securing business communication because they play a pivotal role as the first line of defense against malicious activities. Despite the wide application of machine learning methods for intrusion detection, they have [...] Read more.
Cybersecurity relies heavily on the effectiveness of intrusion detection systems (IDSs) in securing business communication because they play a pivotal role as the first line of defense against malicious activities. Despite the wide application of machine learning methods for intrusion detection, they have certain limitations that might be effectively addressed by leveraging different deep learning architectures. Furthermore, the evaluation of the proposed models is often hindered by imbalanced datasets, limiting a comprehensive assessment of model efficacy. Hence, this study aims to address these challenges by employing data augmentation methods on four prominent datasets, the UNSW-NB15, 5G-NIDD, FLNET2023, and CIC-IDS-2017, to enhance the performance of several deep learning architectures for intrusion detection systems. The experimental results underscored the capability of a simple CNN-based architecture to achieve highly accurate network attack detection, while more complex architectures showed only marginal improvements in performance. The findings highlight how the proposed methods of deep learning-based intrusion detection can be seamlessly integrated into cybersecurity frameworks, enhancing the ability to detect and mitigate sophisticated network attacks. The outcomes of this study have shown that the intrusion detection models have achieved high accuracy (up to 91% for the augmented CIC-IDS-2017 dataset) and are strongly influenced by the quality and quantity of the dataset used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Systems and Cybersecurity)
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26 pages, 2261 KiB  
Article
A Slacks-Based Measure Model for Computing Game Cross-Efficiency
by Tingyang Huang, Shuangjie Li, Fang Liu and Hongyu Diao
Systems 2024, 12(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems12030078 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 779
Abstract
This paper introduces an improved slack-based game cross-efficiency measurement model that enhances the existing cross-efficiency framework and integrates it with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) game cross-efficiency. The model ensures the fairness of its results through the implementation of a more stringent selection [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an improved slack-based game cross-efficiency measurement model that enhances the existing cross-efficiency framework and integrates it with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) game cross-efficiency. The model ensures the fairness of its results through the implementation of a more stringent selection of frontier face weights. It accounts for the competitive relationships among Decision Making Units (DMUs), achieving a Nash equilibrium solution through continuous iterations. Furthermore, the model accounts for undesirable outputs and various strategic orientations, enhancing its applicability. The model’s effectiveness is validated through comparative analyses of diverse case studies. Additionally, the model’s practical utility is demonstrated through the analysis of industrial data from various Chinese provinces between 2010 and 2019. Analysis results show that the proposed model measures production efficiency with greater precision and comparability than alternative models. Full article
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