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Vaccines, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 198 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection and is linked to several cancers. HPV vaccination is a safe and effective strategy to control HPV infection. However, in the US, HPV vaccination rates are suboptimal. More so, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted access to preventive services. Provider recommendation is known to be the strongest predictor of vaccination. A population-based survey of providers was conducted to assess the role of recommendations on observed changes in acceptance of HPV vaccination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study highlights the importance of provider recommendations on HPV vaccination acceptance despite the disruptive effect of the pandemic. Providers should continue to recommend HPV vaccination at every visit to increase uptake. View this paper
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15 pages, 1973 KiB  
Systematic Review
Immunogenicity and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines among People Living with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Liangyu Kang, Weijing Shang, Peng Gao, Yaping Wang, Jue Liu and Min Liu
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091569 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Background: The immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among PLWH. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from 1 [...] Read more.
Background: The immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among PLWH. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from 1 January 2020 to 28 April 2022 and included observational studies, randomized clinical trials, and non-randomized clinical trials reporting extractable data about the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among PLWH. Results: A total of 34 eligible studies covering 4517 PLWH were included. The pooled seroconversion rates among PLWH after the first and second doses were 67.51% (95% confident interval (CI) 49.09–85.93%) and 96.65% (95%CI 95.56–97.75%), respectively. The seroconversion was similar between PLWH and healthy controls after the first (risk ratio (RR) = 0.89, 95%CI 0.76–1.04) and the second (RR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.93–1.00) dose. Moreover, the geometric mean titer (GMT) showed no significant difference between PLWH and healthy controls after the first dose (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.30, 95%CI -1.11, 1.70) and the second dose (SMD = -0.06, 95%CI -0.18, 0.05). Additionally, the pooled incidence rates of total adverse events among PLWH after the first and the second dose were 46.55% (95%CI 28.29–64.82%) and 30.96% (95%CI 13.23–48.70%), respectively. There was no significant difference in risks of total adverse events between PLWH and healthy controls after the first (RR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.67–1.10) and the second (RR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.68–1.14) dose. Conclusions: The available evidence suggested that the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among PLWH were acceptable. There was no significant difference in the seroconversion rates and incidence rates of adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines between PLWH and healthy controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Vaccinology and Surveillance of COVID-19)
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11 pages, 2185 KiB  
Article
Exposure of Zero-Dose Children to Multiple Deprivation: Analyses of Data from 80 Low- and Middle-Income Countries
by Andrea Wendt, Thiago M. Santos, Bianca O. Cata-Preta, Luisa Arroyave, Daniel R. Hogan, Tewodaj Mengistu, Aluisio J. D. Barros and Cesar G. Victora
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091568 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
The concept of multiple deprivation recognizes that the same individuals, households, and communities are often exposed to several forms of scarcity. We assessed whether lack of immunization is also associated with nutritional, environmental, and educational outcomes. We analyzed data from nationally representative surveys [...] Read more.
The concept of multiple deprivation recognizes that the same individuals, households, and communities are often exposed to several forms of scarcity. We assessed whether lack of immunization is also associated with nutritional, environmental, and educational outcomes. We analyzed data from nationally representative surveys from 80 low- and middle-income countries with information on no-DPT (children aged 12–23 months without any doses of a diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus containing vaccine), stunting, wasting, maternal education and use of contraception, improved water and sanitation, and long-lasting insecticidal nets. Analyses of how these characteristics overlap were performed at individual and ecological levels. Principal component analyses (PCA) provided additional information on indicator clustering. In virtually all analyses, no-DPT children were significantly more likely to be exposed to the other markers for deprivation. The strongest, most consistent associations were found with maternal education, water, and sanitation, while the weakest associations were found for wasting and bed nets. No-DPT prevalence reached 46.1% in the most deprived quintile from first PCA component derived from deprivation indicators. All children were immunized in the two least deprived quintiles of the component. Our analyses provide strong support for the hypothesis that unimmunized children are also affected by other forms of deprivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology)
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8 pages, 440 KiB  
Case Report
Autogenous Escherichia coli Vaccine Application as an Innovative Antimicrobial Therapy in Poultry Farming—A Case Report
by Liča Lozica, Céline Sadaf Morteza Gholi, Adaya Kela, Ivan Lošić, Danijela Horvatek Tomić and Željko Gottstein
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091567 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most common bacterial causes of infection in poultry farming. Whether the infection is localized or systemic, a primary or secondary disease, it is most frequently treated through the application of wide-spectrum antimicrobials. Excessive use of [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most common bacterial causes of infection in poultry farming. Whether the infection is localized or systemic, a primary or secondary disease, it is most frequently treated through the application of wide-spectrum antimicrobials. Excessive use of antimicrobials in agriculture is significantly contributing to the worldwide rise of antimicrobial resistance, but is also very expensive and often ineffective in the long term. Here, we present a case where a colibacillosis outbreak on a family farm of laying hens was treated using an autogenous vaccine. The birds had septicemia, cellulitis, and severe skin wounds. They were not vaccinated against E. coli, and did not receive any antimicrobials previously. E. coli strains were isolated from the daily mortalities on the farm and used for preparation of the vaccine. Each bird was given an intramuscular injection of the autogenous vaccine. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was tested by the determination of specific antibody levels in the sera of the birds using the in-house ELISA. Shortly after vaccination, the morbidity and mortality rates significantly decreased, and egg production was improved. The application of the autogenous vaccine served as a curative and preventive measure, and has proven to be a very efficient method of antimicrobial therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Vaccines against Avian Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 1117 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Health Professional Students: Cross-Sectional Data from the First Wave of the HOLISTIC Cohort Study
by Daniel D. Loizzo, Avisek Datta, Sunil R. Dommaraju, Ummesalmah Abdulbaseer, Jerry A. Krishnan, Mary Keehn and Rashid Ahmed
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091566 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6352
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy has been observed around the world, but there is a paucity of data among a broad range of U.S. health professional students. The goal of this report is to present findings about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among a cross-section of U.S. health [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy has been observed around the world, but there is a paucity of data among a broad range of U.S. health professional students. The goal of this report is to present findings about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among a cross-section of U.S. health professional students and determine if hesitancy varies by demographic characteristics, health science college, and other factors. A cross-sectional analysis of HOLISTIC Cohort Study participants enrolled from April 14 2021 to May 5 2021 at seven health sciences colleges in the University of Illinois Chicago was used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate vaccine hesitancy items and identify domains. Among 555 health professional students, three domains (perceived benefit, trustworthiness, and risk) contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Significant differences were observed in the domains among students of different races as well as vaccination history. Compared to students in the College of Medicine, students in the Colleges of Applied Health Science (OR 0.43; CI [0.19–0.96]), Pharmacy (OR 0.38; CI [0.17–0.87]), Nursing (OR 0.35; CI [0.16–0.78]), and Social Work (OR 0.30; CI [0.11–0.78]) reported lower perceived benefit. Compared to students in the College of Medicine, students in the College of Applied Health Sciences (OR 0.39; CI [0.17–0.94]), Dentistry (OR 0.27; CI [0.10–0.76]), Nursing (OR 0.38; CI [0.16–0.94]), and Social work (OR 0.31; CI [0.11–0.86]) reported more trustworthiness and more concerns about risk (OR 2.80; CI [1.15–6.81] for College of Applied Health Sciences, OR 9.12; CI [2.80–29.75] for Dentistry, OR 3.77; CI [1.47–9.65] for Nursing, OR 3.14; CI [1.02–9.67] for Social Work). Our findings suggest the need for a tailored vaccination strategy among different subgroups of health professional students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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12 pages, 563 KiB  
Article
Vaccination and COVID-19 in Polish Dialysis Patients: Results from the European Clinical Dialysis Database
by Wojciech Marcinkowski, Konrad Zuzda, Jacek Zawierucha, Tomasz Prystacki, Paweł Żebrowski, Jacek S. Małyszko, Ewa Wojtaszek and Jolanta Małyszko
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091565 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Background: Patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis are particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19 as a result of older age and multimorbidities. Objectives: Data are still limited and there are no published data on mortality in hemodialyzed patients in Poland, in particular when [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis are particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19 as a result of older age and multimorbidities. Objectives: Data are still limited and there are no published data on mortality in hemodialyzed patients in Poland, in particular when vaccines became available. We assessed the epidemiologic and clinical data of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and assessed the mortality in 2019, 2020, and 2021, as well as the vaccination rate in 2021. Patients and Methods: Retrospectively collected data from 73 Fresenius Nephrocare Poland hemodialysis centers and one public unit were analyzed. Results: In 2021, the vaccination rate was 96%. The unadjusted mortality (number of deaths divided by number of patients) in 2019 was 18.8%, while the unadjusted (after exclusion of COVID-related deaths) mortality in 2020 was 20.8%, and mortality in 2021 was 16.22%. The prevalence of cardiovascular deaths in 2019 and 2020 was almost identical (41.4% vs. 41.2%, respectively), and in 2021, the figures increased slightly to 44.1%. The prevalence of sudden cardiac deaths in 2019 was higher than in 2020 (19.6% vs. 17.3%, respectively) and consequently decreased in 2021 (10.0%), as well as strokes (6.2% vs. 5.4%, and 3.31% in 2021), whereas deaths due to gastrointestinal tract diseases were lower (2.5% vs. 3.2%, and 2.25% in 2021), diabetes complications (0.5% vs. 1.3%, and 0.5% in 2021), sepsis (5.1% vs. 6.3%, and 8.79% in 2021), respiratory failure (1.2 vs. 1.6%, and 2.83% in 2021), and pneumonia (1.4% vs. 2.0%, and 0.82%). There were 1493 hemodialyzed COVID-19 positive patients, and among them, 191 died in 2020 (12.79%). In 2021, there were 1224 COVID-19 positive patients and 260 died (21.24%). The mortality of COVID-19 positive dialyzed patients contributed 13.39% in 2020 and 16.21% in 2021 of all recorded deaths. Conclusions: The mortality among HD patients was higher in 2021 than in 2020 and 2019, despite the very high vaccination rate of up to 96%. The higher non-COVID-19 mortality may be due to the limited possibility of hospitalization and dedicated care during the pandemic. This information is extremely important in order to develop methods to protect this highly vulnerable patient group. Prevention plays a key role; other measures are essential in the mitigation and spread of COVID-19 in HD centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccines for Patients with Renal Diseases)
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13 pages, 2020 KiB  
Article
Multi-Epitope-Based Vaccine Candidate for Monkeypox: An In Silico Approach
by Sayed Aliul Hasan Abdi, Amena Ali, Shabihul Fatma Sayed, Abutahir, Abuzer Ali and Prawez Alam
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091564 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3684
Abstract
Currently, there are limited treatment options available for the monkeypox disease. We used a computational strategy to design a specific antigenic vaccine against pathogens. After using various immunoinformatic tools and filters, cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-, helper T-cell lymphocyte (HTL)-, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-inducing [...] Read more.
Currently, there are limited treatment options available for the monkeypox disease. We used a computational strategy to design a specific antigenic vaccine against pathogens. After using various immunoinformatic tools and filters, cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-, helper T-cell lymphocyte (HTL)-, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-inducing epitopes, which comprised the vaccine, in addition to other parameters, such as antigenic and allergic profiles, were assessed to confirm the safety of the vaccine. However, vaccine interaction and stability with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were assessed by dynamic simulation methods, and it was found that the constructed vaccine was stable. In addition, C-IMMSIM tools were used to determine the immune-response-triggering capabilities of the vaccine. These immunoinformatic findings reveal that constructed vaccine candidates may be capable of triggering an efficient immune response for monkeypox viral infections. However, experimental evaluation is required to verify the safety and immunogenic profile of constructed vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Vaccines against Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Vaccine-Induced T-Cell and Antibody Responses at 12 Months after Full Vaccination Differ with Respect to Omicron Recognition
by Franz Mai, Johann Volzke, Emil C. Reisinger and Brigitte Müller-Hilke
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091563 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4324
Abstract
More than a year after the first vaccines against the novel SARS-CoV-2 were approved, many questions still remain about the long-term protection conferred by each vaccine. How long the effect lasts, how effective it is against variants of concern and whether further vaccinations [...] Read more.
More than a year after the first vaccines against the novel SARS-CoV-2 were approved, many questions still remain about the long-term protection conferred by each vaccine. How long the effect lasts, how effective it is against variants of concern and whether further vaccinations will confer additional benefits remain part of current and future research. For this purpose, we examined 182 health care employees—some of them with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection—12 months after different primary immunizations. To assess antibody responses, we performed an electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) to determine anti-spike IgGs, followed by a surrogate virus neutralization assay against Wuhan-Hu-1 and B.1.1.529/BA.1 (Omicron). T cell response against wild-type and the Omicron variants of concern were assessed via interferon-gamma ELISpot assays and T-cell surface and intracellular cytokine staining. In summary, our results show that after the third vaccination with an mRNA vaccine, differences in antibody quantity and functionality observed after different primary immunizations were equalized. As for the T cell response, we were able to demonstrate a memory function for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells alike. Importantly, both T and antibody responses against wild-type and omicron differed significantly; however, antibody and T cell responses did not correlate with each other and, thus, may contribute differentially to immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2)
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22 pages, 23798 KiB  
Article
Integration of Bulk and Single-Cell RNA-Seq Data to Construct a Prognostic Model of Membrane Tension-Related Genes for Colon Cancer
by Jiacheng Li, Yugang Fu, Kehui Zhang and Yong Li
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091562 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Background: The plasma membrane provides a highly dynamic barrier for cancer cells to interact with their surrounding microenvironment. Membrane tension, a pivotal physical property of the plasma membrane, has attracted widespread attention since it plays a role in the progression of various cancers. [...] Read more.
Background: The plasma membrane provides a highly dynamic barrier for cancer cells to interact with their surrounding microenvironment. Membrane tension, a pivotal physical property of the plasma membrane, has attracted widespread attention since it plays a role in the progression of various cancers. This study aimed to identify a prognostic signature in colon cancer from membrane tension-related genes (MTRGs) and explore its implications for the disease. Methods: Bulk RNA-seq data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and then applied to the differentially expressed gene analysis. By implementing a univariate Cox regression and a LASSO-Cox regression, we developed a prognostic model based on four MTRGs. The prognostic efficacy of this model was evaluated in combination with a Kaplan–Meier analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Moreover, the relationships between the signature and immune cell infiltration, immune status, and somatic mutation were further explored. Lastly, by utilizing single-cell RNA-seq data, cell type annotation, pseudo-time analysis, drug sensitivity, and molecular docking were implemented. Results: We constructed a 4-MTRG signature. The risk score derived from the model was further validated as an independent variable for survival prediction. Two risk groups were divided based on the risk score calculated by the 4-MTRG signature. In addition, we observed a significant difference in immune cell infiltration, such as subsets of CD4 T cells and macrophages, between the high- and low-risk groups. Moreover, in the pseudo-time analysis, TIMP1 was found to be more highly expressed with the progression of time. Finally, three small molecule drugs, elesclomol, shikonin, and bryostatin-1, exhibited a binding potential to TIMP-1. Conclusions: The novel 4-MTRG signature is a promising biomarker in predicting clinical outcomes for colon cancer patients, and TIMP1, a member of the signature, may be a sensitive regulator of the progression of colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Immunotherapy in Cancer)
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13 pages, 1572 KiB  
Article
Global Implications for COVID-19 Vaccine Series Completion: Insights from Real-World Data from the United States
by Jessica K. DeMartino, Ruibin Wang, Cindy Y. Chen, Nina Ahmad, Brahim Bookhart and Laurene Mascola
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091561 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 3163
Abstract
This retrospective cohort analysis leveraged vaccination data for BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S in the United States from the Komodo Healthcare Map database, the TriNetX Dataworks USA Network, and Cerner Real-World EHR (electronic health record) Data to evaluate rates of adherence to and completion [...] Read more.
This retrospective cohort analysis leveraged vaccination data for BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S in the United States from the Komodo Healthcare Map database, the TriNetX Dataworks USA Network, and Cerner Real-World EHR (electronic health record) Data to evaluate rates of adherence to and completion of COVID-19 vaccination series (November 2020 through June 2021). Individuals were indexed on the date they received the first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, with an adherence follow-up window of 42 days. Adherence/completion rates were calculated in the overall cohort of each database and by month of initiation and stratified by age, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural status. Overall adherence and completion to 2-dose COVID-19 mRNA vaccine schedules ranged from 79.4% to 87.4% and 81.0% to 89.2%, respectively. In TriNetX and Cerner, mRNA-1273 recipients were generally less adherent compared with BNT162b2 across sociodemographic groups. In Komodo, rates of adherence/completion between mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 were similar. Adherence/completion were generally lower in younger (<65 years) versus older recipients (≥65 years), particularly for mRNA-1273. No other sociodemographic-based gaps in vaccine adherence/completion were identified. These data demonstrate high but incomplete adherence to/completion of multidose COVID-19 vaccines during initial vaccine rollout in the United States. Multidose schedules may contribute to challenges associated with successful global vaccination. Full article
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18 pages, 2871 KiB  
Review
The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Vaccines for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Cathy Ventura, Ângelo Luís, Christiane P. Soares, Aldo Venuti, Francesca Paolini, Luísa Pereira and Ângela Sousa
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091560 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2891
Abstract
Cervical cancer (CC) is a disease that affects many women worldwide, especially in low-income countries. The human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main causative agent of this disease, with the E6 and E7 oncoproteins being responsible for the development and maintenance of transformed [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer (CC) is a disease that affects many women worldwide, especially in low-income countries. The human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main causative agent of this disease, with the E6 and E7 oncoproteins being responsible for the development and maintenance of transformed status. In addition, HPV is also responsible for the appearance of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), a pre-neoplastic condition burdened by very high costs for its screening and therapy. So far, only prophylactic vaccines have been approved by regulatory agencies as a means of CC prevention. However, these vaccines cannot treat HPV-positive women. A search was conducted in several databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov) to systematically identify clinical trials involving therapeutic vaccines against CIN 3. Histopathological regression data, immunological parameters, safety, DNA clearance, and vaccine efficacy were considered from each selected study, and from the 102 articles found, 8 were selected based on the defined inclusion criteria. Histopathological regression from CIN 3 to CIN < 1 was 22.1% (95% CI: 0.627–0.967; p-value = 0.024), showing a vaccine efficacy of 23.6% (95% CI; 0.666–0.876; p-value < 0.001). DNA clearance was assessed, and the risk of persistent HPV DNA was 23.2% (95% CI: 0.667–0.885; p-value < 0.001). Regarding immunological parameters, immune responses by specific T-HPV cells were more likely in vaccinated women (95% CI: 1.245–9.162; p-value = 0.017). In short, these studies favored the vaccine group over the placebo group. This work indicated that therapeutic vaccines are efficient in the treatment of CIN 3, even after accounting for publication bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Epidemiology and Vaccines 2.0)
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9 pages, 1197 KiB  
Article
Intranasal Treatment of Ferrets with Inert Bacterial Spores Reduces Disease Caused by a Challenging H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus
by Joe James, Stephanie M. Meyer, Huynh A. Hong, Chau Dang, Ho T. Y. Linh, William Ferreira, Paidamoyo M. Katsande, Linh Vo, Daniel Hynes, William Love, Ashley C. Banyard and Simon M. Cutting
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091559 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
Background: Influenza is a respiratory infection that continues to present a major threat to human health, with ~500,000 deaths/year. Continued circulation of epidemic subtypes in humans and animals potentially increases the risk of future pandemics. Vaccination has failed to halt the evolution of [...] Read more.
Background: Influenza is a respiratory infection that continues to present a major threat to human health, with ~500,000 deaths/year. Continued circulation of epidemic subtypes in humans and animals potentially increases the risk of future pandemics. Vaccination has failed to halt the evolution of this virus and next-generation prophylactic approaches are under development. Naked, “heat inactivated”, or inert bacterial spores have been shown to protect against influenza in murine models. Methods: Ferrets were administered intranasal doses of inert bacterial spores (DSM 32444K) every 7 days for 4 weeks. Seven days after the last dose, the animals were challenged with avian H7N9 influenza A virus. Clinical signs of infection and viral shedding were monitored. Results: Clinical symptoms of infection were significantly reduced in animals dosed with DSM 32444K. The temporal kinetics of viral shedding was reduced but not prevented. Conclusion: Taken together, nasal dosing using heat-stable spores could provide a useful approach for influenza prophylaxis in both humans and animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccines: Version II)
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9 pages, 273 KiB  
Brief Report
Diplopia, COVID-19 and Vaccination: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Croatia
by Jelena Škunca Herman, Goran Marić, Maja Malenica Ravlić, Lana Knežević, Ivan Jerković, Ena Sušić, Vedrana Marić, Ivanka Petric Vicković, Zoran Vatavuk and Ozren Polašek
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091558 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2383
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore diplopia as a symptom of undetected COVID-19 infection or as a possible side effect of COVID-19 vaccination. We examined 380 patients with diplopia admitted to the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital Centre Sestre [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore diplopia as a symptom of undetected COVID-19 infection or as a possible side effect of COVID-19 vaccination. We examined 380 patients with diplopia admitted to the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital Centre Sestre milosrdnice in Zagreb, Croatia, from July 2020 to June 2022. After excluding patients with confirmed organic underlying diplopia causes or monocular diplopia, we linked the patient information with the national COVID-19 and vaccination registries. Among the 91 patients included in this study, previously undetected COVID-19 infection as the possible cause of diplopia was confirmed in five of them (5.5%). An additional nine patients (9.9%) were vaccinated within one month from the onset of their symptoms, while the remaining 77 had neither and were therefore considered as controls. The breakdown according to the mechanism of diplopia showed no substantial difference between the vaccinated patients and the controls. We detected marginally insignificant excess abducens nerve affection in the COVID-positive group compared with that in the controls (p = 0.051). Post-vaccination diplopia was equally common in patients who received vector-based or RNA-based vaccines (21.4 vs. 16.7%; p = 0.694). COVID-19 testing should be performed for all cases of otherwise unexplained diplopia. The risk of post-vaccination diplopia was similar in both types of vaccines administered, suggesting a lack of evidence linking specific vaccine types to diplopia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Post-COVID-19 Complications and Vaccination Efficacy)
11 pages, 960 KiB  
Article
Bioinformatic Analysis for Mucoepidermoid and Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Therapeutic Targets
by Carla Monserrat Ramírez-Martínez, Luis Fernando Jacinto-Alemán, Luis Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Javier Portilla-Robertson and Elba Rosa Leyva-Huerta
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091557 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Salivary gland neoplasms are a heterogeneous neoplasm group, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MECa), adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), and many others. Objective: We aimed to identify new critical genes of MECa and AdCC using bioinformatics analysis. Methods: Gene expression profile of GSE153283 was analyzed by [...] Read more.
Salivary gland neoplasms are a heterogeneous neoplasm group, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MECa), adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), and many others. Objective: We aimed to identify new critical genes of MECa and AdCC using bioinformatics analysis. Methods: Gene expression profile of GSE153283 was analyzed by the GEO2R online tool to use the DAVID software for their subsequent enrichment. Protein–protein interactions (PPI) were visualized using String. Cytoscape with MCODE plugin followed by Kaplan–Meier online for overall survival analysis were performed. Results: 97 upregulated genes were identified for MECa and 86 for AdCC. PPI analysis revealed 22 genes for MECa and 63 for AdCC that were validated by Kaplan–Meier that showed FN1 and SPP1 for MECa, and EGF and ERBB2 for AdCC as more significant candidate genes for each neoplasm. Conclusion: With bioinformatics methods, we identify upregulated genes in MECa and AdCC. The resulting candidate genes as possible therapeutic targets were FN1, SPP1, EGF, and ERBB2, and all those genes had been tested as a target in other neoplasm kinds but not salivary gland neoplasm. The bioinformatic evidence is a solid strategy to select them for more extensive research with clinical impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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8 pages, 1118 KiB  
Communication
Geospatial and Time Trend of Prevalence and Characteristics of Zero-Dose Children in Nigeria from 2003 to 2018
by Ryoko Sato
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091556 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Introduction: While recent years have observed a substantial improvement in vaccination coverage among children in developing countries, many children are still left out and remain unvaccinated. This study analyzes the trend of the prevalence and characteristics of zero-dose children in Nigeria over time. [...] Read more.
Introduction: While recent years have observed a substantial improvement in vaccination coverage among children in developing countries, many children are still left out and remain unvaccinated. This study analyzes the trend of the prevalence and characteristics of zero-dose children in Nigeria over time. Methods: Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey in Nigeria from 2003 to 2018, I analyzed the prevalence and determinants of zero-dose children who had not received any DTP vaccine by geographical zone and over time. In addition, I conducted Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition analysis to evaluate the reasons for the change in the prevalence of zero-dose children over time. Results: The overall prevalence of zero-dose children reduced from over 60% in 2003 to 40% in 2018 in Nigeria. Rural areas had a higher prevalence of zero-dose children than urban areas and the gap was consistent over time. Southern zones consistently had a lower prevalence of zero-dose children, but northern zones observed more reductions in the prevalence of zero-dose children. The mother’s education and wealth level in a household are strongly associated with a lower likelihood of having zero-dose children. In both urban and rural areas, an improvement in the mother’s education level strongly explained the reduction in zero-dose children over time, while an increase in the wealth level also explained the reduction in zero-dose children in rural areas. Conclusions: While Nigeria has observed a substantial reduction in the prevalence of zero-dose children in the 15 years since 2003, the pattern of and explanatory factors for the reduction differ by geographical region. This analysis can be useful for identifying a targeting strategy to further reduce the prevalence of zero-dose children in Nigeria in the future. Full article
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7 pages, 251 KiB  
Review
Role and Limits of COVID-19 Vaccines in the Delicate Transition from Pandemic Mitigation to Endemic Control
by Marie Mura, Fabrice Simon, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Frédéric Tangy and Jean-Nicolas Tournier
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091555 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
The recent surge of COVID-19 related to the Omicron variant emergence has thrown a harsh light upon epidemic control in the near future. This should lead the scientific and medical community to question the long-term vaccine strategy for SARS-CoV-2 control. We provide here [...] Read more.
The recent surge of COVID-19 related to the Omicron variant emergence has thrown a harsh light upon epidemic control in the near future. This should lead the scientific and medical community to question the long-term vaccine strategy for SARS-CoV-2 control. We provide here a critical point of view regarding the virological evolution, epidemiological aspects, and immunological drivers for COVID-19 control, including a vaccination strategy. Overall, we need more innovations in vaccine development to reduce the COVID-19 burden long term. The most adequate answer might be better cooperation between universities, biotech and pharmaceutical companies Full article
20 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Comparison of COVID-19 Vaccine Policies in Italy, India, and South Africa
by Manfei Yang, Leiyu Shi, Haiqian Chen, Xiaohan Wang, Jun Jiao, Meiheng Liu, Junyan Yang and Gang Sun
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091554 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
(1) Purpose: This study aimed to analyze coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine policies and their effectiveness in Italy, India, and South Africa to provide empirical experience for vaccination and COVID-19 pandemic control. (2) Methods: The study systematically summarized the COVID-19 vaccine policies in [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: This study aimed to analyze coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine policies and their effectiveness in Italy, India, and South Africa to provide empirical experience for vaccination and COVID-19 pandemic control. (2) Methods: The study systematically summarized the COVID-19 vaccine policies in Italy, India, and South Africa through public information available on the official websites of the World Health Organization and the ministries of health in these three countries. Total vaccinations, COVID-19 vaccination rates, rates of fully vaccinated, rates of booster-vaccinated, and total confirmed cases were selected for cross-sectional comparison of COVID-19 vaccination in these three countries. Daily cases per million, daily deaths per million, and the effective reproduction rate were calculated to measure the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine policies implementation in each of these three countries. (3) Results: Italy, India, and South Africa differ in the start date of COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine types, vaccine appointments, and whether vaccinations are free. The COVID-19 vaccination rates in these three countries varied widely, with Italy having the highest and South Africa the lowest. COVID-19 vaccination has had a positive effect on reducing daily deaths and stabilizing the effective reproduction rate. The three countries had experienced more than one outbreak spike due to the spread of new mutated strains since the start of COVID-19 vaccination. (4) Conclusions: This study concluded that responding to the COVID-19 pandemic requires active promotion of basic and booster vaccinations to comprehensively build up the population immune barrier. Promoting equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccine internationally and solidarity and cooperation among countries maximizes global common interests. By combining vaccination with non-pharmaceutical interventions, the pandemic can be prevented and controlled comprehensively and systematically in three aspects: detection of the source of infection, reduction of transmission routes, and protection of susceptible populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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28 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic across Africa: Current Status of Vaccinations and Implications for the Future
by Olayinka O. Ogunleye, Brian Godman, Joseph O. Fadare, Steward Mudenda, Adekunle O. Adeoti, Adesola F. Yinka-Ogunleye, Sunday O. Ogundele, Modupe R. Oyawole, Marione Schönfeldt, Wafaa M. Rashed, Ahmad M. Galal, Nyasha Masuka, Trust Zaranyika, Aubrey C. Kalungia, Oliver O. Malande, Dan Kibuule, Amos Massele, Ibrahim Chikowe, Felix Khuluza, Tinotenda Taruvinga, Abubakr Alfadl, Elfatih Malik, Margaret Oluka, Sylvia Opanga, Daniel N. A. Ankrah, Israel A. Sefah, Daniel Afriyie, Eunice T. Tagoe, Adefolarin A. Amu, Mlungisi P. Msibi, Ayukafangha Etando, Mobolaji E. Alabi, Patrick Okwen, Loveline Lum Niba, Julius C. Mwita, Godfrey M. Rwegerera, Joyce Kgatlwane, Ammar A. Jairoun, Chioma Ejekam, Rooyen T. Mavenyengwa, Irene Murimi-Worstell, Stephen M. Campbell and Johanna C. Meyeradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091553 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5939
Abstract
The introduction of effective vaccines in December 2020 marked a significant step forward in the global response to COVID-19. Given concerns with access, acceptability, and hesitancy across Africa, there is a need to describe the current status of vaccine uptake in the continent. [...] Read more.
The introduction of effective vaccines in December 2020 marked a significant step forward in the global response to COVID-19. Given concerns with access, acceptability, and hesitancy across Africa, there is a need to describe the current status of vaccine uptake in the continent. An exploratory study was undertaken to investigate these aspects, current challenges, and lessons learnt across Africa to provide future direction. Senior personnel across 14 African countries completed a self-administered questionnaire, with a descriptive analysis of the data. Vaccine roll-out commenced in March 2021 in most countries. COVID-19 vaccination coverage varied from low in Cameroon and Tanzania and up to 39.85% full coverage in Botswana at the end of 2021; that is, all doses advocated by initial protocols versus the total population, with rates increasing to 58.4% in Botswana by the end of June 2022. The greatest increase in people being fully vaccinated was observed in Uganda (20.4% increase), Botswana (18.5% increase), and Zambia (17.9% increase). Most vaccines were obtained through WHO-COVAX agreements. Initially, vaccination was prioritised for healthcare workers (HCWs), the elderly, adults with co-morbidities, and other at-risk groups, with countries now commencing vaccination among children and administering booster doses. Challenges included irregular supply and considerable hesitancy arising from misinformation fuelled by social media activities. Overall, there was fair to reasonable access to vaccination across countries, enhanced by government initiatives. Vaccine hesitancy must be addressed with context-specific interventions, including proactive programmes among HCWs, medical journalists, and the public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Vaccines and Public Health)
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20 pages, 1956 KiB  
Review
Design Strategies and Precautions for Using Vaccinia Virus in Tumor Virotherapy
by Xinjun Liu, Jian Zhao, Xiaopeng Li, Fengxue Lao and Min Fang
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091552 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
Oncolytic virotherapy has emerged as a novel form of cancer immunotherapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can directly infect and lyse the tumor cells, and modulate the beneficial immune microenvironment. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a promising oncolytic vector because of its high safety, easy gene [...] Read more.
Oncolytic virotherapy has emerged as a novel form of cancer immunotherapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can directly infect and lyse the tumor cells, and modulate the beneficial immune microenvironment. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a promising oncolytic vector because of its high safety, easy gene editing, and tumor intrinsic selectivity. To further improve the safety, tumor-targeting ability, and OV-induced cancer-specific immune activation, various approaches have been used to modify OVs. The recombinant oncolytic VACVs with deleting viral virulence factors and/or arming various therapeutic genes have displayed better therapeutic effects in multiple tumor models. Moreover, the combination of OVs with other cancer immunotherapeutic approaches, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and CAR-T cells, has the potential to improve the outcome in cancer patients. This will open up new possibilities for the application of OVs in cancer treatment, especially for personalized cancer therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Immunotherapy: Version II)
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10 pages, 279 KiB  
Review
Human Respiratory Infections in Nigeria: Influenza and the Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
by Dennis Kabantiyok, Nathaniel Ninyio, Ismaila Shittu, Clement Meseko, Theophilus I. Emeto and Oyelola A. Adegboye
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091551 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2808
Abstract
The increasing outbreak of zoonotic diseases presents challenging times for nations and calls for a renewed effort to disrupt the chain of events that precede it. Nigeria’s response to the 2006 bird flu provided a platform for outbreak response, yet it was not [...] Read more.
The increasing outbreak of zoonotic diseases presents challenging times for nations and calls for a renewed effort to disrupt the chain of events that precede it. Nigeria’s response to the 2006 bird flu provided a platform for outbreak response, yet it was not its first experience with Influenza. This study describes the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on Influenza surveillance and, conversely, while the 1918 Influenza pandemic remains the most devastating (500,000 deaths in 18 million population) in Nigeria, the emergence of SARS CoV-2 presented renewed opportunities for the development of vaccines with novel technology, co-infection studies outcome, and challenges globally. Although the public health Intervention and strategies left some positive outcomes for other viruses, Nigeria and Africa’s preparation against the next pandemic may involve prioritizing a combination of technology, socioeconomic growth, and active surveillance in the spirit of One Health. Full article
13 pages, 1500 KiB  
Article
Lymphocyte Subpopulations Associated with Neutralizing Antibody Levels of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19 Vaccination
by Wan-Ting Huang, Shao-Wen Weng, Hong-Tai Tzeng, Feng-Chun Yen, Yu-Shao Chiang and Huey-Ling You
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091550 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
The comprehensive knowledge regarding the immune response during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is limited. The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate not only the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine levels but parallel changes of antibody levels against [...] Read more.
The comprehensive knowledge regarding the immune response during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is limited. The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate not only the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine levels but parallel changes of antibody levels against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Blood samples of 20 healthcare workers with two doses of COVID-19 vaccine were prospectively collected. The percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations from peripheral blood and cytokine production in lymphocytes with in vitro stimulation were assessed using eight-color flow cytometry. SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (anti-S Abs) and functional neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were also measured. The relation between pre- and post-vaccination immunity was analyzed. There are 7 men and 13 women with a median age of 44.0 years (range: 25.7–59.5 years). The individuals had an increased percentage of lymphocytes at post-vaccination with statistical significance post first dose (p = 0.031). The levels of transitional cells (p = 0.001), such as plasmablasts (p < 0.001) and plasma cells (p = 0.031), were increased compared with pre-vaccination. Recent thymic emigrants of CD4+ T cells subsets were significantly higher at post-vaccination than those at pre-vaccination (p = 0.029). Intracellular levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-21, transforming growth factor-beta and IL-17 produced by CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and natural killer cells were increased. All individual samples showed reactivity to anti-S Abs and the levels of nAbs were elevated after vaccination. The magnitude of adaptive immunity was associated with vaccine types and doses. Alterations of total memory B cells (p < 0.001), non-switched memory B cells (p = 0.016), and memory Treg cells (p < 0.001) were independent predictors for nAb levels. These findings might be helpful in elucidating the immune response of COVID-19 vaccination and in developing new strategies for immunization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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30 pages, 2734 KiB  
Review
Nanoclays: Promising Materials for Vaccinology
by Dania O. Govea-Alonso, Mariano J. García-Soto, Lourdes Betancourt-Mendiola, Erika Padilla-Ortega, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza and Omar González-Ortega
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091549 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Clay materials and nanoclays have gained recent popularity in the vaccinology field, with biocompatibility, simple functionalization, low toxicity, and low-cost as their main attributes. As elements of nanovaccines, halloysite nanotubes (natural), layered double hydroxides and hectorite (synthetic) are the nanoclays that have advanced [...] Read more.
Clay materials and nanoclays have gained recent popularity in the vaccinology field, with biocompatibility, simple functionalization, low toxicity, and low-cost as their main attributes. As elements of nanovaccines, halloysite nanotubes (natural), layered double hydroxides and hectorite (synthetic) are the nanoclays that have advanced into the vaccinology field. Until now, only physisorption has been used to modify the surface of nanoclays with antigens, adjuvants, and/or ligands to create nanovaccines. Protocols to covalently attach these molecules have not been developed with nanoclays, only procedures to develop adsorbents based on nanoclays that could be extended to develop nanovaccine conjugates. In this review, we describe the approaches evaluated on different nanovaccine candidates reported in articles, the immunological results obtained with them and the most advanced approaches in the preclinical field, while describing the nanomaterial itself. In addition, complex systems that use nanoclays were included and described. The safety of nanoclays as carriers is an important key fact to determine their true potential as nanovaccine candidates in humans. Here, we present the evaluations reported in this field. Finally, we point out the perspectives in the development of vaccine prototypes using nanoclays as antigen carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccine Adjuvants)
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10 pages, 1674 KiB  
Article
Antibody Titers and Protection against Omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) SARS-CoV-2 Infection
by Chloé Dimeglio, Marion Migueres, Naémie Bouzid, Sabine Chapuy-Regaud, Caroline Gernigon, Isabelle Da-Silva, Marion Porcheron, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Fabrice Herin and Jacques Izopet
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091548 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has greatly influenced the immune correlates of protection, and there are little data about the antibody threshold concentrations to protect against infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 or BA.2. We analyzed the antibody responses of 259 [...] Read more.
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has greatly influenced the immune correlates of protection, and there are little data about the antibody threshold concentrations to protect against infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 or BA.2. We analyzed the antibody responses of 259 vaccinated healthcare workers, some of whom had been previously infected by SARS-CoV-2. The median follow-up was 179 days (IQR: 171–182) after blood collection. We detected 88 SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infections during the follow-up period, 55 (62.5%) with SARS-CoV-2 BA.1, and 33 (37.5%) with SARS-CoV-2 BA.2. A neutralizing antibody titer below 8 provided no protection against a BA.1 infection, a titer of 16 or 32 gave 73.2% protection, and a titer of 64 or 128 provided 78.4% protection. Conversely, the BA.2 infection rate did not vary as a function of anti-BA.2 neutralizing antibody titers. Binding antibody concentrations below 6000 BAU/mL provided no protection against Omicron BA.1 infection, 6000–20,000 BAU/mL provided 55.6% protection, and 20,000 or more provided 87.7% protection. There was no difference in BA.2 infection depending on the binding antibody concentration. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between antibody concentrations and infection with the Omicron BA.4/5 variants that are becoming predominant worldwide. Full article
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14 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
The Vaccine Hesitancy Profiles and Determinants of Seasonal Influenza among Chinese Community Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Xianxian Yang, Wenge Tang, Qiang Tan, Deqiang Mao and Xianbin Ding
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091547 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
This paper is an evaluation of seasonal influenza vaccination hesitancy (IVH) and its determinants among community HCWs in Chongqing, a city in southwest China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1030 community HCWs with direct or indirect patient contact was conducted from July to [...] Read more.
This paper is an evaluation of seasonal influenza vaccination hesitancy (IVH) and its determinants among community HCWs in Chongqing, a city in southwest China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1030 community HCWs with direct or indirect patient contact was conducted from July to September 2021 using a self-administered electronic questionnaire. Possible factors for IVH among community HCWs were investigated by multivariable logistic regression to yield adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Overall, 46.2% of community HCWs were vaccinated in the 2020–2021 season, while 65.8% of community HCWs had IVH. “Don’t know the coverage in China” (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01–2.11; 40-year-old group OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.92–4.76), “complacency” (OR: 4.55, 95% CI: 3.14–6.60) were positively related with having IVH. The community HCWs that had a history of influenza vaccination (OR: 0.67 95% CI: 0.48–0.95) and groups with confidence and convenience (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.06–0.12; OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.23–0.52, respectively) were more likely to completely accept vaccination. Conclusions: Measures such as improving the awareness and knowledge of influenza and vaccination and expanding the free vaccination policy, combined with improving the convenience of the vaccination service, will promote increased seasonal influenza vaccination-coverage in community HCWs in Chongqing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Research in Pathogens-Host Immune)
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18 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
An Immune Response to Heterologous ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 Vaccination against COVID-19: Evaluation of the anti-RBD Specific IgG Antibodies Titers and Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) Test Results
by Marzena Zalewska, Wiktoria Fus, Adam Konka, Karolina Wystyrk, Aneta Bochenek, Hanna Botor, Martyna Fronczek, Joanna Zembala-John and Brygida Adamek
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091546 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) test results following administration of booster BNT162b2 in 48 ChAd-primed participants (vaccination schedule: ChAd/ChAd/BNT). Whole blood samples were collected: first, before and second, 21 days [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) test results following administration of booster BNT162b2 in 48 ChAd-primed participants (vaccination schedule: ChAd/ChAd/BNT). Whole blood samples were collected: first, before and second, 21 days after the booster dose. The IgG level was measured using chemiluminescent immunoassay; the intensity of the T-cell response—IFNγ concentration—was assessed using IGRA test. At 21 days after the booster, all subjects achieved reactive/positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and IGRA test results showed a significant increase compared to the results before booster administration. We compared the results before and after the booster between participants with and without prior history of COVID-19. The IFNγ concentrations in both cohorts were higher in convalescents (both before booster and 21 days after). The IgG titers were subtly lower in COVID-19 convalescents than in naïve but without statistical significance. Data on cell-mediated immunity are scarce, especially with regard to the general population. A better understanding of the complexity of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 could contribute to developing more effective vaccination strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response against SARS-CoV-2)
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6 pages, 663 KiB  
Opinion
Immune Evasion of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Subvariants
by Hanzhong Ke, Matthew R. Chang and Wayne A. Marasco
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091545 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Since the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was declared a variant of concern (VOC) by the WHO on 24 November 2021, it has caused another global surge of cases. With extensive mutations in its spike glycoprotein, Omicron gained substantial capabilities to evade the antiviral [...] Read more.
Since the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was declared a variant of concern (VOC) by the WHO on 24 November 2021, it has caused another global surge of cases. With extensive mutations in its spike glycoprotein, Omicron gained substantial capabilities to evade the antiviral immunity provided by vaccination, hybrid immunity, or monoclonal antibodies. The Omicron subvariants BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 extended this immune evasion capability by having additional unique mutations in their respective spike proteins. The ongoing Omicron wave and emergence of new Omicron subvariants leads to additional concerns regarding the efficacy of the current antiviral measurements. To have a better understanding of the Omicron subvariants, this review summarizes reports of the immune evasion of subvariants BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 as well as the molecular basis of immune evasion. Full article
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14 pages, 1529 KiB  
Brief Report
In Vitro Stimulation with Live SARS-CoV-2 Suggests Th17 Dominance In Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cell Response after COVID-19
by Igor Kudryavtsev, Victoria Matyushenko, Ekaterina Stepanova, Kirill Vasilyev, Larisa Rudenko and Irina Isakova-Sivak
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091544 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1853
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses are the main causes of human respiratory tract infections with similar disease manifestation but distinct mechanisms of immunopathology and host response to the infection. In this study, we investigated the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell phenotype in comparison with [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses are the main causes of human respiratory tract infections with similar disease manifestation but distinct mechanisms of immunopathology and host response to the infection. In this study, we investigated the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell phenotype in comparison with H1N1 influenza-specific CD4+ T cells. We determined the levels of SARS-CoV-2- and H1N1-specific CD4+ T cell responses in subjects recovered from COVID-19 one to 15 months ago by stimulating PBMCs with live SARS-CoV-2 or H1N1 influenza viruses. We investigated phenotypes and frequencies of main CD4+ T cell subsets specific for SARS-CoV-2 using an activation induced cell marker assay and multicolor flow cytometry, and compared the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2- and H1N1-specific CD4+ T cells. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells were detected 1–15 months post infection and the frequency of SARS-CoV-2-specific central memory CD4+ T cells was increased with the time post-symptom onset. Next, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells predominantly expressed the Th17 phenotype, but the level of Th17 cells in this group was lower than in H1N1-specific CD4+ T cells. Finally, we found that the lower level of total Th17 subset within total SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells was linked with the low level of CCR4+CXCR3– ‘classical’ Th17 cells if compared with H1N1-specific Th17 cells. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of Th17 cells and their separate subsets in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2- and influenza-induced pneumonia; and a better understanding of Th17 mediated antiviral immune responses may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2)
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16 pages, 936 KiB  
Review
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Impact and Effectiveness in Six High-Risk Populations: A Systematic Literature Review
by Elizabeth Goodman, Miriam Reuschenbach, Allysen Kaminski and Sarah Ronnebaum
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091543 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3383 | Correction
Abstract
Specific adult populations known to be at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease, such as men who have sex with men, are inconsistently included in national immunization programs. No compilation of the evidence on the real-world impact and effectiveness of HPV vaccines [...] Read more.
Specific adult populations known to be at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease, such as men who have sex with men, are inconsistently included in national immunization programs. No compilation of the evidence on the real-world impact and effectiveness of HPV vaccines across these populations exists. This systematic literature review identifies and synthesizes the evidence of the real-world impact and effectiveness of the quadrivalent and nonavalent HPV vaccines in high-risk populations: women with prior/current HPV-related anogenital disease, men who have sex with men, immunocompromised/immunosuppressed individuals, female sex workers, transgender and non-binary individuals, and patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). The outcomes included anogenital precancers/cancers, head and neck cancers, genital warts, and RRP recurrence. From the 2216 records identified, 30 studies (25 effectiveness and 5 impact studies) were included in this systematic literature review. The results, quantity, and quality of these studies were highly variable. The evidence for effectiveness was of high quality only in women with prior/current cervical disease and in individuals with RRP, the most frequently studied populations. No studies of transgender/non-binary individuals or female sex workers were identified. The real-world evidence supports HPV vaccination among women with prior cervical disease and individuals with RRP. Significant real-world data gaps remain in these high-risk populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection HPV-Vaccines)
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11 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Humoral Immune Response of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac Vaccinations in Hemodialysis Patients: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort
by Rene Clavero, Alfredo Parra-Lucares, Gabriel Méndez-Valdés, Eduardo Villa, Karin Bravo, Evelyn Mondaca, Josseline Aranda, Rose Brignardello, Cynthia Gajardo, Angelica Ordenes, Evelyn Colombo, Jessica Tapia, Andoni Etcheverry, José Zúñiga and Luis Toro
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091542 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
The CoronaVac vaccine is the most used anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine worldwide. Previous data indicate that this vaccine produces a lower immune response than RNA vaccines such as BNT162b2. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have an increased rate of COVID-19 and a reduced immune response [...] Read more.
The CoronaVac vaccine is the most used anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine worldwide. Previous data indicate that this vaccine produces a lower immune response than RNA vaccines such as BNT162b2. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have an increased rate of COVID-19 and a reduced immune response to vaccinations. Currently, there is little data on this population’s immune response induced by CoronaVac. Methods: This study involved a prospective cohort of ESRD patients in chronic hemodialysis who received a two-dose immunization scheme of either CoronaVac (Sinovac Biotech) or BNT162b2 vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech). We measured the plasma levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. We determined antibody titers before immunization, 2 and 4 months after two doses, plus 4 months after a booster dose. Results: We evaluated 208 patients in three hemodialysis centers. The mean age was 62.6 ± 15.6 years, of whom 91 were female (41.75%). Eighty-one patients (38.94%) received the BNT162b2 vaccine and 127 (61.06%) received the CoronaVac vaccine. Patients who received the BNT162b2 vaccine had a higher humoral response compared to those who received the CoronaVac vaccine (4 months after the second dose: BNT162b2: 88.89%, CoronaVac: 51.97%, p < 0.001; 4 months after the booster: BNT162b2: 98.77%, CoronaVac: 86.61%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the CoronaVac vaccine induced a lower humoral response than the BNT162b2 vaccine in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. Full article
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16 pages, 1554 KiB  
Systematic Review
In Vivo Oncolytic Virotherapy in Murine Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review
by Muhammad Joan Ailia and So Young Yoo
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091541 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Current therapies often provide marginal survival benefits at the expense of undesirable side effects. Oncolytic viruses represent a novel strategy for the treatment of HCC due to their inherent ability to [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Current therapies often provide marginal survival benefits at the expense of undesirable side effects. Oncolytic viruses represent a novel strategy for the treatment of HCC due to their inherent ability to cause direct tumor cell lysis while sparing normal tissue and their capacity to stimulate potent immune responses directed against uninfected tumor cells and distant metastases. Oncolytic virotherapy (OVT) is a promising cancer treatment, but before it can become a standard option in practice, several challenges—systemic viral delivery optimization/enhancement, inter-tumoral virus dispersion, anti-cancer immunity cross-priming, and lack of artificial model systems—need to be addressed. Addressing these will require an in vivo model that accurately mimics the tumor microenvironment and allows the scientific community to design a more precise and accurate OVT. Due to their close physiologic resemblance to humans, murine cancer models are the likely preferred candidates. To provide an accurate assessment of the current state of in vivo OVT in HCC, we have reviewed a comprehensively searched body of work using murine in vivo HCC models for OVT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines 3.0)
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Article
Despite Vaccination: A Real-Life Experience of Severe and Life-Threatening COVID-19 in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Patients
by Marta Colaneri, Erika Asperges, Matteo Calia, Paolo Sacchi, Marco Rettani, Sara Cutti, Giuseppe Albi and Raffaele Bruno
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091540 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Some vaccinated individuals still develop severe COVID-19, and the underlying causes are not entirely understood. We aimed at identifying demographic, clinical, and coinfection characteristics of vaccinated patients who were hospitalized. We also hypothesized that coinfections might play a role in disease severity and [...] Read more.
Some vaccinated individuals still develop severe COVID-19, and the underlying causes are not entirely understood. We aimed at identifying demographic, clinical, and coinfection characteristics of vaccinated patients who were hospitalized. We also hypothesized that coinfections might play a role in disease severity and mortality. We retrospectively collected data from our COVID-19 registry for whom vaccination data were available. Patients were split into groups based on the number of administered doses (zero, one, two, or three). Data were assessed with Chi-square and Kruskal–Wallis tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. We collected data from 1686 patients and found that intra-hospital mortality was not associated to the vaccination status (e.g., p = 0.2 with three doses), while older age, sepsis, and non-viral pneumonia were (p < 0.001). Unvaccinated patients needed mechanical ventilation more often (8.5%) than vaccinated patients, in whom the probability of mechanical ventilation decreased with increasing doses (8.7%, 2.8%, 0%). We did not find more coinfections in vaccinated people. We concluded that there is a lack of real-life data to adequately characterize the pathophysiology and risk factors of patients who develop severe COVID-19, but coinfections do not appear to play a role in disease severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Post-COVID-19 Complications and Vaccination Efficacy)
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