SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (2 September 2023) | Viewed by 332360

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Enna “Kore”, 94100 Enna, Italy
Interests: health; safety; organizational wellbeing; stress; compliance; risk perception; HCWs; careers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Psychology, e-Campus University, 22060 Novedrate, Italy
Interests: risk perception and work stress; leadership; climate and outcomes; selection procedures and recruitment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It has been demonstrated that vaccination of health professionals against COVID-19 is effective in reducing the incidence of the disease among health professionals, saving financial resources and preventing mortality among patients; vaccination is also included in the prevention plans for the pandemic. The aim of this Special Issue is to identify what factors, such as stress, influence workers’ compliance and can guide management communication strategies relating to prevention plans for vaccination against COVID-19.

Prof. Tiziana Ramaci
Dr. Massimiliano Barattucci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19
  • vaccination
  • stress
  • emotion
  • resilience
  • trust in vaccine
  • compliance
  • communication
  • engagement
  • work
  • pandemic

Published Papers (74 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

14 pages, 1009 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Booster Dose Coverage and Hesitancy among Older Adults in an Urban Slum and Resettlement Colony in Delhi, India
Vaccines 2023, 11(7), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11071177 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Background: The high prevalence of vaccine booster hesitancy, with the concomitant waning of humoral vaccine or hybrid immunity, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern can accentuate COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The study objective was to ascertain the COVID-19 vaccination coverage, including [...] Read more.
Background: The high prevalence of vaccine booster hesitancy, with the concomitant waning of humoral vaccine or hybrid immunity, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern can accentuate COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The study objective was to ascertain the COVID-19 vaccination coverage, including the administration of precaution (booster) dose vaccination, among the older population in an urban slum and resettlement colony population in Delhi, India. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in an urban resettlement colony, slum, and village cluster in the Northeast district of Delhi among residents aged ≥50 years. Results: A total of 2217 adults (58.28%) had obtained a COVID-19 booster (precaution) dose vaccine, 1404 (36.91%) had received two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine without booster dose, 121 (3.18%) were unvaccinated, while 62 (1.63%) participants received a single dose. Based on adjusted analysis, older adults (>65 years), higher education, and higher per-capita income were statistically significant predictors of booster dose vaccination. Conclusions: More than four in ten adults in an urban slum and resettlement colony in Delhi lacked COVID-19 booster dose vaccination despite high rates of double-dose vaccination (~95%). Public health programming should provide an enhanced focus on reducing complacency with renewed prioritization for improving ease of access to COVID-19 vaccination services, particularly in underserved areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Framing Effects on Willingness and Perceptions towards COVID-19 Vaccination among University Students in Italy: An Exploratory Study
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061079 - 09 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy is a diffused psychological phenomenon that has been increasingly addressed in several studies since the COVID-19 pandemic. Communication campaigns play a pivotal role influencing recipients’ perceptions and may affect the likelihood to vaccinate or to show hesitancy. In the context of [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy is a diffused psychological phenomenon that has been increasingly addressed in several studies since the COVID-19 pandemic. Communication campaigns play a pivotal role influencing recipients’ perceptions and may affect the likelihood to vaccinate or to show hesitancy. In the context of communicating risks during the COVID-19 pandemic, we hypothesized that highlighting different aspects of data on the effectiveness of vaccines would influence people’s willingness and attitudes to vaccinate. In this exploratory study, we administered two versions of a survey to a convenience sample of students from three universities in Italy. In the first version, salience was placed on the effectiveness of the vaccine in terms of reducing the probability of infection. In the second version, salience was placed on the effectiveness of the vaccine in terms of reducing the probability of hospitalization after being infected by COVID-19. The results confirmed our hypothesis: participants reported that they were more willing to become vaccinated when exposed to the hospitalization frame (main dimension). Conversely, we found mixed effects of the frame on the following sub-dimensions: reliability, trust, protection, safety, and confidence. Taken together, we show that it is possible to influence, to some extent, university students’ attitudes and perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccination by acting on how information is framed. We discuss the implications of these findings for the development of behaviorally informed policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2483 KiB  
Article
BBIBP-CorV Vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 Virus Affects the Gut Microbiome
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11050942 - 04 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Several observational studies have confirmed that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) might substantially affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system by replicating in human small intestine enterocytes. Yet, so far, no study has reported the effects of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccines on gut [...] Read more.
Several observational studies have confirmed that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) might substantially affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system by replicating in human small intestine enterocytes. Yet, so far, no study has reported the effects of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccines on gut microbiota alterations. In this study, we examined the effects of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine (ChiCTR2000032459, sponsored by the Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm), on gut microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from individuals whoreceived two doses of intramuscular injection of BBIBP-CorV and matched unvaccinated controls. DNA extracted from fecal samples was subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis. The composition and biological functions of the microbiota between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were compared. Compared with unvaccinated controls, vaccinated subjects exhibited significantly reduced bacterial diversity, elevated firmicutes/bacteroidetes (F/B) ratios, a tendency towards Faecalibacterium-predominant enterotypes, and altered gut microbial compositions and functional potentials. Specifically, the intestinal microbiota in vaccine recipients was enriched with Faecalibacterium and Mollicutes and with a lower abundance of Prevotella, Enterococcus, Leuconostocaceae, and Weissella. Microbial function prediction by phylogenetic investigation of communities using reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis further indicated that Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism and transcription were positively associated with vaccine inoculation, whereas capacities in neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers were negatively affected by vaccines. Vaccine inoculation was particularly associated with gut microbiota alterations, as was demonstrated by the improved composition and functional capacities of gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among University Students and Lecturers in Different Provinces of Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2023, 11(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11030683 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic imposed a pressing global threat. Vaccines against COVID-19 are a key tool to control the ongoing pandemic. The success of COVID-19 vaccination programs will largely depend on public willingness to receive the vaccine. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic imposed a pressing global threat. Vaccines against COVID-19 are a key tool to control the ongoing pandemic. The success of COVID-19 vaccination programs will largely depend on public willingness to receive the vaccine. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines among university students and lecturers in four different provinces of Indonesia. An anonymous, cross-sectional study was conducted online among university students and lecturers in Indonesia between 23 December 2020 and 15 February 2021. Of 3433 respondents, 50.3% stated that they would accept COVID-19 vaccination, while 10.7% expressed unwillingness and 39% were not sure about receiving the vaccine. Concern regarding the side effects after COVID-19 vaccination was the main reason among the participants for not willing to receive the vaccine. Being male, associated with the health sector, having a higher monthly expenditure and having health insurance could increase the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine. Low trust in the government and low confidence towards vaccine safety and efficacy could hinder participants’ decision to be vaccinated. Simple, clear and fact-based information from trusted sources on a regular basis will be important for building confidence towards the COVID-19 vaccination program in Indonesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of COVID-19 Vaccines: Protective Shields or Threatening Risks? A Descriptive Exploratory Study among the Italian Population
Vaccines 2023, 11(3), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11030642 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
Although several quantitative studies have explored vaccine hesitancy, qualitative research on the factors underlying attitudes toward vaccination is still lacking. To fill this gap, this study aimed to investigate the general perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines among the Italian population with a qualitative approach. [...] Read more.
Although several quantitative studies have explored vaccine hesitancy, qualitative research on the factors underlying attitudes toward vaccination is still lacking. To fill this gap, this study aimed to investigate the general perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines among the Italian population with a qualitative approach. The sample included 700 Italian participants who completed an online survey. Open questions underwent a descriptive analysis for unveiling meaning categories, while differences in the prevalence of categories were calculated using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Vaccination was associated with the following seven main themes: ‘safety’, ‘healthcare’, ‘vaccine delivery’, ‘progress’, ‘ambivalence’, ‘mistrust’, and ‘ethics’. Vaccinated individuals more frequently reported words related to the safety theme (χ2 = 46.7, p < 0.001), while unvaccinated individuals more frequently reported words related to mistrust (χ2 = 123, p < 0.001) and ambivalence (χ2 = 48.3, p < 0.001) themes. Working in the healthcare sector and being younger than 40 years affected the general perceptions of vaccination in terms of pro-vaccine attitudes. Unvaccinated individuals were more affected by the negative experiences of their acquaintances and manifested more distrust of scientific researchers, doctors, and pharmaceutical companies than vaccinated individuals. These findings suggest promoting collaborative efforts of governments, health policymakers, and media sources, including social media companies, in order to deal with cognitions and emotions supporting vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Hesitancy in Malaysia: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2023, 11(3), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11030638 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Vaccination is a key public health strategy that is known to be effective in mitigating the risk of infection and severe disease. However, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the percentage (<50%) of Malaysians who have received a booster for the COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Vaccination is a key public health strategy that is known to be effective in mitigating the risk of infection and severe disease. However, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the percentage (<50%) of Malaysians who have received a booster for the COVID-19 vaccine has remained stagnant over a year. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with hesitancy toward the second dose of booster for the COVID-19 vaccine. A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2022. The Oxford Vaccine Hesitancy Scale was used to assess the hesitancy toward the second dose of booster for the COVID-19 vaccine. Simple and multiple factors logistic regressions were used to determine the predictors of hesitancy. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Data from 798 respondents were included in the analysis. The prevalence of hesitancy toward the second booster of the COVID-19 vaccine was 26.7%. The predictors of second-booster hesitancy were older age (AOR = 1.040, 95 CI = 1.022, 1.058), having received the third dose (first booster) because of instruction by the government (AOR = 2.125, 95% CI = 1.380, 3.274), concern about serious long term side effects of the vaccine (AOR = 4.010, 95% CI = 2.218, 7.250), and opinions of close friends and immediate family members that the booster is harmful (AOR = 2.201, 95% CI = 1.280, 3.785). Conversely, factors that appear to reduce vaccine booster hesitancy were acceptance of the third dose due to the high number of cases and the increasing rate of infection (AOR = 0.548, 95% CI = 0.317, 0.947), the belief that the vaccine will decrease the risk of getting the infection (AOR = 0.491, 95% CI = 0.277, 0.870), and opinions of close friends and immediate family members that the booster is helpful (AOR = 0.479, 95% CI = 0.273, 0.840). In conclusion, more than one-fifth of Malaysians were hesitant to take the second booster of the COVID-19 vaccine. This suggests that appropriate steps that increase vaccine acceptance, taking into consideration the findings of the present study, are needed to address this issue and to foster more positive attitudes toward vaccination. The survey was available in three main languages but limited to people with internet access; hence, it would likely be biased toward younger adults and social media users and exclude those with limited or no internet access, in particular older people. Therefore, the results are not representative of the Malaysian population at large and caution should be exercised when interpreting the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
14 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Knowledge on Parental Hesitancy toward COVID-19 Vaccination of Children 5–11 Years Old
Vaccines 2023, 11(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11030587 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Although vaccines are the safest and the most effective measure to prevent disease, disability, and death from various pediatric infectious diseases, parental vaccine hesitancy is a common and increasing phenomenon worldwide. To contribute to improving our knowledge on parental willingness and hesitancy toward [...] Read more.
Although vaccines are the safest and the most effective measure to prevent disease, disability, and death from various pediatric infectious diseases, parental vaccine hesitancy is a common and increasing phenomenon worldwide. To contribute to improving our knowledge on parental willingness and hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccine administration in children aged 5–11 years, an anonymous online questionnaire was disseminated in Italy after the COVID-19 vaccine’s authorization for this age group. An online survey was conducted using the Crowd Signal platform from 15 December 2021 to 15 January 2022 in Italy among parents of children 5–11 years old. A total of 3433 questionnaires were analyzed. Overall, a “Favorable” position was observed in 1459 (42.5%) parents, a “Doubtful” one in 1223 (35.6%) and a “Hesitant/Reluctant” one in 751 (21.9%). The univariate multinomial logistic regression analysis and the multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that the Hesitant/Reluctant parents were younger than 40 years of age, mostly female, with a secondary or middle school degree, an annual income below EUR 28,000, more than one child in the age range from 5 to 11 years, an underestimated consideration of the severity of COVID-19’s effects, and concern regarding the COVID-19 vaccines in general. These results show that in Italy, most parents of children aged 5 to 11 were doubtful or hesitant/reluctant to vaccinate their children against the COVID-19 virus. Poor trust in health institutions as well as poor consideration of the epidemiological and clinical relevance of COVID-19 in children seem to have played the biggest roles in forming these attitudes. Moreover, the negative attitude of several parents who previously agreed to immunize their children against other childhood illnesses according to the official national pediatric immunization schedule clearly indicates that only the COVID-19 vaccine was put in doubt or rejected. All these findings lead us to conclude that to improve COVID-19 vaccination coverage in children aged 5 to 11, health authorities should increase parental education on the true clinical relevance of COVID-19 and on the importance of its prevention to hinder the evolution of the pandemic in pediatric subjects and the emergence of new variants, and its relative weight in influencing the efficacy of vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among New Jersey Teachers and Impacts of Vaccination Information Dissemination
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020466 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy continues to be prevalent in the United States, especially in relation to the COVID-19 vaccines and its boosters, which have been made increasingly available for public use as the pandemic has progressed. There continues to be concern surrounding the safety and [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy continues to be prevalent in the United States, especially in relation to the COVID-19 vaccines and its boosters, which have been made increasingly available for public use as the pandemic has progressed. There continues to be concern surrounding the safety and health of secondary or high school education professionals as they transition back to in-person learning and working opportunities. The present study highlights how information dissemination regarding the COVID-19 vaccine has varied among New Jersey secondary or high school teachers throughout the pandemic. The survey was completed online through the PsychData platform by 269 participants between March and July 2022. Participants received the opportunity to complete the survey via email. Afterwards, data were exported and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SAS 9.4 Analytics Software and stratified by various clinical and demographic-based variables. While trusted agencies and media outlets identified by participants varied, most participants identified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (65.4%), primary care providers (37.5%), and state health departments (28.6%) as their top trusted sources for information related to COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, COVID-19 vaccination advocacy and educational efforts should continue across the state of New Jersey and elsewhere, especially as more variants emerge and boosters become available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
12 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Attitude towards Intranasal Vaccines and Psychological Determinants: Effects on the General Population in Northern Italy
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010138 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Little is known about the use of intranasal vaccines, but some studies have shown that this innovative way of administration is preferred over needle injection as it is considered both less painful and intrusive to the body, equally effective, and associated with fewer [...] Read more.
Little is known about the use of intranasal vaccines, but some studies have shown that this innovative way of administration is preferred over needle injection as it is considered both less painful and intrusive to the body, equally effective, and associated with fewer side effects. This study aimed to investigate specific psychological determinants (intolerance of uncertainty, persecutory ideation, perceived control, vaccine hesitancy) of attitude toward nasal vaccine delivery. A convenience sample including 700 Italian participants took part in this cross-sectional study and completed an online questionnaire. A structural equation model with a latent variable was performed to study the relationship between psychological variables, vaccine hesitancy, and attitude toward nasal vaccine delivery. The results indicate that both a hesitant attitude toward vaccination (β = 0.20, p = 0.000) and low perceived control (β = −0.20, p = 0.005) may directly increase preference for nasal administration; furthermore, high levels of persecutory ideation may indirectly influence the propensity for intranasal vaccine. These findings suggest that pharmaceutical companies could implement nasal vaccines and provide detailed information on these vaccines through informational campaigns. Hesitant individuals with low levels of perceived control could more easily comply with these types of vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1117 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Health Professional Students: Cross-Sectional Data from the First Wave of the HOLISTIC Cohort Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091566 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5512
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy has been observed around the world, but there is a paucity of data among a broad range of U.S. health professional students. The goal of this report is to present findings about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among a cross-section of U.S. health [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy has been observed around the world, but there is a paucity of data among a broad range of U.S. health professional students. The goal of this report is to present findings about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among a cross-section of U.S. health professional students and determine if hesitancy varies by demographic characteristics, health science college, and other factors. A cross-sectional analysis of HOLISTIC Cohort Study participants enrolled from April 14 2021 to May 5 2021 at seven health sciences colleges in the University of Illinois Chicago was used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate vaccine hesitancy items and identify domains. Among 555 health professional students, three domains (perceived benefit, trustworthiness, and risk) contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Significant differences were observed in the domains among students of different races as well as vaccination history. Compared to students in the College of Medicine, students in the Colleges of Applied Health Science (OR 0.43; CI [0.19–0.96]), Pharmacy (OR 0.38; CI [0.17–0.87]), Nursing (OR 0.35; CI [0.16–0.78]), and Social Work (OR 0.30; CI [0.11–0.78]) reported lower perceived benefit. Compared to students in the College of Medicine, students in the College of Applied Health Sciences (OR 0.39; CI [0.17–0.94]), Dentistry (OR 0.27; CI [0.10–0.76]), Nursing (OR 0.38; CI [0.16–0.94]), and Social work (OR 0.31; CI [0.11–0.86]) reported more trustworthiness and more concerns about risk (OR 2.80; CI [1.15–6.81] for College of Applied Health Sciences, OR 9.12; CI [2.80–29.75] for Dentistry, OR 3.77; CI [1.47–9.65] for Nursing, OR 3.14; CI [1.02–9.67] for Social Work). Our findings suggest the need for a tailored vaccination strategy among different subgroups of health professional students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 510 KiB  
Article
Experience of COVID-19 Vaccination among Primary Healthcare Workers in Hong Kong: A Qualitative Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091531 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
Studies show that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy exists among healthcare workers (HCWs). Past personal experiences of vaccination, such as the seasonal influenza vaccination, influence individuals’ intention to receive future vaccinations. This study aimed to explore the experience of COVID-19 vaccination among [...] Read more.
Studies show that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy exists among healthcare workers (HCWs). Past personal experiences of vaccination, such as the seasonal influenza vaccination, influence individuals’ intention to receive future vaccinations. This study aimed to explore the experience of COVID-19 vaccination among primary care HCWs in Hong Kong. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted. Twenty-eight HCWs (ten doctors, ten nurses, and eight supporting staff) working in nine government-funded primary care clinics in Hong Kong who had completed at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination were interviewed. Four themes were generated, namely, the cognitive and emotional battle of vaccine hesitancy, catalysts for vaccine acceptance, blasting vaccination myths, and being a positive influence. Providing timely, adequate, and transparent vaccine information and addressing the specific concerns of HCWs about the COVID-19 vaccine could enhance their vaccination uptake in future. Specific vaccine promotion strategies, such as the sharing of vaccination experiences targeted at different subgroups of HCWs, may improve vaccine acceptance through informational social influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1145 KiB  
Article
High Frequency of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Canadians Immunized for Influenza: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091514 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
We assessed the frequency and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy before Canada’s vaccine rollout. A cross-sectional vaccine hesitancy survey was completed by consecutive patients/family members/staff who received the influenza vaccine at McGill University affiliated hospitals. Based on the self-reported likelihood of receiving a [...] Read more.
We assessed the frequency and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy before Canada’s vaccine rollout. A cross-sectional vaccine hesitancy survey was completed by consecutive patients/family members/staff who received the influenza vaccine at McGill University affiliated hospitals. Based on the self-reported likelihood of receiving a future vaccine (scale 0–10), the following three groups were defined: non-hesitant (score 10), mildly hesitant (7.1–9.9), and significantly hesitant (0–7). Factors associated with vaccine hesitancy were assessed with multivariate logistic regression analyses and binomial logistic regression machine learning modelling. The survey was completed by 1793 people. Thirty-seven percent of participants (n = 669) were hesitant (mildly: 315 (17.6%); significantly: 354 (19.7%)). Lower education levels, opposition and uncertainty about vaccines being mandatory, feelings of not receiving enough information about COVID-19 prevention, perceived social pressure to get a future vaccine, vaccine safety concerns, uncertainty regarding the vaccine risk-benefit ratio, and distrust towards pharmaceutical companies were factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine safety concerns and opposition to mandatory vaccinations were the strongest correlates of vaccine hesitancy in both the logistic regressions and the machine learning model. In conclusion, in this study, over a third of people immunized for influenza before the COVID-19 vaccine rollout expressed some degree of vaccine hesitancy. Effectively addressing COVID-19 vaccine safety concerns may enhance vaccine uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1603 KiB  
Article
Written Briefing and Oral Counseling Increase the Willingness to Receive the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination among Women in Puerperium: A Qualitative Prospective Cohort Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091505 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
(1) Background: Vaccination rates for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are low in Austria. International obstetric societies recommend the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination for women in puerperium. (2) Methods: A prospective two-stage cohort study was conducted at the Medical University of Vienna between October [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Vaccination rates for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are low in Austria. International obstetric societies recommend the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination for women in puerperium. (2) Methods: A prospective two-stage cohort study was conducted at the Medical University of Vienna between October 2022 and December 2022. Firstly, women in puerperium were assigned to the evaluation group (step 1), and secondly, another cohort of unvaccinated women were randomly assigned to study group A (written briefing) or B (written and oral briefing) (step 2). We evaluated the vaccination status among women in the evaluation group and the willingness to receive the vaccination in all three cohorts. (3) Results: We included 217 women in puerperium (evaluation: n = 69, A: n = 68; B: n = 80). In the evaluation group, 66.7% (n = 46/69) of the women were unvaccinated. A total of 45.7% (21/46) of the unvaccinated women categorically declined the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. A total of 26.5% (n = 18/68) of women in study group A, and 43.8% (n = 35/80) of women in study group B expressed their willingness to receive the vaccination (p = 0.029). There were no differences in willingness to receive the vaccination between different age strata of women in study groups A and B. (D) Conclusion: Our qualitative data demonstrate a benefit from oral counseling in addition to written briefing in order to increase the willingness to receive the vaccination among women in puerperium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination Status among Pregnant and Postpartum Women—A Cross-Sectional Study on More Than 1000 Individuals
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081179 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Pregnancy is a well-known factor for vaccine hesitancy and immunization remains the most effective form of prevention against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) related complications. The objective was to estimate vaccine uptake and hesitancy rate, characteristics, and factors contributing to a decision-making process among pregnant [...] Read more.
Pregnancy is a well-known factor for vaccine hesitancy and immunization remains the most effective form of prevention against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) related complications. The objective was to estimate vaccine uptake and hesitancy rate, characteristics, and factors contributing to a decision-making process among pregnant and postpartum individuals. This was a prospective cross-sectional study on 1033 pregnant (54.1%) and postpartum (45.9%) women conducted between December 2021 and March 2022 in a tertiary center for maternal–fetal medicine. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics related to the vaccination decision process. Among responders, 74% were vaccinated and 26% were hesitant (9% planning to vaccinate and 17% totally opposed). Only 59.8% were offered a vaccine by healthcare professionals. Women with higher levels of education (OR 2.26, p < 0.0001), who received positive feedback about vaccination (OR 2.74, p = 0.0172), or were informed about COVID-19 complications in pregnancy (OR 2.6, p < 0.0001) were most likely to accept the vaccination. Hesitancy was associated with multiparity (≥3, OR 4.76, p = 0.006), worse educational status (OR 2.29, p < 0.0001), and lack of previous COVID-19 infection (OR 1.89, p < 0.0001). The most common reason for rejection was insufficient safety data (57%). Understanding factors behind vaccination status is crucial in lowering complications in mothers and newborns and targeted action may facilitate the uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Behind the Scenes of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Psychological Predictors in an Italian Community Sample
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071158 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Psychological variables may be crucial in favoring or discouraging health-related behaviors, including vaccine acceptance. This study aimed to extend the previous literature by outlining the psychological profile associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a sample of Italian citizens. Between April and May 2021, [...] Read more.
Psychological variables may be crucial in favoring or discouraging health-related behaviors, including vaccine acceptance. This study aimed to extend the previous literature by outlining the psychological profile associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a sample of Italian citizens. Between April and May 2021, 1122 Italian volunteers completed a web survey on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, also including several self-reported psychological measures. A multiple hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the psychological variables associated with vaccine hesitancy. Low confidence in COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and safety, low collective responsibility, high complacency, and high calculation (i.e., extensive information searching, and costs–benefit estimates) predicted higher hesitancy. Our results suggest that to be effective, vaccine-related communications should be as clear, understandable, and sound as possible, preventing the spreading of misunderstandings, or even fake information, that may foster people’s insecurities and distrust. Furthermore, the advantages and necessity of vaccination, both at the individual and community-level, should be clearly emphasized. Efficacious vaccine-related communications may be crucial, not only to maintain an adequate immunity rate for COVID-19, but also to inform policymakers and public authorities in the case of possible future infectious outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
12 pages, 566 KiB  
Article
Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Intention: Evidence from Chile, Mexico, and Colombia
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071129 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
(1) Background: Although the evidence is consistent that vaccines for COVID-19 effectively prevent severe illness or death, the rapid development of vaccines has led to increased beliefs about possible negative consequences and conspiracy theories about the vaccine. Several factors influence whether or not [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Although the evidence is consistent that vaccines for COVID-19 effectively prevent severe illness or death, the rapid development of vaccines has led to increased beliefs about possible negative consequences and conspiracy theories about the vaccine. Several factors influence whether or not people decide to be vaccinated. Some studies suggest that our perception of what significant others do and think influences our behavior. (2) Methods: This study evaluates the predictive role of beliefs about negative consequences of the COVID-19 vaccine, conspiracy beliefs about this vaccine, and social influence on the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in three Latin American and Caribbean countries: Chile, Mexico, and Colombia. Using convenience sampling, 2075 adults from Chile (48.3%), Mexico (27.6%), and Colombia (24.6%) participated by answering an online questionnaire with variables of interest. (3) Results: Despite the differences between countries, the results showed that the proposed model is invariant and explains between 56–66% of the COVID-19 vaccination intent. Specifically, controlling for age, socioeconomic status, political orientation, and educational level, we found that beliefs about the negative consequences of the COVID-19 vaccine were the main predictor followed by social influence. Beliefs in conspiracy theories did not predict vaccination intention (4) Conclusions: Considering these variables in campaigns to boost vaccination intention is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1300 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Coverage and Potential Drivers of Vaccine Uptake among Healthcare Workers in SOMALIA: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071116 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are one of the most vulnerable groups for contracting COVID-19 and dying as a result of it. Over 10,000 HCWs in Africa have been infected with COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization, making it a substantial occupational health threat [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are one of the most vulnerable groups for contracting COVID-19 and dying as a result of it. Over 10,000 HCWs in Africa have been infected with COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization, making it a substantial occupational health threat for HCWs. To that end, Somalia’s Ministry of Health has ordered that all healthcare personnel obtain the COVID-19 vaccination to safeguard themselves and the community they serve. In this investigation, we aimed to assess the COVID-19 vaccination coverage and its associated factors among healthcare workers in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was employed to examine COVID-19 vaccination coverage among healthcare personnel in Somalia. The data were obtained via an online questionnaire supplied by Google forms between December 2021 and February 2022, where a total of 1281 healthcare workers from the various federal states of Somalia were recruited. A multinomial regression analysis was used to analyse the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Overall, 1281 HCWs participated (630 females, 651 males) with a mean age and standard deviation of 27.7 years ± 7.1. The overall vaccine coverage was 37.4%. Sex, age, the state of residency, education level, specialization, hospital COVID-19 policy, vaccine availability at the centre, COVID-19 treatment centre, and health facility level were the factors that influenced the COVID-19 vaccine uptake among health professionals in Somalia. Male healthcare employees were 2.2 times (odds ratio-OR = 2.2; confidence interval-CI: 1.70, 2.75, p < 0.001) more likely than female healthcare workers to be fully vaccinated. The survey discovered that the COVID-19 vaccine coverage among health professionals was quite low, with the major contributing factors being accessibility, security challenges and literary prowess. Additional efforts to enhance vaccination uptake are needed to improve the COVID-19 vaccination coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1272 KiB  
Article
Trust in Science as a Possible Mediator between Different Antecedents and COVID-19 Booster Vaccination Intention: An Integration of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071099 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4053
Abstract
As the literature highlights, many health behavior theories try to explain both social and psychological variables influencing an individual’s health behavior. This study integrates insights relative to the antecedents of getting vaccinated from health behavior theories, particularly including the health belief model (HBM), [...] Read more.
As the literature highlights, many health behavior theories try to explain both social and psychological variables influencing an individual’s health behavior. This study integrates insights relative to the antecedents of getting vaccinated from health behavior theories, particularly including the health belief model (HBM), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and the different socio-demographic factors. Furthermore, we considered the possible mechanism of impact of distrust in science on individuals’ hesitance and resistance to taking up SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in subjects living in Italy. A correlational study of 1095 subjects enrolled when the national vaccination campaign for the third dose was launched. A questionnaire was used to measure: Italian Risk Perception; subjective norm; trust in science, trust in the vaccine; fear of COVID-19; fear of the vaccine; perceived knowledge about SARS-CoV-2; booster vaccination intention. Principal results show that: (i) the positive relationship provided by HBM theory between perceptions of SARS-CoV-2 risk (vulnerability and severity) and intention to have the vaccine, through fear of COVID-19; (ii) the positive relationship between subjective norms and both trust in science and vaccination intention; (iii) that trust in science plays a crucial role in predicting vaccination intention. Finally, the results provided indications about a positive relationship between subjective norms and fear of COVID-19, and a full mediation role of trust in science in the relationships between determinants of both TPA and HBM, fear of COVID-19, and vaccination intention. In conclusion, an individual’s intention (not) to get vaccinated requires the consideration of a plethora of socio-psychological factors. However, overall, trust in science appears to be a key determinant of vaccination intention. Additional strategies promoting healthy behavior are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1936 KiB  
Article
Fear of Illness and Convenient Access to Vaccines Appear to Be the Missing Keys to Successful Vaccination Campaigns: Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Decisions of Hospital Staff in Poland concerning Vaccination against Influenza and COVID-19
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071026 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted for two years as of 2022, and it is common knowledge that vaccines are an essential tool to mitigate the health, economic, and social fallout. Unfortunately, vaccine hesitancy is still a serious global problem, both in the general [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted for two years as of 2022, and it is common knowledge that vaccines are an essential tool to mitigate the health, economic, and social fallout. Unfortunately, vaccine hesitancy is still a serious global problem, both in the general population and among healthcare workers. The authors used an original questionnaire to conduct an anonymous survey study in the University Clinical Hospital in Wrocław, Poland, in April and May of 2021 after acquiring consent from the Medical University of Wrocław, Poland Bioethical Committee. The study results demonstrate that, to a significant extent, the decisions concerning vaccinations are based on factors that are difficult to change with rational argumentation, including people’s personal opinions or beliefs concerning vaccinations and their earlier experiences with vaccinations. The study results suggest that the impregnating effect of one’s own opinions, beliefs, and experiences can be surmounted if vaccines are dispensed free and conveniently while the pathogen is irrationally and emotionally perceived as untamed and possibly severe and life threatening. It makes a significant difference as in such cases that the percentage of participants whose decisions concerning vaccination are influenced by the risks to life or health of one’s own or others rises by about 27 and 36 percent points, respectively. Therefore, in order to succeed, campaigns for vaccinations need to include strong subjective and emotional communication, appealing to negative emotions and exploiting the public’s fear of the unknown while stressing tangible and personal threats possibly resulting from acquiring a vaccine-preventable infectious disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 772 KiB  
Article
Opposing Role of Trust as a Modifier of COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake in an Indigenous Population
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060968 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) were disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 and remain significantly under-vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. To understand vaccine hesitancy, we surveyed 1124 adults residing in a region with one of the lowest vaccination rates in Hawaii during our COVID-19 testing [...] Read more.
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) were disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 and remain significantly under-vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. To understand vaccine hesitancy, we surveyed 1124 adults residing in a region with one of the lowest vaccination rates in Hawaii during our COVID-19 testing program. Probit regression analysis revealed that race/ethnicity was not directly associated with the probability of vaccine uptake. Instead, a higher degree of trust in official sources of COVID-19 information increased the probability of vaccination by 20.68%, whereas a higher trust in unofficial sources decreased the probability of vaccination by 12.49% per unit of trust. These results revealed a dual and opposing role of trust on vaccine uptake. Interestingly, NHPIs were the only racial/ethnic group to exhibit a significant positive association between trust in and consumption of unofficial sources of COVID-19 information, which explained the vaccine hesitancy observed in this indigenous population. These results offer novel insight relevant to COVID-19 mitigation efforts in minority populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
11 pages, 366 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Intentions among South Carolina Residents
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060942 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Despite evidence of vaccine safety and efficacy, vaccine hesitancy remains a major global health threat. The COVID-19 vaccine has presented unique vaccine hesitancy concerns compared to parental vaccine hesitancy towards childhood vaccines. South Carolina (SC) is home to a largely conservative population and [...] Read more.
Despite evidence of vaccine safety and efficacy, vaccine hesitancy remains a major global health threat. The COVID-19 vaccine has presented unique vaccine hesitancy concerns compared to parental vaccine hesitancy towards childhood vaccines. South Carolina (SC) is home to a largely conservative population and historically has some of the lowest vaccination coverage rates in the United States of America. The goal of the current study was to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine intentions among SC residents. From November 2020 to September 2021, 300,000 invitations to participate in community testing and complete an online survey were mailed to randomly selected SC residents. The survey collected data about behaviors and attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines, as well as demographic and health characteristics. Of the 10,626 survey participants, 69.9% reported being vaccinated against COVID-19. Among those not vaccinated, 65.5% reported vaccine intentions. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine intentions. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that confidence in the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines increased the likelihood of vaccine intentions, while younger age (<60 years) decreased the likelihood of vaccine intentions. To increase vaccine intentions and uptake, public health and government officials in South Carolina and other conservative states should target younger populations and address concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3862 KiB  
Article
Confidence in a Vaccine against COVID-19 among Registered Nurses in Barcelona, Spain across Two Time Periods
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060873 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2627
Abstract
Objective: To report the vaccine hesitancy (VH) for a vaccine against COVID-19 in registered nurses in Barcelona, with measurements taken at two stages, prior to the vaccination campaign and once 75% vaccination coverage had been reached. Methods: A self-completed online survey was administered [...] Read more.
Objective: To report the vaccine hesitancy (VH) for a vaccine against COVID-19 in registered nurses in Barcelona, with measurements taken at two stages, prior to the vaccination campaign and once 75% vaccination coverage had been reached. Methods: A self-completed online survey was administered in December 2020 and again in July 2021 through the College of Nurses of Barcelona. It measured the prevalence of VH against a government-approved vaccine recommended by their employer, their intention to be vaccinated, perceptions of disease risk and vaccine protection, attitudes and beliefs to vaccination and social norm. Bivariate analysis according to VH and application time are presented. Results: 2430 valid responses were obtained in the first measurement and 2027 in the second. At both times, 86% were women and 69% worked mainly in the public sector. Prior to the vaccine availability, VH was 34.2%, decreasing to 17.9%. Risk perceptions were significantly lower in those with VH compared to non-VH, in all groups studied and at both times, while safety and efficacy perceptions increased in all groups, significantly less in VH. The greatest benefit of the COVID-19 vaccine is perceived by pharmaceutical companies. VH nurses perceived a more hesitant social environment. Conclusion: As the vaccination was rolled out, VH in nurses declined, with time improving the confidence in the safety and efficacy of the vaccines. Risk perceptions also decreased over time, except for the perception of severity in HCW where it increased. Trust in institutions impacts trust in vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Self-Reported COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Willingness to Pay: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Thailand
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040627 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and influencing factors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and willingness to pay in Thailand. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from 13 September 2021 to 14 January 2022. Data were collected using an online questionnaire consisting of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and influencing factors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and willingness to pay in Thailand. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from 13 September 2021 to 14 January 2022. Data were collected using an online questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (delay in acceptance and denying vaccination), determinants of vaccine hesitancy (complacency, convenience, and confidence), and willingness to pay. The general Thai population aged ≥18 years were surveyed. Among 705 respondents, 10.4% reported hesitancy, with significant determinants being low complacency and confidence in the vaccine; low convenience was not a significant determinant. Multivariate analysis revealed vaccine hesitancy among women, those with higher education, non-healthcare workers, and those who lived in rural areas. Furthermore, 77.2% of respondents were willing to pay, with the majority willing to pay in the range of THB 501–1000 ( USD 1 = THB 33) per dose. Increased monthly income, no impact of COVID-19 on income, and time period (before mRNA vaccine availability) significantly affected willingness to pay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
18 pages, 635 KiB  
Article
The Willingness of Elderly Taiwanese Individuals to Accept COVID-19 Vaccines after the First Local Outbreak
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040520 - 27 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Vaccination is the most effective intervention to prevent infection and subsequent complications from SARS-CoV-2. Because of their multiple comorbidities, the elderly population experienced the highest number of deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic. Although in most countries, older people have top priority for COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Vaccination is the most effective intervention to prevent infection and subsequent complications from SARS-CoV-2. Because of their multiple comorbidities, the elderly population experienced the highest number of deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic. Although in most countries, older people have top priority for COVID-19 vaccines, their actual willingness and attitudes regarding vaccination are still unclear. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate their willingness, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge of COVID-19 through a web-based questionnaire after the first local outbreak of COVID-19 in Taiwan. A total of 957 questionnaires were completed, and 74.9% of elderly individuals were likely to receive COVID-19 vaccines. The results from a multiple logistic regression demonstrated that older people who need to visit the outpatient department and have a high level of concern about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines are prone to having a negative willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccines. The following items related to awareness of the COVID-19 pandemic were attributed to the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines: “understanding the risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2”, “understanding the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines”, “willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine for protecting others”, and “safety of COVID-19 vaccines is a key factor for you to accept them”. Furthermore, a positive association between COVID-19 vaccination and attitudes toward accepting booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine was observed. Our results show that these factors could affect the willingness of older people to accept COVID-19 vaccines and that they are important for policymakers and medical staff to develop vaccination plans during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 11417 KiB  
Article
Willingness to Receive COVID-19 Booster Vaccine: Associations between Green-Pass, Social Media Information, Anti-Vax Beliefs, and Emotional Balance
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030481 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6783
Abstract
The aims of the present investigation were (i) to determine psychological relapses of COVID-19 booster vaccine; (ii) to identify the determining factors affecting willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine; and (iii) to study the relationship among emotional characteristics (anxiety, stress, depression, optimism), social media [...] Read more.
The aims of the present investigation were (i) to determine psychological relapses of COVID-19 booster vaccine; (ii) to identify the determining factors affecting willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine; and (iii) to study the relationship among emotional characteristics (anxiety, stress, depression, optimism), social media information, and the mandatory political choices (i.e., green-pass) in Croatian people. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted for 1003 participants (median age: 40 years) from Croatia during December 2021. Results showed a significant association between vaccinated and unvaccinated participants in all sociodemographic variables, except for gender (p = 0.905). For psychological variables, significant differences were found only for levels of optimism (p < 0.001). People with a postgraduate degree (OR: 2.25, [1.14–4.46], p = 0.020) and PhD (OR: 1.97, [95% CI: 1.01–3.52], p = 0.021) had higher odds of being vaccinated than participants with high school diplomas. Additionally, participants seeking information on TV and radio (OR: 2.35, [1.71–3.23], p < 0.001) or from general practitioner (OR: 2.53, [1.78–3.61], p < 0.001) had higher odds of being vaccinated. Conversely, participants seeking information on social networks (OR: 0.36, [0.27–0.49], p < 0.001), general internet/blogs forums (OR: 0.34, [0.22–0.52], p < 0.001), and from friends or acquaintances (OR: 0.66, [0.48–0.91], p = 0.011) had lower odds of being vaccinated. Additionally, results showed that information policies have failed to fully convince the population to vaccinate and that depression (p = 0.491), anxiety (p = 0.220), and stress (p = 0.521) were not determining factors leading to the decision to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Most of the vaccinated participants perceived the green-pass as potentially useful. In contrast, most unvaccinated participants believed that the green-pass is a form of discrimination and not useful (88%). Further and broader research into possible reasons for continuing or undertaking vaccination is needed. It is recommended to introduce a measure of conformism that represents a change of attitude, belief, or behavior in a narrower sense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 214 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination Status and Attitudes of Family Child Care Providers in Delaware, September 2021
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030477 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Child care providers, including family child care (FCC) providers, are viewed as trusted sources of information for the parents and families they serve, and their vaccine behavior has been shown to be associated with parent beliefs and behaviors. This study sought to describe [...] Read more.
Child care providers, including family child care (FCC) providers, are viewed as trusted sources of information for the parents and families they serve, and their vaccine behavior has been shown to be associated with parent beliefs and behaviors. This study sought to describe the COVID-19 vaccine behaviors and attitudes among FCC providers in Delaware. An online survey was distributed to all licensed FCC providers (N = 541) in September 2021. Survey items were drawn from validated instruments and assessed vaccination status, attitudes, and confidence in their ability to discuss COVID-19 vaccines with families. In total, 168 responses were recorded (31% response rate); 69.8% of respondents were fully vaccinated against COVID-19. The majority indicated that they would require (11.4%) or recommend (42.1%) the vaccine for children in their care, once approved by the FDA. Providers reported high levels of confidence in their ability to discuss both the benefits and risks of COVID-19 vaccines. FCC providers should be considered key messengers for the families they serve and may be helpful liaisons with state and local vaccination efforts. Input from FCC providers could be used to develop vaccine messaging and materials that are clear, consistent, and culturally responsive to the families of the children in their care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
13 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Flu Vaccination Coverage and Predictors of Non-Vaccination in Military Health Corps Personnel 2016–2017 and 2019–2021
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030460 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
(1) Background: Vaccination is the most effective intervention to control seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality. The present study aimed to determine the influenza vaccination coverage in the Military Health Corps personnel in the 2020–2021 season, as well as the time trend and the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Vaccination is the most effective intervention to control seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality. The present study aimed to determine the influenza vaccination coverage in the Military Health Corps personnel in the 2020–2021 season, as well as the time trend and the possible influence of the pandemic on coverage, in order to study the reasons that led to the non-vaccination of health professionals and to analyze adverse drug reactions (ADRs). (2) Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2021. All FAS CMS personnel were included. A self-administered questionnaire was sent by e-mail to the selected personnel. (3) Results: Vaccination coverage in the 2016–2017 season was 15.8% (n = 276), in the 2019–2020 season it was 17.41% (n = 424), and in the 2020–2021 season it was 24.22% (n = 590). The percentage of vaccinated men was higher than the percentage of women. In 2019 and 2020 the most vaccinated group was 31–40 years old. Lieutenants had the highest vaccination uptake in 2019 and 2020. The personnel with the highest uptake of vaccines were those in the specialty of nursing in each of 2016, 2019 and 2020, with >30 years of time worked in 2016. In terms of factors leading to refusal of vaccination, the most reported was “not considered a risk group” (23.0%), and the least reported was “avoidance of vaccine administration” (2.2%). Eighty individuals presented adverse reactions after vaccine administration (9.6%). (4) Conclusions: The rate of influenza vaccination among healthcare professionals was lower during the 2020 season compared to the previous season, but was expected to increase in the upcoming 2021 season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
17 pages, 334 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Attitudes, Main Concerns and Sources of Knowledge Regarding COVID-19 Vaccination in Poland in the Unvaccinated Individuals—A Nationwide Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030381 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Vaccination is the most effective tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is ineffective without appropriate public acceptance. In Poland, 53% of the country’s population is vaccinated, which puts us in the last position among the EU countries. Therefore, this study aims [...] Read more.
Vaccination is the most effective tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is ineffective without appropriate public acceptance. In Poland, 53% of the country’s population is vaccinated, which puts us in the last position among the EU countries. Therefore, this study aims to assess the main concerns regarding vaccination in the unvaccinated population of Poland. The study was based on an original questionnaire that was distributed online. There were three phases of the study: Phase 1—before the preventive vaccination plan, Phase 2—2 months after implementation of the programme, Phase 3—after 4 months when the immunisation rate in Poland was 42%. A total of 4459 individuals participated in the study. As many as 1943 participants were excluded from the analysis due to lack of consent (30 subjects) or COVID-19 vaccination (1913 subjects). Out of the remaining 2516 unvaccinated individuals, 463 were participants in the first phase of the study, 1137 in the second phase of the study, and 916 in the third phase. As the preventive vaccination plan in Poland continued, concerns about vaccine adverse events, safety and efficacy were raised. The only lower concern was that about the vaccine transportation rules. Moreover, as the vaccination programme continued, there was an increase in the percentage of individuals declaring their full reluctance towards vaccination against COVID-19. Conclusions: The Internet is the main source of knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccination, so it should be focused on during vaccination campaigns. The public is primarily concerned about adverse events of vaccines and the lack of appropriate tests of the products used. Therefore, it is advisable to popularise the current state of knowledge and promote reliable information concerning the COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
11 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
The Attitude towards Vaccination of Health Sciences Students at a Spanish University Improved over the First 18 Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020237 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
It is important to know the attitudes of students of health sciences (SHSs) towards vaccination since they will be tomorrow’s health professionals. Vaccination is a powerful tool in the fight against COVID-19. The aim of the present, cross-sectional study was to examine how [...] Read more.
It is important to know the attitudes of students of health sciences (SHSs) towards vaccination since they will be tomorrow’s health professionals. Vaccination is a powerful tool in the fight against COVID-19. The aim of the present, cross-sectional study was to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced the attitude of SHSs towards vaccination. Data were collected in the form of a questionnaire from all students of nursing, physiotherapy and chiropody matriculated at a Madrid University for the academic year 2019/2020 (i.e., before the start of the pandemic [Q1]), and from all those matriculated for the year 2021/22 (i.e., c18 months after the pandemic was declared [Q2]). A multivariate analysis was performed to identify the influence of sex, degree being studied, course year and the time of answering (Q1 or Q2), on the dimensions Beliefs, Behaviours and General Attitude. Overall, 1894 questionnaires were returned (934 [49.3%] for Q1, and 960 [50.7%] for Q2), of which 70.5% were completed by students of nursing, 14% by students of physiotherapy and 15.4% by those studying chiropody. In Q2, the results for all three dimensions were significantly better (p < 0.05). The most important influencing factors were being a student of nursing, being in the final years of training (years 3 or 4), female gender and answering at the time of Q2. The results obtained are encouraging since student nurses (who showed Q1 and Q2 General Attitude scores of 3.34 and 3.47 (maximum possible 4), respectively [p < 0.05]) are the health professionals of tomorrow most likely to be involved in vaccination programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
11 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Vaccine Coverage against Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 in Health Sciences Students during COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020159 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
Vaccination against influenza and SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in health sciences students to reduce the risk of acquiring these diseases and transmitting them to patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate how the pandemic influenced the modification of influenza vaccination coverage during [...] Read more.
Vaccination against influenza and SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in health sciences students to reduce the risk of acquiring these diseases and transmitting them to patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate how the pandemic influenced the modification of influenza vaccination coverage during the 2019/2020 and 2021/2022 campaigns and to analyze the vaccination coverage against SARS-CoV-2 in health sciences students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of the Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry of the Complutense University of Madrid. A questionnaire was administered in two stages, the first, Q1, before the start of the pandemic, where we analyzed influenza coverage during the 2019/2020 campaign and a second, Q2, 18 months after the start of the pandemic where we analyzed influenza coverage during the 2021/2022 campaign and coverage against SARS-CoV-2. A total of 1894 students (58.78% of the total of those enrolled) participated. Flu vaccination coverage increased from 26.7% in Q1 to 35.0% in Q2 (p < 0.05), being higher in the age group older than 21 years, who studied nursing, were in their fourth year and lived with people at risk. Vaccination coverage against SARS-CoV-2 was very high (97.8%), especially in students vaccinated against influenza. Coverage of the influenza vaccine in health sciences students increased from 2019–2020 to 2021–2022, being higher in the age group older than 21 years, who studied nursing, were in their first and fourth year and lived with people at risk. Coverage of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in health sciences students was very high, especially in those vaccinated against influenza. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Intention to Receive the COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose in a University Community in Italy
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020146 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 4053
Abstract
This cross-sectional study, conducted in Naples (Italy) between 16 November and 6 December 2021, explored the willingness to receive the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine among a random sample selected from the list of those who had completed a primary vaccination series [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study, conducted in Naples (Italy) between 16 November and 6 December 2021, explored the willingness to receive the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine among a random sample selected from the list of those who had completed a primary vaccination series at the immunization center of a teaching hospital in Naples and the associated factors. Females had a significantly higher perceived risk of getting the SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas those not-having a cohabitant were less worried. 85.7% were willing to receive the booster dose. Those older respondents who perceived a better health status after the primary vaccination series, who have friends/family members who were diagnosed with COVID-19, who had received information from official government organizations, and those who did not need information would be willing to get the booster dose. 24.7% was hesitant with a Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (VHS) score ≥ 25. Respondents who self-rated a lower health status after the primary vaccination series, who did not have friends/family members who were diagnosed with COVID-19, who had not received information from official government organizations, and who needed information were hesitant. Information and communication regarding the benefits and efficacy of the booster dose are needed in order to control the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
11 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Attitudes of Poles towards the COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose: An Online Survey in Poland
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010068 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Introduction: COVID-19 vaccination has now become the most effective way to combat the pandemic, but there is a gradual decline in the protection that it offers over time. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and EMA now recommend the use of the [...] Read more.
Introduction: COVID-19 vaccination has now become the most effective way to combat the pandemic, but there is a gradual decline in the protection that it offers over time. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and EMA now recommend the use of the so-called booster dose, especially in at-risk groups. The purpose of the study was to assess the attitudes of Poles towards the recommendation to receive a booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and to evaluate the main reasons for refusing or delaying the decision. Material and methods: The study was based on a proprietary questionnaire distributed via the Internet. There were 1598 respondents, 54 of which did not consent to participate in the survey and/or did not complete the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. As a result, 1528 surveys were included in the final analysis. The vast majority of the respondents, namely 1275 (83.4%), were female, and 772 (50.5%) were residents of cities with a population of over 250,000. Results: Out of all respondents, 38 (2.5%) had already received the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose and 1031 (67.4%) would like to receive it as soon as possible. Forty-five (2.9%) respondents reported that they were completely unwilling to take the booster dose. The occurrence of adverse events after primary vaccination were reported by 79.9% of the survey participants. The most common reasons why the respondents refused to be vaccinated are lack of confidence in the effectiveness of the booster dose and the occurrence of adverse events in them or their loved ones. Age, gender, residence, or relationship status were not shown to affect attitudes towards the expansion of the basic vaccination schedule. Conclusions: One in three respondents plans to delay or refrain from taking the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. The main reason for refusal to be vaccinated is the belief that the previous vaccination provides sufficient protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
18 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence: Findings from Slums of Four Major Metro Cities of India
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010060 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
There are limited studies on COVID vaccine confidence at the household level in urban slums, which are at high risk of COVID-19 transmission due to overcrowding and poor living conditions. The objective was to understand the reasons influencing COVID-19 vaccine confidence, in terms [...] Read more.
There are limited studies on COVID vaccine confidence at the household level in urban slums, which are at high risk of COVID-19 transmission due to overcrowding and poor living conditions. The objective was to understand the reasons influencing COVID-19 vaccine confidence, in terms of barriers and enablers faced by communities in urban slums and informal settlements in four major metro cities in India. A mixed method approach was adopted, where in field studies were conducted during April–May 2021. First, a survey of at least 50 subjects was conducted among residents of informal urban settlements who had not taken any dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in Mumbai, Bengaluru, Kolkata and Delhi; second, a short interview with five subjects who had taken at least one dose of the vaccine in each of the four cities to understand the factors that contributed to positive behaviour and, finally, an in-depth interview of at least 3 key informants in each city to ascertain the vaccination pattern in the communities. The reasons were grouped under contextual, individual/group and vaccine/vaccination specific issues. The most frequent reason (27.7%) was the uncertainty of getting the vaccine. The findings show the need for increasing effectiveness of awareness campaigns, accessibility and the convenience of vaccination, especially among vulnerable groups, to increase the uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
14 pages, 1336 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination in People Living with HIV (PLWH) in China: A Cross Sectional Study of Vaccine Hesitancy, Safety, and Immunogenicity
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121458 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
The administration of COVID-19 vaccines is the primary strategy used to prevent further infections by COVID-19, especially in people living with HIV (PLWH), who are at increased risk for severe symptoms and mortality. However, the vaccine hesitancy, safety, and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines [...] Read more.
The administration of COVID-19 vaccines is the primary strategy used to prevent further infections by COVID-19, especially in people living with HIV (PLWH), who are at increased risk for severe symptoms and mortality. However, the vaccine hesitancy, safety, and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines among PLWH have not been fully characterized. We estimated vaccine hesitancy and status of COVID-19 vaccination in Chinese PLWH, explored the safety and impact on antiviral therapy (ART) efficacy and compared the immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine between PLWH and healthy controls (HC). In total, 27.5% (104/378) of PLWH hesitated to take the vaccine. The barriers included concerns about safety and efficacy, and physician counselling might help patients overcome this vaccine hesitancy. A COVID-19 vaccination did not cause severe side effects and had no negative impact on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV RNA viral load. Comparable spike receptor binding domain IgG titer were elicited in PLWH and HC after a second dose of the CoronaVac vaccine, but antibody responses were lower in poor immunological responders (CD4+ T cell counts < 350 cells/µL) compared with immunological responders (CD4+ T cell counts ≥ 350 cells/µL). These data showed that PLWH have comparable safety and immune response following inactivated COVID-19 vaccination compared with HC, but the poor immunological response in PLWH is associated with impaired humoral response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1462 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Perception, and Willingness towards Immunization among Bangladeshi Population during COVID-19 Vaccine Rolling Period
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121449 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4871
Abstract
Vaccine willingness among the mass populace, as well as their proper knowledge and perception regarding vaccines and the vaccination process, may contribute extensively towards attaining their anticipated vaccination rates. The current study endeavored to ascertain the Bangladeshi population’s knowledge, perception, and willingness towards [...] Read more.
Vaccine willingness among the mass populace, as well as their proper knowledge and perception regarding vaccines and the vaccination process, may contribute extensively towards attaining their anticipated vaccination rates. The current study endeavored to ascertain the Bangladeshi population’s knowledge, perception, and willingness towards COVID-19 vaccination. Relevant information was collected from 1201 adults aged 18 years or older by employing an online-based survey from 1 to 30 July 2021. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square (χ2) test, and a binary logistic regression analysis were applied in order to compare the extent of knowledge and perception prevalent among different demographic groups and correlate such prevalence with respective vaccine willingness. The participants expressed mean (± standard deviation) knowledge and perception scores of 6.48 ± 1.13 out of 8 and 5.37 ± 1.22 out of 7, respectively. A multivariate analysis confirmed the significant association (p < 0.05) of gender, age, and family income with the knowledge score, whereas age and knowledge level significantly influenced perception. Current living area, family income, and age were considerable contributors to COVID-19 vaccine willingness. Overall vaccine willingness was found to be significantly curtailed by inadequate knowledge (AOR 0.514, CI 95% 0.401–0.658, p < 0.001) and perception (AOR 0.710, CI 95% 0.548–0.920, p = 0.010) among the participants. All of the concerned authorities’ efforts are warranted in order to improve public understanding, perception, and inclination towards vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6430 KiB  
Article
Role of Vaccine Hesitancy, eHealth Literacy, and Vaccine Literacy in Young Adults’ COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Intention in a Lower-Middle-Income Country
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121405 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3936
Abstract
Various control measures, including vaccination, have been taken to flatten the COVID-19 epidemic curve across the globe. However, in Bangladesh, many young adults, considered the asymptomatic transmitter of the disease, are waiting to get their first shot. Therefore, the potential predictors of the [...] Read more.
Various control measures, including vaccination, have been taken to flatten the COVID-19 epidemic curve across the globe. However, in Bangladesh, many young adults, considered the asymptomatic transmitter of the disease, are waiting to get their first shot. Therefore, the potential predictors of the young adults’ vaccine uptake intention are significant to ensure their maximum vaccination when available to them. This study examined how vaccine hesitancy, eHealth literacy, and vaccine literacy are associated with young adults’ COVID-19 vaccine uptake intention in a lower-middle-income country. A total of 343 young adults participated in the study. Using ordinary least square and probit estimation, we examined the effect of the explanatory variables of interest on vaccine uptake intention. Vaccine hesitancy emerged as the strongest predictor of vaccine uptake intention. eHealth literacy shared a positive association with vaccine uptake intention, while vaccine literacy had no significant association. To make young adults feel more confident about the vaccine, transmitting the latest vaccine safety updates through authentic channels is essential. The government can aim to enhance the eHealth literacy of young adults as an increased level of eHealth literacy will enable young adults to extract reliable health-related information more efficiently than ever. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 980 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Healthcare Personnel: A University Hospital Experience
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111343 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2934
Abstract
Healthcare workers are among risk groups in the COVID-19. Even if they are not infected with the disease, they witness the effects of the pandemic. The aim of the study is to determine the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination status and reasons for vaccine [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers are among risk groups in the COVID-19. Even if they are not infected with the disease, they witness the effects of the pandemic. The aim of the study is to determine the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination status and reasons for vaccine hesitancy of healthcare personnel in our hospital. Firstly, the vaccination status and demographic characteristics of all healthcare personnel was evaluated. After that, a survey was applied to 408 vaccinated and 297 nonvaccinated personnel. Within the first month after the beginning of vaccination, 66% of 3937 healthcare personnel received a COVID-19 vaccine. The number of vaccinated personnel was higher among doctors, master graduates or higher educational levels and basic science-laboratory unit workers. In the surveyed group, being under the age of 50 (OR:1.85), being nondoctor healthcare personnel (nurse/midwife OR:1.78, administrative personnel OR:3.42, patient attendant/cleaning staff OR:4.11, security guard/other OR:2.96), having had the disease before (OR:2.36), not having the flu vaccine (OR:3.24) and hesitancy about other vaccines (OR:6.61) were found to be independent risk factors for not having a COVID-19 vaccine or having it late. The three most common reasons for not getting vaccinated were doubt on the efficacy of the vaccine, distrust of its content, and fear of side effects. Taking steps by considering the main factors of hesitancy among healthcare personnel will increase the vaccine acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Explaining COVID-19 Vaccine Rejection Using Social Cognitive Theory in Qassim, Saudi Arabia
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111304 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines needs a health promotion approach to address various social, environmental and personal factors leading to vaccine hesitancy. We assessed the vaccine hesitancy rate and applied social cognitive theory (SCT) to understand COVID-19 vaccine rejection in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A [...] Read more.
Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines needs a health promotion approach to address various social, environmental and personal factors leading to vaccine hesitancy. We assessed the vaccine hesitancy rate and applied social cognitive theory (SCT) to understand COVID-19 vaccine rejection in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among visitors of 10 randomly selected primary health care centers in Buraidah, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire. The variables were grouped into six constructs of SCT. Logistic regression was used to assess the predictors of vaccine rejection. Out of 486 participants included in the study, 30.5% rejected the vaccine. The most common reason for vaccine rejection was uncertainty about the vaccine’s effectiveness (78%). Among various constructs of SCT, reciprocal determinism (nationality, income and suffering from COVID-19 infection), behavioral capability (knowledge about vaccine safety), self-efficacy (registered for vaccine), and observational learning (getting the vaccine after friends and family members) were significant predictors. Expectation and reinforcement constructs did not show significant association. There was high vaccine rejection in Qassim, KSA. This calls for further improving the mass education strategies. Social cognitive theory can be used to predict vaccine rejection and to develop strategies to increase the utilization of COVID-19 vaccines in Saudi Arabia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitudes and Perception toward COVID-19 Vaccines among Adults in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111259 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3886
Abstract
Background: Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that initiated early vaccination programs despite the global challenges concerning the availability of COVID-19 vaccines. Massive vaccination campaigns have been undertaken in the country; however, negative perception and hesitancy toward vaccines may exist which could [...] Read more.
Background: Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that initiated early vaccination programs despite the global challenges concerning the availability of COVID-19 vaccines. Massive vaccination campaigns have been undertaken in the country; however, negative perception and hesitancy toward vaccines may exist which could reduce public response to vaccination. Further, studies evaluating the current perception and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines are scarce. Thus, this study aims to assess the community attitudes and perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccines in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective study using an online questionnaire was conducted among the public in Jazan, the southern region of Saudi Arabia. General and demographic data were collected, and perception and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines were evaluated. Results: Most participants in this study were female (67%) with a median age of 23 years. The majority held a bachelor’s degree, and they trusted the Saudi healthcare system. Our survey showed that 67% of the study participants had positive perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccines, a finding that is significantly associated with receiving the influenza vaccine in the past, the existence of trust on the current healthcare system and holding positive beliefs toward the effectiveness of the current COVID-19 vaccines in reducing the risk of infection, complication, and mortality. Conclusions: The proportion of the public in Jazan who believed in the COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness is not inferior from similar international reports. Thus, national awareness programs toward the effectiveness of the vaccine could be enhanced to accelerate vaccination coverage. Further, nationwide surveys are warranted to include larger populations from different communities to assess the overall perception toward COVID-19 vaccines in the whole country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
18 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
The Barriers, Challenges, and Strategies of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Vaccine Acceptance: A Concurrent Mixed-Method Study in Tehran City, Iran
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111248 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4288
Abstract
Acceptance and willingness to receive the vaccine are among the main factors in the success or failure of a health system in implementing the vaccination program. The present study was conducted in Tehran, the political and economic capital of Iran, to determine the [...] Read more.
Acceptance and willingness to receive the vaccine are among the main factors in the success or failure of a health system in implementing the vaccination program. The present study was conducted in Tehran, the political and economic capital of Iran, to determine the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and identify its associated factors, and explain the most important barriers and acceptance strategies for vaccination. This research was a concurrent quantitative and qualitative mixed-method study. In the quantitative part, 1200 individuals aged more than 18 years were selected from the households in 22 districts of Tehran City, with a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Two questionnaires were used to evaluate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and vaccine acceptance determinants. The qualitative content analysis method addressed the influencing factors, as well as challenges and strategies related to the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in four groups of Tehran inhabitants: the elderly, people with underlying diseases, healthcare workers, and the general population. The related data were simultaneously collected by applying in-depth semi-structural interviews and a data analysis process. Furthermore, we used the Graneheim and Lundman method for data analysis. We analyzed the data of 1200 people with a mean (SD) age of 46.4 (11.1) years, and approximately 58% of them were men. The vaccine acceptance was 83.6% (95% CI: 81.3–85.9). Among those who welcomed vaccination, 58% preferred the imported vaccines, 25% the Iranian ones, and 17% both. There was a significant association between the variables of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.01–2.93), being single (AOR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41–0.91), moderate pharmacotherapy adherence (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.4–0.85), and the willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Qualitative study after interviewing 45 people from four study groups showed an insufficient social trust in healthcare system officials, pharmaceutical and vaccine production companies; distrust in the effectiveness of the vaccines, concerns about the vaccine adverse effects, being tracked by microchips after vaccination, traditional anti-vaccination movements, the feeling the inessentiality of vaccination, and uncertainty about the fair distribution of the vaccine. These concerns were the main challenges addressed by the study groups. A good proportion of Tehran residents reported their willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they expressed their critical concerns, such as insufficient trust in the healthcare system, vaccine safeties, and adverse effects that were the significant barriers to vaccine acceptance. It seems that conflicts raised by the shortage of vaccines and their import due to the sanctions have led to intense desire and demand in the general population, and especially the elderly, for vaccination. Besides, vaccination phobia in some individuals requires further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
13 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign Success: Lessons Learnt from the Pandemic So Far. A Case Study from Poland
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101153 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3509
Abstract
The high effectiveness of a vaccination-promotion campaign, which may be measured by the number of those successfully convinced to get vaccinated, is a key factor in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. This, however, appears to be linked to the precise identification of the underlying [...] Read more.
The high effectiveness of a vaccination-promotion campaign, which may be measured by the number of those successfully convinced to get vaccinated, is a key factor in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. This, however, appears to be linked to the precise identification of the underlying causes for vaccine hesitancy behaviours. Based on a regression model (adjusted R2 of 0.78) analysing 378 sub-regions of Poland, we showed that such behaviours, even when going against the party agenda, can be indirectly yet precisely gauged predominantly through voting patterns. Additionally, education and population density were found to be positively related to low vaccine hesitancy, while markers of social exclusion, both external (employment rate) and psychological (voter turnout) ones, affected it negatively. In the second, follow-up part of our study, which analyses the changes that took place in two months (adjusted R2 of 0.53), we found a further increase in vaccination rate to be positively related to the number of those already vaccinated and to the political views of the population, and negatively related to its level of education. In both cases, there was a surprisingly weak relationship between the potential markers of accessibility and vaccination rate. In spite of the known overall differences in vaccination rates for different age and sex groups, these variables did not have any additional informative value in explaining the observed regional differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2649 KiB  
Article
Sentiments Regarding COVID-19 Vaccination among Graduate Students in Singapore
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101141 - 06 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4899
Abstract
As the COVID-19 pandemic rages unabated, and with more infectious variants, vaccination may offer a way to transit out of strict restrictions on physical human interactions to curb the virus spread and prevent overwhelming the healthcare system. However, vaccine hesitancy threatens to significantly [...] Read more.
As the COVID-19 pandemic rages unabated, and with more infectious variants, vaccination may offer a way to transit out of strict restrictions on physical human interactions to curb the virus spread and prevent overwhelming the healthcare system. However, vaccine hesitancy threatens to significantly impact our progress towards achieving this. It is thus important to understand the sentiments regarding vaccination for different segments of the population to facilitate the development of effective strategies to persuade these groups. Here, we surveyed the COVID-19 vaccination sentiments among a highly educated group of graduate students from the National University of Singapore (NUS). Graduate students who are citizens of 54 different countries, mainly from Asia, pursue studies in diverse fields, with 32% expressing vaccine hesitancy. Citizenship, religion, country of undergraduate/postgraduate studies, exposure risk and field of study are significantly associated with vaccine sentiments. Students who are Chinese citizens or studied in Chinese Universities prior to joining NUS are more hesitant, while students of Indian descent or studied in India are less hesitant about vaccination. Side effects, safety issues and vaccine choice are the major concerns of the hesitant group. Hence, this study would facilitate the development of strategies that focus on these determinants to enhance vaccine acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 371 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Intentions in Eastern Zimbabwe: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101109 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4255
Abstract
Vaccines are one of the most effective public health strategies to protect against infectious diseases, yet vaccine hesitancy has emerged as a global health threat. Understanding COVID-19 knowledge and attitudes and their association with vaccine intentions can help the targeting of strategies to [...] Read more.
Vaccines are one of the most effective public health strategies to protect against infectious diseases, yet vaccine hesitancy has emerged as a global health threat. Understanding COVID-19 knowledge and attitudes and their association with vaccine intentions can help the targeting of strategies to increase vaccination uptake and achieve herd immunity. The goal of this study was to assess COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, and identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine intentions among heads of households in Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2021 among 551 randomly selected households. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding COVID-19 and the vaccines. More than half (55.7%) of the respondents reported intending to vaccinate themselves or their households. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the likelihood of vaccine intentions was most strongly associated with confidence in vaccine safety. Additionally, the odds of intending to get vaccinated were significantly higher among heads of households who were male, had a higher level of education, and identified vaccination and face mask usage as prevention measures. Among perceived motivators to vaccinate, recommendations from the World Health Organization and availability of the vaccine free of charge increased the likelihood of vaccine intentions, while country of vaccine manufacturer posed a barrier to vaccine intentions. As the vaccine rollout in Zimbabwe continues, efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage and achieve herd immunity should target females and less educated populations and be tailored to address concerns about vaccine safety and country of manufacturer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Resistance in India Explored through a Population-Based Longitudinal Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101064 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 9097
Abstract
Background: The World Health Organization has recommended that individual governments identify vaccine hesitancy areas. It is proposed that the governments, with the aid of local organizations, educate and implement social insights on the vaccination so that high population levels are covered with this [...] Read more.
Background: The World Health Organization has recommended that individual governments identify vaccine hesitancy areas. It is proposed that the governments, with the aid of local organizations, educate and implement social insights on the vaccination so that high population levels are covered with this safe immune program. Methods: A longitudinal online survey covered 3000 adults from India. We examined the demography, behavioral (socio-economic) attitude, vaccine hesitancy, vaccine resistance for the COVID-19 vaccine. The specific reasons for the COVID-19 vaccine decline were also evaluated. Results: Our survey revealed 59% definite response, 29% low-level response, and 7% high-level response for vaccine hesitancy, while 6% had resistant views on the COVID-19 vaccine. Individuals who had higher income levels, lived in a society, maintained social distancing, had downloaded the COVID-19 update app, showed a positive attitude towards their government, and more confidence in their healthcare system were more inclined towards the vaccination. On the contrary, individuals who had overstated the risks of COVID-19 and had a religious and populistic attitude towards vaccination were more hesitant/resistant to vaccination. The respondents who declined vaccine administration were further evaluated for their specific reason for their response. The most common reasons for declining the COVID-19 vaccine were post-vaccine scare of adverse health effects and accepting the information spread by social media. Conclusions: The results in our study show that by identifying population “hot spots” that have negative or unclear information on the COVID-19 vaccination, these “hot spots” can be addressed by involving friendly organizations that can clear their strong disbeliefs and increase the percentage of vaccine-definite people within the population. The role of government-induced COVID-19 vaccine policy measures can always be beneficial to cause this shift from disbelief to confidence within the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Differential Effect of Vaccine Effectiveness and Safety on COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance across Socioeconomic Groups in an International Sample
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091010 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3747
Abstract
Controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 will require high vaccination coverage, but acceptance of the vaccine could be impacted by perceptions of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to characterize how vaccine safety and effectiveness impact acceptance of a vaccine, [...] Read more.
Controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 will require high vaccination coverage, but acceptance of the vaccine could be impacted by perceptions of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to characterize how vaccine safety and effectiveness impact acceptance of a vaccine, and whether this impact varied over time or across socioeconomic and demographic groups. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of an opt-in internet sample were conducted in 2020 in the US, mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and India. Individuals were randomized into receiving information about a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine with different safety and effectiveness profiles (risk of fever 5% vs. 20% and vaccine effectiveness 50% vs. 95%). We examined the effect of the vaccine profile on vaccine acceptance in a logistic regression model, and included interaction terms between vaccine profile and socioeconomic/demographic variables to examine the differences in sensitivity to the vaccine profile. In total, 12,915 participants were enrolled in the six-country study, including the US (4054), China (2797), Taiwan (1278), Malaysia (1497), Indonesia (1527), and India (1762). Across time and countries, respondents had stronger preferences for a safer and more effective vaccine. For example, in the US in November 2020, acceptance was 3.10 times higher for a 95% effective vaccine with a 5% risk of fever, vs a vaccine 50% effective, with a 20% risk of fever (95% CI: 2.07, 4.63). Across all countries, there was an increase in the effect of the vaccine profile over time (p < 0.0001), with stronger preferences for a more effective and safer vaccine in November 2020 compared to August 2020. Sensitivity to the vaccine profile was also stronger in August compared to November 2020, in younger age groups, among those with lower income; and in those that are vaccine hesitant. Uptake of COVID-19 vaccines could vary in a country based upon effectiveness and availability. Effective communication tools will need to be developed for certain sensitive groups, including young adults, those with lower income, and those more vaccine hesitant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
16 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Parents of 4023 Young Adolescents (12–15 Years) in Qatar
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090981 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 6654
Abstract
Parental vaccine hesitancy (VH) remains a barrier to full population inoculation, hence herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We aimed to determine parental VH rate, subgroups and influencing factors related to the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among their young adolescents (12–15 years old) in [...] Read more.
Parental vaccine hesitancy (VH) remains a barrier to full population inoculation, hence herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We aimed to determine parental VH rate, subgroups and influencing factors related to the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among their young adolescents (12–15 years old) in Qatar. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted from 17 May to 3 June using vaccination booking records of 4023 young adolescents. Sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and nationality), health status and BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination booking status were analysed. Among respondents, the VH rate was 17.9%. Parents of 12-years adolescents were more hesitant (21.6%) as compared to the 13- (16.0%) and 15- (15.2%) years groups (p < 0.05). Parents of adolescents belonging to Gulf Countries (97% Qatari) were more hesitant (35.2%) as compared to the four remaining groups of nationalities (Asiatic; excluding Gulf Countries), North-African, African (excluding North-African), and European/American/Oceanian, 13.3–20.4%, (p < 0.001). Parental VH rates were higher when adolescents suffered from chronic disease as compared to those without the chronic disease (21.3% vs. 17.4%, p < 0.05) or who previously were COVID-19 infected as compared to non-previously COVID-19 infected (24.1 vs. 17.5%, p < 0.01). Results of logistic regression revealed that age groups, nationalities, and recovery from COVID-19 were the main predictors of VH level. Precisely, parents of 12 years old adolescents were 38% more likely to be hesitant as compared to the parents of the 15 years old adolescents (OR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.12–1.70). Compared with the Gulf countries, parents of adolescents belonging to the other nationality categories; namely North-African, African, Asiatic and European/American/Oceanian were 48% (95%CI: 0.36–0.65), 41% (95% CI: 0.27–0.62), 38% (95%CI: 0.29–0.50) and 34% (95% CI 0.21–0.56) less likely to be hesitant, respectively. Furthermore, parents of young adolescents being previously COVID-19 infected were 37% more likely to be hesitant as compared to those with no previous COVID-19 infection (OR = 1.37; 95%CI: 1.02–1.84). Effective communication strategies specifically targeting Gulf Country populations, parents of younger children aged 12 years and of those with chronic disease or have been previously infected with COVID-19 are crucial to build community trust and vaccine confidence, thereby increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Acceptability of the COVID-19 Vaccine and Its Determinants among University Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090943 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4979
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to the efforts that have been taken to combat the pandemic. This study assessed the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among university students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey using a Google Form was conducted [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to the efforts that have been taken to combat the pandemic. This study assessed the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among university students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey using a Google Form was conducted between 2 April and 23 April 2021. A snowball technique was used to recruit participants for this study. The final sample consisted of 407 participants. More than one-third of the participants (36.1%) had received the COVID-19 vaccine, and 13.3% had registered to receive the vaccine. Of the participants who were not yet vaccinated (n = 260), 90.4% indicated that they would like to be vaccinated when given the opportunity. Of the unvaccinated participants, 82.3% trusted the COVID-19 vaccines that had been provided in Saudi Arabia. The most reported reasons for the participants’ acceptance to receive the COVID-19 vaccine included preventive purposes (95.8%), a belief in the safety of the vaccines (84.3%), and the availability of public awareness information regarding the vaccines (77.3%). A small portion of participants (6.1%) were refusing to receive the vaccine due to the potential long-term side effects (92.0%) and expedited vaccine trials (80.0%). Acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine was strongly associated with participants who regularly received the flu vaccine (p < 0.05). All other demographic variables were not statistically associated with the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine. In conclusion, it would be appropriate for universities to launch peer programs to urge reluctant students to receive the vaccine voluntarily. In terms of further research, it is valuable to follow up with unvaccinated participants to investigate if they received the vaccine since the data were collected, and their reasons for doing so. This research would reveal changes toward vaccine acceptability over time and any related determinants. Future research should consider students from non-Arabic speaking backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of COVID-19 Vaccine Attitudes among Arab American Healthcare Professionals Living in the United States
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090942 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
Background: Vaccine hesitancy is the next great barrier for public health. Arab Americans are a rapidly growing demographic in the United States with limited information on the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy. We therefore sought to study the attitudes towards the coronavirus disease 2019 [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccine hesitancy is the next great barrier for public health. Arab Americans are a rapidly growing demographic in the United States with limited information on the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy. We therefore sought to study the attitudes towards the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine amongst Arab American health professionals living in the United States. Methods: This was a cross sectional study utilizing an anonymous online survey. The survey was distributed via e-mail to National Arab American Medical Association members and Arab-American Center for Economic and Social Services healthcare employees. Respondents were considered vaccine hesitant if they selected responses other than a willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Results: A total of 4000 surveys were sent via e-mail from 28 December 2020 to 31 January 2021, and 513 responses were received. The highest group of respondents were between the ages of 18–29 years and physicians constituted 48% of the respondents. On multivariable analysis, we found that respondents who had declined an influenza vaccine in the preceding 5 years (p < 0.001) and allied health professionals (medical assistants, hospital administrators, case managers, researchers, scribes, pharmacists, dieticians and social workers) were more likely to be vaccine hesitant (p = 0.025). In addition, respondents earning over $150,000 US dollars annually were less likely to be vaccine hesitant and this finding was significant on multivariable analysis (p = 0.011). Conclusions: Vaccine hesitancy among health care providers could have substantial impact on vaccine attitudes of the general population, and such data may help inform vaccine advocacy efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
15 pages, 1989 KiB  
Article
Correlates of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among a Community Sample of African Americans Living in the Southern United States
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080879 - 08 Aug 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 7915
Abstract
In the United States, African Americans (AAs) have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 mortality. However, AAs are more likely to be hesitant in receiving COVID-19 vaccinations when compared to non-Hispanic Whites. We examined factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among a predominant AA community [...] Read more.
In the United States, African Americans (AAs) have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 mortality. However, AAs are more likely to be hesitant in receiving COVID-19 vaccinations when compared to non-Hispanic Whites. We examined factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among a predominant AA community sample. We performed a cross-sectional analysis on data collected from a convenience sample of 257 community-dwelling participants in the Central Savannah River Area from 5 December 2020, through 17 April 2021. Vaccine hesitancy was categorized as resistant, hesitant, and acceptant. We estimated relative odds of vaccine resistance and vaccine hesitancy using polytomous logistic regression models. Nearly one-third of the participants were either hesitant (n = 40, 15.6%) or resistant (n = 42, 16.3%) to receiving a COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine-resistant participants were more likely to be younger and were more likely to have experienced housing insecurity due to COVID-19 when compared to both acceptant and hesitant participants, respectively. Age accounted for nearly 25% of the variation in vaccine resistance, with 21-fold increased odds (OR: 21.93, 95% CI: 8.97–5.26–91.43) of vaccine resistance in participants aged 18 to 29 compared to 50 and older adults. Housing insecurity accounted for 8% of the variation in vaccine resistance and was associated with 7-fold increased odds of vaccine resistance (AOR: 7.35, 95% CI: 1.99–27.10). In this sample, AAs under the age of 30 and those experiencing housing insecurity because of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to be resistant to receiving a free COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 966 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Poland—Multifactorial Impact Trajectories
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080876 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 5959
Abstract
Since the declaration of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic confirmed by World Health Organization, work on the development of vaccines has been stimulated. When vaccines are commonly available, a major problem is persistent vaccine hesitancy in many European countries. The main goal of our study [...] Read more.
Since the declaration of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic confirmed by World Health Organization, work on the development of vaccines has been stimulated. When vaccines are commonly available, a major problem is persistent vaccine hesitancy in many European countries. The main goal of our study was to understand the multidimensional factors inducing this phenomenon in Poland. Our study was carried out at the third wave’s peak of the pandemic, with record rates of daily cases and deaths associated with COVID-19. The results indicate that vaccine hesitancy/acceptability should always be considered in an interdisciplinary manner and according to identified factors where most negative attitudes could be altered. Our analyses included the assessment of a representative quota sample of adult Poles (N = 1000). The vaccine hesitancy in the studied group reached 49.2%. We performed stepwise logistic regression modeling to analyze variables set into six trajectories (groups) predicting the willingness to vaccinate. Apart from typical, socio-demographic and economic determinants, we identified the fear of vaccines’ side effects, beliefs in conspiracy theories and physical fitness. We were also able to establish the order of importance of factors used in a full model of all impact trajectories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
Romanian Medical Students’ Attitude towards and Perceived Knowledge on COVID-19 Vaccination
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080854 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6858
Abstract
In Romania, the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign prioritized medical personnel, which included healthcare students. This study aimed to assess their knowledge, attitudes towards, and perception of COVID-19 vaccination. An anonymous, single-answer, 42-item online survey was conducted from 12 January until [...] Read more.
In Romania, the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign prioritized medical personnel, which included healthcare students. This study aimed to assess their knowledge, attitudes towards, and perception of COVID-19 vaccination. An anonymous, single-answer, 42-item online survey was conducted from 12 January until 3 March 2021, in the country’s largest University of Medicine and Pharmacy. Among the 1581 respondents (14.9% response rate), 88.5% were pro-vaccination, 7.8% were undecided, and 3.7% were vaccine resistant. The main reason for vaccine rejection was the perceived speed of vaccine development (strong agreement among the vaccine resistant, moderate agreement among the undecided, p < 0.001). Concern over long-term adverse reaction was present in only 11.5% of the respondents, significantly more frequent in the undecided and vaccine resistant. Perceived knowledge on the vaccines’ safety, efficacy, and technology correlated with a pro-vaccine attitude (p < 0.001). Most respondents had a positive stance towards vaccination in general, influencing their behaviour as future parents (99.3% of the pro-vaccination, 95.1% of the undecided, and 89.1% of the vaccine resistant will vaccinate their children, p < 0.001) and as medical professionals (99.7% of the pro-vaccination, 93.5% of those undecided, and 89.8% of the vaccine resistant would advise parents to vaccinate their children, p < 0.001). Healthcare students can thus serve as important vectors for scientifically sound information, influencing vaccine uptake in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability and Its Determinants in Mozambique: An Online Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080828 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4724
Abstract
A high worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage must be attained to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we assessed the level of willingness of Mozambicans to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Data were collected between 11 and 20 March 2021, through a self-administered online [...] Read more.
A high worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage must be attained to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we assessed the level of willingness of Mozambicans to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Data were collected between 11 and 20 March 2021, through a self-administered online survey. Of the 1878 respondents, 30.1% were healthcare workers, 58.3% were aged between 18 and 35 years, 60% were male, and 38.5% were single. Up to 43% had been tested for COVID-19 and 29% had tested positive. Overall vaccine acceptability was 71.4% (86.6% among healthcare workers, 64.8% among other respondents; p < 0.001). Reasons for vaccine hesitancy included: fear of vaccine side effects (29.6%) and the belief that the vaccine is not effective (52%). The acceptability of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine increased with increasing vaccine efficacy. Using logistic regression, determinants for acceptability of the vaccine were: older age, a past COVID-19 test, a concern of becoming (re)infected by COVID-19, having a chronic disease, and considering vaccination important for personal and community health. In conclusion, vaccine acceptability in Mozambique was relatively high among healthcare workers but significantly lower in the rest of the population. This suggests that there is a need to educate the general population about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and its importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
16 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Examining Vaccine Hesitancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of the Knowledge and Attitudes among Adults to Receive COVID-19 Vaccines in Ghana
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080814 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 10344
Abstract
The impact of COVID-19 vaccination programmes on disease transmission, morbidity and mortality relies heavily on the population’s willingness to accept the vaccine. We explore Ghanaian adult citizens’ vaccine hesitancy attitudes and identify the likelihood of participation or non-participation in the government’s effort to [...] Read more.
The impact of COVID-19 vaccination programmes on disease transmission, morbidity and mortality relies heavily on the population’s willingness to accept the vaccine. We explore Ghanaian adult citizens’ vaccine hesitancy attitudes and identify the likelihood of participation or non-participation in the government’s effort to get citizens vaccinated. A fully anonymised cross-sectional online survey of 2345 adult Ghanaians was conducted from 23 to 28 February 2021. Differences in intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination were explored using Pearson Chi-square tests. Additionally, multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the factors associated with willingness to receive vaccines. Responses were weighted using the iterative proportional fitting technique to generate a representative sample. About half (51%) of mostly urban adult Ghanaians over 15 years are likely to take the COVID-19 vaccine if made generally available. Almost a fifth (21%) of the respondents were unlikely to take the vaccine, while another 28% were undecided. Additionally, we find differences in vaccine hesitancy among some socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and primary sources of information. Attaining the proverbial 63% to 70% herd immunity threshold in Ghana is only possible if the preventive vaccination programmes are combined with an enhanced and coordinated public education campaign. Such a campaign should focus on promoting the individual and population-level benefits of vaccination and pre-emptive efforts towards addressing misinformation about vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1167 KiB  
Article
Can Communication Strategies Combat COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy with Trade-Off between Public Service Messages and Public Skepticism? Experimental Evidence from Pakistan
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070757 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 8575
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic may have reached a turning point as the World Health Organization and the global community of nations step up plans for mass vaccination campaigns. However, the COVID-19 vaccine-related conspiracy theories (e.g., falsehoods about birth control, women infertility, surveillance, and microchip [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic may have reached a turning point as the World Health Organization and the global community of nations step up plans for mass vaccination campaigns. However, the COVID-19 vaccine-related conspiracy theories (e.g., falsehoods about birth control, women infertility, surveillance, and microchip humanity, etc.) have built new momentum for vaccine hesitancy. To this end, several nations worldwide, including Pakistan, are struggling to boost public trust and enthusiasm to get vaccinated, especially in an anxious and complicated atmosphere propelled by multiple, new and the deadliest variants of COVID-19. To address this critical research gap during these intensifying conditions of vaccine hesitancy, the present study makes the first attempt to explore the potential effects of various communication strategies, including public service message (safety benefits versus fear appraisals), media types (i.e., traditional versus digital), self-efficacy, perceived benefits and threats (susceptibility and severity), on the willingness to get vaccinated for COVID-19. Importantly, the underlying effects of public skepticism (in a moderating role) on these relationships were empirically examined. Using four fictitious COVID-19 immunization campaigns in a series of experiments with 2 (media type: traditional vs. digital) X 2 (service attribute: health and safety benefits vs. fear) message frames (represented as Group one to Group four), the findings identified fear appraisal as the most viable communication strategy in combating vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, public skepticism negatively moderated the effects of media types and public service message attributes on willingness to get vaccinated in relatively high (i.e., Group two), moderate (i.e., Group one and four), and low intensities (i.e., Group three). The pioneering findings of this research offer new strategic insights for the global health authorities and vaccine promoters to proactively address the downward spiral of people’s willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Pandemic Optimism and Vaccine Willingness among an Online Sample of US Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070745 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
This paper presents data from an online sample of U.S gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), to explore the factors associated with three dimensions of vaccine beliefs: perception of the likelihood of a COVID-19 vaccine becoming available, perception [...] Read more.
This paper presents data from an online sample of U.S gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), to explore the factors associated with three dimensions of vaccine beliefs: perception of the likelihood of a COVID-19 vaccine becoming available, perception of when a COVID-19 vaccine would become available, and the likelihood of taking a COVID-19 vaccine. Data are taken from the Love and Sex in the Time of COVID-19 study, collected from November 2020 to January 2021. A sample of 290 GBMSM is analyzed, modeling three binary outcomes: belief that there will be a COVID-19 vaccine, belief that the COVID-19 vaccine will be available in 6 months, and being very likely to take the COVID-19 vaccine. In contrast to other studies, Black/African Americans and GBMSM living with HIV had higher levels of pandemic optimism and were more likely to be willing to accept a vaccine. Men who perceived a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among their friends and sex partners, and those who had reduced their sex partners, were more likely to be willing to take a COVID-19 vaccine. There remained a small percentage of participants (14%) who did not think the pandemic would end, that there would not be a vaccine and were unlikely to take a vaccine. To reach the levels of vaccination necessary to control the pandemic, it is imperative to understand the characteristics of those experiencing vaccine hesitancy and then tailor public health messages to their unique set of barriers and motivations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
13 pages, 1340 KiB  
Article
Neutralizing Antibodies Titers and Side Effects in Response to BNT162b2 Vaccine in Healthcare Workers with and without Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070742 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 6265
Abstract
The main expected result of a vaccine against viruses is the ability to produce neutralizing antibodies. Currently, several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are being applied to prevent mortal complications, being Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) one of the first to be authorized in the USA and Mexico [...] Read more.
The main expected result of a vaccine against viruses is the ability to produce neutralizing antibodies. Currently, several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are being applied to prevent mortal complications, being Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) one of the first to be authorized in the USA and Mexico (11 December 2020). This study evaluated the efficacy of this vaccine on antibody production with neutralizing capacity and its side effects in healthcare workers with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and in a group of unvaccinated individuals with prior COVID-19. The main findings are the production of 100% neutralizing antibodies in both groups after the second dose, well-tolerated adverse effects, the possible presence of immunosenescence, and finally, we support that a single dose of this vaccine in individuals with prior COVID-19 would be sufficient to achieve an immunization comparable to people without prior COVID-19 with a complete vaccination program (2 doses). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 750 KiB  
Article
Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070684 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 7756
Abstract
One of the most efficient methods to control the high infection rate of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is to have a high coverage of COVID-19 vaccination worldwide. Therefore, it is important to understand individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The present study [...] Read more.
One of the most efficient methods to control the high infection rate of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is to have a high coverage of COVID-19 vaccination worldwide. Therefore, it is important to understand individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The present study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated among a representative sample in Qazvin, Iran. The TPB uses psychological constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to explain an individual’s intention to perform a behavior. Fear and perceived infectability were additionally incorporated into the TPB to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Utilizing multistage stratified cluster sampling, 10,843 participants (4092 males; 37.7%) with a mean age of 35.54 years (SD = 12.00) completed a survey. The survey assessed TPB constructs (including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention related to COVID-19 vaccination) together with fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine whether fear of COVID-19, perceived infectability, and the TPB constructs explained individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The SEM demonstrated satisfactory fit (comparative fit index = 0.970; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.962; root mean square error of approximation = 0.040; standardized root mean square residual = 0.050). Moreover, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived COVID-19 infectability significantly explained individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Perceived COVID-19 infectability and TPB constructs were all significant mediators in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Incorporating fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability effectively into the TPB explained Iranians’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Therefore, Iranians who have a strong belief in Muslim religion may improve their intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated via these constructs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Attitudes towards the COVID-19 Vaccine and Willingness to Get Vaccinated among Healthcare Workers in French Guiana: The Influence of Geographical Origin
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060682 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4258
Abstract
Background: In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the expansion of the more transmissible 20J/501Y.V3 (Gamma) variant of concern (VOC), mRNA vaccines have been made available in French Guiana, an overseas French territory in South America, from mid-January 2021. This study [...] Read more.
Background: In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the expansion of the more transmissible 20J/501Y.V3 (Gamma) variant of concern (VOC), mRNA vaccines have been made available in French Guiana, an overseas French territory in South America, from mid-January 2021. This study aimed to estimate the willingness to be vaccinated and the socio-demographic and motivational correlates among Health Care Workers (HCWs) in French Guiana. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 22 to March 26, 2021 among a sample of HCWs in French Guiana. They were asked about their willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 and vaccine hesitancy, vaccine uptake and vaccines attitudes. Factors associated with willingness to get vaccinated have been analyzed with ordinal logistic regression, using Stata software. Results: A total of 579 HCWs were interviewed, including 220 physicians and 200 nurses most often working in hospital (54%) or in the liberal sector (22%). Overall, 65.6% of respondents reported that they were willing or had already been vaccinated against COVID-19, while 24.3% of respondents reported that they did not want to get vaccinated against COVID-19 and 11.2% were unsure. HCWs were more willing to get vaccine if they were older, were worried about COVID-19 and were confident in the management of epidemic. Conversely, participants were less likely to have been vaccinated or willing to if they were nurses or of another non-medical profession, born in French Guiana, feared adverse effects, or if they did not trust pharmaceutical companies and management of the epidemic by authorities. Conclusion: Negative attitudes towards vaccines are a major public health concern among HCWs in French Guiana when considering the current active epidemic with Gamma VOC. General vaccine hesitancy and concerns about future side effects in particular represent important barriers. Low confidence in government and science are significant in COVID-19 vaccine refusal among non-medical staffs. Public health messaging with information on vaccine safety should be tailored to address these concerns. The specific challenges of HCWs from French Guiana must be taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
10 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Associated Factors in Japan
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060662 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 100 | Viewed by 21576
Abstract
The vaccine confidence index in Japan is one of the lowest worldwide. This study aimed to examine the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Japanese population using a larger sample and more robust statistical methods than previously, and to identify factors associated [...] Read more.
The vaccine confidence index in Japan is one of the lowest worldwide. This study aimed to examine the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Japanese population using a larger sample and more robust statistical methods than previously, and to identify factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional Internet survey on 8–26 February 2021, and calculated the proportion and odds ratios for vaccine hesitancy. Among 23,142 responses analyzed, the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 11.3% (10.9–11.7%). The proportion was higher among younger respondents and female respondents, and especially among younger female respondents (15.6%) compared with the lowest proportion among older male respondents (4.8%). The most cited reason for not getting vaccinated was concerns about adverse reactions in more than 70% of the respondents. The proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Japan was comparable to that in previous studies overseas, and the proportion among younger respondents was more than double that among older respondents. Factors associated with the hesitancy were female sex, living alone, low socioeconomic status, and presence of severe psychological distress, especially among older respondents. Thus, adequate measures should be taken to ensure that vaccines are delivered to people with these factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
19 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Vaccine Hesitancy of COVID-19 Vaccination in China and the United States
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060649 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 7317
Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the differences in vaccine hesitancy and preference of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines between two countries, namely, China and the United States (U.S.). Method: A cross-national survey was conducted in both China and the United States, and discrete choice experiments, [...] Read more.
Objectives: To investigate the differences in vaccine hesitancy and preference of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines between two countries, namely, China and the United States (U.S.). Method: A cross-national survey was conducted in both China and the United States, and discrete choice experiments, as well as Likert scales, were utilized to assess vaccine preference and the underlying factors contributing to vaccination acceptance. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to enable a direct comparison between the two countries. Results: A total of 9077 (5375 and 3702 from China and the United States, respectively) respondents completed the survey. After propensity score matching, over 82.0% of respondents from China positively accepted the COVID-19 vaccination, while 72.2% of respondents from the United States positively accepted it. Specifically, only 31.9% of Chinese respondents were recommended by a doctor to have COVID-19 vaccination, while more than half of the U.S. respondents were recommended by a doctor (50.2%), local health board (59.4%), or friends and families (64.8%). The discrete choice experiments revealed that respondents from the United States attached the greatest importance to the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines (44.41%), followed by the cost of vaccination (29.57%), whereas those from China held a different viewpoint, that the cost of vaccination covered the largest proportion in their trade-off (30.66%), and efficacy ranked as the second most important attribute (26.34%). Additionally, respondents from China tended to be much more concerned about the adverse effect of vaccination (19.68% vs. 6.12%) and have a lower perceived severity of being infected with COVID-19. Conclusion: Although the overall acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccination in both countries are high, underpinned distinctions between these countries were observed. Owing to the differences in COVID-19 incidence rates, cultural backgrounds, and the availability of specific COVID-19 vaccines in the two countries, vaccine rollout strategies should be nation-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 454 KiB  
Article
Interim Estimates of COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness in a Mass Vaccination Setting: Data from an Italian Province
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060628 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 7363
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study compared the rates of virologically-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, symptomatic or lethal COVID-19 among the residents of the Italian province of Pescara who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines, versus the unvaccinated. The official data of the National Health [...] Read more.
This retrospective cohort study compared the rates of virologically-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, symptomatic or lethal COVID-19 among the residents of the Italian province of Pescara who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines, versus the unvaccinated. The official data of the National Health System were used, and a total of 69,539 vaccinated adults were compared with 175,687 unvaccinated. Among the subjects who received at least one vaccine dose, 85 infections (0.12%), 18 severe and 3 lethal COVID-19 cases were recorded after an average follow-up of 38 days. Among the unvaccinated, the numbers were 6948 (4.00%), 933 (0.53%) and 241 (0.14%), respectively. The serious adverse event reports—yet unconfirmed—were 24 out of 102,394 administered doses. In a Cox model, adjusting for age, gender, and selected comorbidities, the effectiveness of either BNT162b2, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or mRNA-1273 vaccines was higher than 95% in preventing infections (mostly due to B.1.1.7 variant), symptomatic or lethal COVID-19. No differences were observed across genders, and among the 691 subjects who received the second dose of vaccine later than the recommended date. Although preliminary, these findings support current immunization policies and may help reducing vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8796 KiB  
Article
Perception of Health, Mistrust, Anxiety, and Indecision in a Group of Italians Vaccinated against COVID-19
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060612 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the psychological factors of health perception, mistrust, anxiety, fear, and indecision of Italians vaccinated against COVID-19, and conduct an analysis of the relationships between these factors and other variables: sex, vaccine priority ministerial categories, and [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the psychological factors of health perception, mistrust, anxiety, fear, and indecision of Italians vaccinated against COVID-19, and conduct an analysis of the relationships between these factors and other variables: sex, vaccine priority ministerial categories, and the type and dose of vaccine. The participants included 1564 subjects who joined the vaccination campaign at the COVID-19 Vaccination Center in Salerno, Italy. A survey was conducted in the reference period March–April 2021 using a brief anamnestic questionnaire. In addition, the following standardized scales were used: the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The results showed that, in terms of the type of vaccine received, the interviewees felt more confident in having received the Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech, 23.5%) and Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca, 18.6%) vaccines—feeling less tense (2.1%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) = 3.2%), frightened (1%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) = 1.4%), not at all nervous (61.1%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca), 43.6%), and not at all/undecided (67.9%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca), 58.6%). Regarding the mood and psychological states considered at the different vaccine administration times, other important differences emerged as the interviewees reported higher levels of tension, nervousness, and fear during the first phase of vaccine administration. Specifically, 40.7% (second dose, 32.7%) felt somewhat tense at the first dose, 26.4% felt frightened (second dose, 21.8%), and 33.8% felt nervous (second dose, 26.8%). The perceived state of health also increased at the end of the vaccination cycle, as, at the second dose, 15.4% of the sample reported an evaluation of “excellent” (first dose, 12.4%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
What Prompts Doctors to Recommend COVID-19 Vaccines: Is It a Question of Positive Emotion?
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060578 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective public health tools and have greatly contributed to eliminating or controlling several serious vaccine-treatable diseases over the past century. To curb the spread of COVID-19, efficacious vaccination is emerging as essential in mitigating the disease [...] Read more.
Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective public health tools and have greatly contributed to eliminating or controlling several serious vaccine-treatable diseases over the past century. To curb the spread of COVID-19, efficacious vaccination is emerging as essential in mitigating the disease and preventing deaths. Health care workers (HCW) are one of the first groups to receive vaccinations, so it is important to consider their attitudes to COVID-19 vaccination to better address barriers to widespread vaccination acceptance. This study aimed to evaluate variables that are linked with the recommendation of vaccines and intention to take-up vaccination against COVID-19 among the HCWs, in the context of the current pandemic. The study was conducted during the first week of the vaccination campaign dedicated to Italian HCWs, beginning in December 2020, and it involved all doctors in a public hospital in Sicily. The following questionnaires were administered: (1) The perceived vaccine trust questionnaire, measuring the degree of trust in vaccines by healthcare professionals both in general and for the protection of healthcare professionals themselves and patients; (2) the positive and negative affect scale-state (PANAS), for assessing positive and negative emotions in relation to their work as “frontline care providers”; (3) The locus of control of behaviour (LCB) to measure the extent to which subjects perceive responsibility for their personal behaviour (internal vs. external); (4) recommendation vaccines item, referring to the intention to recommend vaccination. The findings suggest that socio-demographic control variables (age, gender, and seniority) showed little or no predictive power in vaccine recommendation, while vaccine confidence, positive emotions, and internal locus of control were excellent predictors of vaccine recommendations by doctors. Younger doctors, both in age and experience, are more confident in vaccines and recommend them more frequently. It is essential to improve institutional communication addressed to doctors to enhance their role as vaccination facilitators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
20 pages, 1366 KiB  
Article
Global Prevalence and Drivers of Dental Students’ COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060566 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 85 | Viewed by 10113
Abstract
Background: Acceleration of mass vaccination strategies is the only pathway to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare professionals and students have a key role in shaping public opinion about vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of dental students globally towards COVID-19 vaccines [...] Read more.
Background: Acceleration of mass vaccination strategies is the only pathway to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare professionals and students have a key role in shaping public opinion about vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of dental students globally towards COVID-19 vaccines and explore the potential drivers for students’ acceptance levels. Methods: A global cross-sectional study was carried out in February 2021 using an online questionnaire. The study was liaised by the scientific committee of the International Association of Dental Students (IADS), and data were collected through the national and local coordinators of IADS member organizations. The dependent variable was the willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine, and the independent variables included demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related experience, and the drivers of COVID-19 vaccine-related attitude suggested by the WHO SAGE. Results: A total of 6639 students from 22 countries, representing all world regions, responded to the questionnaire properly. Their mean age was 22.1 ± 2.8 (17–40) years, and the majority were females (70.5%), in clinical years (66.8%), and from upper-middle-income economies (45.7%). In general, 22.5% of dental students worldwide were hesitant, and 13.9% rejected COVID-19 vaccines. The students in low- and lower-middle-income (LLMI) economies had significantly higher levels of vaccine hesitancy compared to their peers in upper-middle- and high-income (UMHI) economies (30.4% vs. 19.8%; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The global acceptance level of dental students for COVID-19 vaccines was suboptimal, and their worrisome level of vaccine hesitancy was influenced by the socioeconomic context where the dental students live and study. The media and social media, public figures, insufficient knowledge about vaccines, and mistrust of governments and the pharmaceutical industry were barriers to vaccination. The findings of this study call for further implementation of epidemiology (infectious diseases) education within undergraduate dental curricula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability and Adherence to Preventive Measures in Somalia: Results of an Online Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060543 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 6105
Abstract
Most countries are currently gravitating towards vaccination as mainstay strategy to quell COVID-19 transmission. Between December 2020 and January 2021, we conducted a follow-up online survey in Somalia to monitor adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and reasons for vaccine [...] Read more.
Most countries are currently gravitating towards vaccination as mainstay strategy to quell COVID-19 transmission. Between December 2020 and January 2021, we conducted a follow-up online survey in Somalia to monitor adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Adherence was measured via a composite adherence score based on four measures (physical distancing, face mask use, hand hygiene, and mouth covering when coughing/sneezing). We analyzed 4543 responses (mean age: 23.5 ± 6.4 years, 62.4% males). The mean adherence score during this survey was lower than the score during a similar survey in April 2020. A total of 76.8% of respondents were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Flu-like symptoms were more frequently reported in the current survey compared to previous surveys. Multiple logistic regression showed that participants who experienced flu-like symptoms, those in the healthcare sector, and those with higher adherence scores had higher odds for vaccine acceptability while being a female reduced the willingness to be vaccinated. In conclusion, our data suggest that the decreasing adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures may have caused increased flu-like symptoms over time. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Somalia is relatively high but could be improved by addressing factors that contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of COVID-19 Vaccination among Healthcare Workers of an Inner-City Hospital in New York
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050516 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 7814
Abstract
Introduction: New York City is one of the areas most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Healthcare workers are among those at high risk of contracting the virus, and a vital source of information and trust in vaccines to the [...] Read more.
Introduction: New York City is one of the areas most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Healthcare workers are among those at high risk of contracting the virus, and a vital source of information and trust in vaccines to the community. Methods: This study was conducted about attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers at a public hospital in New York City during the beginning of COVID-19 vaccination. 428 hospital employees responded. Results: Several factors were significantly associated with vaccine attitudes, including demographics such as gender (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.005), race (p < 0.001) and home location (p < 0.001), role within the hospital (p < 0.001), knowledge about the virus (p < 0.001) and confidence in and expectations about personal protective equipment and behaviors (p < 0.001). Structural equation modeling revealed that the most predictive factors were prior vaccine attitudes and concern with the speed of testing and approval of the vaccines (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis reinforced these, while also identifying perceived personal risk as significant (p = 0.033). Conclusions: Several modifiable factors that reflect confidence in science, scientific knowledge, personal risk perception, experience and medical authority are correlated with vaccine attitudes, indicating that a holistic educational approach to improve trust in science is likely to be effective in long-term reduction in vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 397 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of the Level of Acceptance and Hesitancy towards the Influenza Vaccine and the Forthcoming COVID-19 Vaccine in the Medical Community
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050475 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 4866
Abstract
Despite research conducted worldwide, there is no treatment specifically targeting SARS-CoV-2 infection with efficacy proven by randomized controlled trials. A chance for a breakthrough is vaccinating most of the global population. Public opinion surveys on vaccine hesitancy prompted our team to investigate Polish [...] Read more.
Despite research conducted worldwide, there is no treatment specifically targeting SARS-CoV-2 infection with efficacy proven by randomized controlled trials. A chance for a breakthrough is vaccinating most of the global population. Public opinion surveys on vaccine hesitancy prompted our team to investigate Polish healthcare workers’ (HCWs) attitudes towards the SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccinations. In-person and online surveys of HCWs: doctors, nurses, medical students, and other allied health professionals (n = 419) were conducted between 14 September 2020 and 5 November 2020. In our study, 68.7% of respondents would like to be vaccinated against COVID-19. The safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccinations would persuade 86.3% of hesitant and those who would refuse to be vaccinated. 3.1% of all respondents claimed that no argument would convince them to get vaccinated. 61.6% of respondents declared a willingness to receive an influenza vaccination, of which 83.3% were also inclined to receive COVID-19 vaccinations. Although most respondents—62.5% (262/419) indicated they trusted in the influenza vaccine more, more respondents intended to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in the 2020/2021 season. The study is limited by its nonrandom sample of HCWs but provides a preliminary description of attitudes towards SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
The Intention to Receive the COVID-19 Vaccine in China: Insights from Protection Motivation Theory
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050445 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5021
Abstract
(1) Background: More coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are gradually being developed and marketed. Improving the vaccination intention will be the key to increasing the vaccination rate in the future; (2) Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data on COVID-19 vaccination [...] Read more.
(1) Background: More coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are gradually being developed and marketed. Improving the vaccination intention will be the key to increasing the vaccination rate in the future; (2) Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data on COVID-19 vaccination intentions, protection motivation and control variables. Pearson Chi-square test and multivariate ordered logistic regression models were specified to analyze the determinants of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine; (3) Results: Although the vaccine was free, 17.75% of the 2377 respondents did not want, or were hesitant, to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Respondents’ cognition of vaccine safety, external reward and response efficacy were positively related to COVID-19 vaccination intention, while age, income and response cost were negatively related to the intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Professionals and people without medical insurance had the lowest intention to vaccinate; (4) Conclusions: The older aged, people without health insurance, those with higher incomes and professionals should be treated as the key intervention targets. Strengthening publicity and education about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, training vaccinated people and community leaders as propagandists for the vaccine, and improving the accessibility to the COVID-19 vaccine are recommended to improve COVID-19 vaccination intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination among Front-Line Health Care Workers: A Nationwide Survey of Emergency Medical Services Personnel from Germany
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050424 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 4151
Abstract
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance of emergency medical services (EMS) personnel as front-line health care workers (HCW) in Germany. Several studies have shown low willingness for vaccination (e.g., seasonal influenza) among HCWs and EMS personnel. [...] Read more.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance of emergency medical services (EMS) personnel as front-line health care workers (HCW) in Germany. Several studies have shown low willingness for vaccination (e.g., seasonal influenza) among HCWs and EMS personnel. Methods: We created a web-based survey. The questions were closed and standardized. Demographic data were collected (age, sex, federal state, profession). Experience with own COVID-19 infection, or infection in personal environment (family, friends) as well as willingness to vaccinate was queried. Results: The sample includes n = 1296 participants. A willingness to be vaccinated exists in 57%, 27.6% participants were undecided. Our results show a higher propensity to vaccinate among the following groups: male gender, higher medical education level, older age, own burden caused by the pandemic (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the low overall acceptance of vaccination by HCWs, we recommend that the groups with vaccination hesitancy, in particular, be recruited for vaccination through interventions such as continuing education and awareness campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
15 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
Motivation to Have COVID-19 Vaccination Explained Using an Extended Protection Motivation Theory among University Students in China: The Role of Information Sources
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040380 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 84 | Viewed by 10693
Abstract
Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among [...] Read more.
Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among university students in China. Methods: The sample comprised 3145 students from 43 universities in China who completed an online survey including PMT constructs as well as constructs added to PMT. The PMT constructs comprised motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal. The extended PMT constructs comprised knowledge about mechanisms and information sources of COVID-19 vaccination. Results: Perceived severity of COVID-19 was positively associated with motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination. Receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from medical personnel was associated with greater self-efficacy, response efficacy, and knowledge, whereas receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from coworkers/colleagues was associated with less response efficacy and knowledge. Receiving online information concerning COVID-19 vaccination was associated with greater response cost of vaccination efficacy and less knowledge. Conclusions: This study supported the prediction of perceived severity in the PMT for motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. Vaccination information sources have different effects on students’ coping appraisal of COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 545 KiB  
Article
Willingness to Pay for a Hypothetical COVID-19 Vaccine in the United States: A Contingent Valuation Approach
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040318 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3907
Abstract
Our objective was to estimate the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a COVID-19 vaccine and evaluate its predictors in the United States. A double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation with open-ended question technique was implemented based on the responses to a national survey [...] Read more.
Our objective was to estimate the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a COVID-19 vaccine and evaluate its predictors in the United States. A double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation with open-ended question technique was implemented based on the responses to a national survey administered during the first week of November 2020. The final sample size was 1285. The results showed that individual WTP values increased with income, whether a household member had any pre-existing condition, and perceived threat of the virus. The vaccine efficacy rate and duration of protection were found to be important factors for the respondents. The mean WTP for a vaccine with a 95 percent efficacy rate and 3-year protection (US$318.76) was approximately 35 percent greater than the vaccine with a 50 percent efficacy rate and 1-year protection (US$236.85). The initial aggregate direct benefit of the current vaccination program was estimated to be between 20 and 35.6 billion US dollars depending on the vaccine protection duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

13 pages, 295 KiB  
Review
Attitudes towards COVID Vaccine and Vaccine Hesitancy in Dermatology: A Narrative Review
Vaccines 2023, 11(8), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11081365 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy has been a contentious issue even before the pandemic. The COVID-19 crisis has further amplified vaccine hesitancy, with worries about adverse effects, cultural and religious beliefs, and misinformation on social media. In dermatology, patients with pre-existing skin conditions may have specific [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy has been a contentious issue even before the pandemic. The COVID-19 crisis has further amplified vaccine hesitancy, with worries about adverse effects, cultural and religious beliefs, and misinformation on social media. In dermatology, patients with pre-existing skin conditions may have specific concerns about the impact of the vaccine on their skin health. Factors such as cutaneous reactions, potential flares of underlying conditions, and fears of psoriasis worsening post-vaccination contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Healthcare professionals, including dermatologists, play a crucial role in addressing vaccine hesitancy by providing accurate information, addressing concerns, and understanding the psychological impact on patients. The concept of vaccine fatigue is also explored, noting the challenges in sustaining vaccine acceptance over time, especially with regards to booster vaccinations. Overcoming vaccine hesitancy requires trust-building, effective communication strategies, and collaboration between healthcare workers and non-healthcare individuals to combat misinformation. By recognizing and addressing psychological factors, dermatologists can increase vaccine acceptance and improve public health efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
12 pages, 1143 KiB  
Review
Targeting COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Minority Populations in the US: Implications for Herd Immunity
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050489 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 10292
Abstract
There has been a continuous underrepresentation of minorities in healthcare research and vaccine trials, along with long-standing systemic racism and discrimination that have been fueling the distrust of the healthcare system among these communities for decades. The history and legacy of racial injustices [...] Read more.
There has been a continuous underrepresentation of minorities in healthcare research and vaccine trials, along with long-standing systemic racism and discrimination that have been fueling the distrust of the healthcare system among these communities for decades. The history and legacy of racial injustices and negative experiences within a culturally insensitive healthcare system have greatly contributed to vaccine hesitancy among ethnic minorities. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy will impact vaccine uptake in the US, subsequently hindering the establishment of herd immunity (75–85% of the population vaccinated) to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission. Information targeting underserved racial/ethnic minorities in the US in a culturally competent manner has been lacking. This information is crucial for educating these communities about COVID-19 vaccines and their distribution as well as dispelling misinformation regarding vaccine trials, safety, and efficacy. This lack of education has greatly contributed to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and will increase disparities in vaccine uptake. Moreover, timely vaccinations are also essential to curtailing virus transmission and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that may evade the immune response produced by the three existing COVID-19 vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

20 pages, 1502 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Scoping Review to Find Out Worldwide COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Underlying Determinants
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111243 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 109 | Viewed by 10740