Next Issue
Volume 11, July
Previous Issue
Volume 11, May
 
 

Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 38 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The liberalization of labor markets and social protection regimes in advanced capitalist countries has led to the restructuring of employment relations, creating greater uncertainty and insecurity. While we know a great deal about the importance of the labor market and social welfare protections for economic well-being, the extent to which these institutions account for country differences in labor market insecurity and non-economic well-being remains obscure. We examine the differences among 17 European countries in the extent to which key institutions affect the degree of insecurity people feel with respect to their jobs and employment prospects, as well as their subjective well-being. After controlling for the relevant individual differences and macro-economic environment, we found that there is substantial country-level variation in labor market insecurity and well-being. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
11 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
Health, Functional Ability, and Environmental Quality as Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Physically Active Older Adults
by Rafael Zapata-Lamana, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Andres Ledezma-Dames, Patricia Pavón-León, Ana María Leiva, María Trinidad Fuentes-Alvarez, Igor Cigarroa and María Antonia Parra-Rizo
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060265 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3174
Abstract
The factors that make physically active older people feel more satisfied in adulthood have not been extensively studied. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to evaluate, among physically active older adults, whether the level of physical activity they perform [...] Read more.
The factors that make physically active older people feel more satisfied in adulthood have not been extensively studied. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to evaluate, among physically active older adults, whether the level of physical activity they perform and the factors that foster their quality of life can be predictors of their satisfaction with life. For this, the IPAQ, CUBRECAVI and LSI-A scales were applied to a sample of 397 people between 61 and 93 years old (M = 69.65, SD = 4.71). The results show that health (β = 0.373), functional abilities (β = 0.159) and environmental quality (β = 0.105) are predictors of satisfaction in the most active adults. In conclusion, neither physical activity (to a greater or lesser extent) nor income are predictive variables of satisfaction with life but, rather, predict some of the components that cement their quality of life (health, fending for themselves and the home environment). Full article
19 pages, 3010 KiB  
Article
Young Women, Employment and Precarity: The Face of Two Periods of Crisis in Spain (2008–2021)
by M. Àngels Cabasés and Miquel Úbeda
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060264 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Youth employment in Spain is characterised by temporary contracts, part-time jobs, and low wages, a long-standing situation that has been further accentuated since the 2008 crisis, placing young people, especially women, in a position of vulnerability at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. [...] Read more.
Youth employment in Spain is characterised by temporary contracts, part-time jobs, and low wages, a long-standing situation that has been further accentuated since the 2008 crisis, placing young people, especially women, in a position of vulnerability at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through different data, this article argues that young women’s working conditions have deteriorated in comparison to those of previous generations and young men, in a period in which there have been two crises that have affected youth employment. Linking the results with the main youth employment policies allows us to observe why the precarisation of Spanish youth has not been stopped. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
When Helping Hurts: A Zemiological Analysis of a Child Protection Intervention in Adolescence—Implications for a Critical Child Protection Studies
by Lauren Elizabeth Wroe
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060263 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3420
Abstract
This paper presents data from a three-year, mixed methods study into the rate and impact of ‘relocation’ as a response to extra-familial harm in adolescence by children’s social care teams. Participatory approaches to research design, data collection and analysis are used to gain [...] Read more.
This paper presents data from a three-year, mixed methods study into the rate and impact of ‘relocation’ as a response to extra-familial harm in adolescence by children’s social care teams. Participatory approaches to research design, data collection and analysis are used to gain insights from young people, parents/carers and professionals about the impact of relocations on safety. Professionals and young people report a range of harms implicated in the use of relocations, whilst sharing that the intervention often increases safety. Data are analysed zemiologically to understand this ambivalence, connecting micro accounts of harm with meso, institutional and macro structures that determine child protection intervention. Zemiology is put forward as a promising approach for a Critical Child Protection Studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Child Protection Studies)
23 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Does Income Class Affect Life Satisfaction? New Evidence from Cross-Country Microdata
by Joanne Haddad, Jad Chaaban, Ali Chalak and Hala Ghattas
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060262 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
This paper analyzes the impact of income class on subjective wellbeing. Using rich data from the Gallup World Poll, we investigate whether belonging to locally (both country- and time-specific) defined income classes influences individuals’ life satisfaction. We rely on a latent class analysis [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the impact of income class on subjective wellbeing. Using rich data from the Gallup World Poll, we investigate whether belonging to locally (both country- and time-specific) defined income classes influences individuals’ life satisfaction. We rely on a latent class analysis estimation method, using individual income proxied by household income divided by household size, as an observable characteristic to hypothesize the income classes. We fit a model with one categorical latent variable with three unobserved groupings, here: income classes, which we interpret as lower, middle and upper classes. Our estimates suggest that individuals in the low and middle income classes are, respectively, about 30 and 17 percent of a standard deviation less likely to report a higher life satisfaction in comparison to individuals belonging to the upper income class. The effect of income classes remains robust to the inclusion of standard explanatory variables in this literature. Full article
12 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Emotional Capital and Its Uses in Lithuanian Middle-Class Fathers’ Narratives
by Arturas Tereskinas
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060261 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
The article examines Lithuanian middle-class fathers’ uses of emotional capital to learn which patterns of emotional engagement with children they employ in their fathering. Emotional capital is defined, in the article, as a type of interpersonal resource that consists of emotion-based knowledge and [...] Read more.
The article examines Lithuanian middle-class fathers’ uses of emotional capital to learn which patterns of emotional engagement with children they employ in their fathering. Emotional capital is defined, in the article, as a type of interpersonal resource that consists of emotion-based knowledge and emotion-management abilities that can lead to social benefits. The 24 in-depth interviews with 35- to 48-year-old fathers show that males believe they are emotionally prepared to cope with their children’s concerns and challenges. The use of emotional capital is an attempt to strengthen their standing as fathers and gain pleasure. Emotional capital is activated by fathers regulating negative emotions and using positive emotions to speak with their children and form friendship bonds. Emotion-based knowledge, management abilities, and capacities to feel provide fathers with a sense of authority and pride. Importantly, in the interviews, it is indicated that men and women have similar emotional resources. Compared to their female partners or wives, men generally consider themselves capable of skillfully enacting emotional capital in their interactions with children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
22 pages, 380 KiB  
Systematic Review
Urban Living Lab: An Experimental Co-Production Tool to Foster the Circular Economy
by Federico Cuomo
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060260 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2967
Abstract
In recent decades; the balance of power between institutional and economic actors has radically changed; with a significant impact on the modes and dynamics of governance. In the broad array of experimental practices of co-production; Living Labs (LLs) represent a promising mode of [...] Read more.
In recent decades; the balance of power between institutional and economic actors has radically changed; with a significant impact on the modes and dynamics of governance. In the broad array of experimental practices of co-production; Living Labs (LLs) represent a promising mode of collaboration among public bodies; research centres; private companies and citizens. By means of LLs; public actors aim to co-produce experimental policies; breaking out of traditional policy schemes to find new solutions to collective problems. On an urban scale; such tools have come to be known as Urban Living Labs (ULLs), and they are increasingly used by local governments to tackle complex problems such us stimulating the circular economy to tackle climate change. This paper provides a systematic review of case studies to understand whether and how the ULLs can represent an effective policy tool to foster the circular economy on an urban scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Governance and the Environments)
15 pages, 1570 KiB  
Article
International Health Cooperation in the Post-Pandemic Era: Possibilities for and Limitations of Middle Powers in International Cooperation
by Yongmin Kim and Youngdeuk Park
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060259 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2788
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has left international cooperation and liberalistic values in crisis. As liberalism’s downfall is widely discussed, international collaborations like the European Union are criticised for their inability to operate adequately during the pandemic. The four examples in this paper are middle [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has left international cooperation and liberalistic values in crisis. As liberalism’s downfall is widely discussed, international collaborations like the European Union are criticised for their inability to operate adequately during the pandemic. The four examples in this paper are middle power countries (South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore) in terms of economic scale and influence. The purpose of this study was to uncover possibilities for and limitations of these middle powers within international cooperative efforts during and after the pandemic. The unknown factor is the path the post-pandemic world will follow. Will nations focus on independent survival? Or will international cooperation shape the new world? Globalisation already seems to have progressed too far for the national egoism of the great powers to prevail. Even if face-to-face is replaced by virtual and offline meetings move online, the social nature of humans remains unchanged, and international cooperation remains valid. The four middle power countries in Asia, which are included among the most economically successful countries, are important to international society based on their relatively excellent quarantine performance. What is important in the diplomacy of middle power countries is not traditional security and hard power but the soft power of international law, human rights, health security, and international cooperation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 694 KiB  
Article
Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Lives of Women with Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds and Victimization Experiences in Portugal
by Ana Lúcia Teixeira, Dalila Cerejo, Maria do Rosário Rosa and Manuel Lisboa
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060258 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
The heavy economic, social, and psychological toll of pandemic lockdowns around the world and their disproportionate effect on women are widely acknowledged, but different socioeconomic backgrounds and contexts may influence the degree to which stay-at-home measures impact their lives. Additionally, knowing that violence [...] Read more.
The heavy economic, social, and psychological toll of pandemic lockdowns around the world and their disproportionate effect on women are widely acknowledged, but different socioeconomic backgrounds and contexts may influence the degree to which stay-at-home measures impact their lives. Additionally, knowing that violence against women tends to increase during times of crisis, we are testing if the additional burden of victimization represents an added load to the perceived social impacts of the lockdown. Using 2021 survey data from a random sample of 1541 Portuguese women, the paper explores, through logistic regression models, the social impact of the lockdown on the lives of women, its socioeconomic determinants, and the role played by violence against women during the pandemic. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown did not equally affect all facets of women’s social lives, and women with higher education status and that experienced income reductions due to the measures taken to control the pandemic are more prone to experience a more severe negative impact of the lockdown on the various facets of their lives. Additionally, having been a victim during the pandemic partially mediates the effect of education and income reduction on the social outcomes of the lockdown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 288 KiB  
Brief Report
Comparing the Effects of Class Origins versus Race in the Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty
by Arthur Sakamoto, Li Hsu and Mary E. Jalufka
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060257 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Building upon prior research on intergenerational income mobility, we assess class effects versus racial effects on the probability of becoming a poor adult, broken down by gender. We define the class effect (for each race-and-gender group) as the difference between the probability that [...] Read more.
Building upon prior research on intergenerational income mobility, we assess class effects versus racial effects on the probability of becoming a poor adult, broken down by gender. We define the class effect (for each race-and-gender group) as the difference between the probability that a person who was born into the lowest income quintile becomes poor and the probability that a person who was born into the highest income quintile becomes poor. For each minority-by-gender group, using Whites as the baseline, the racial effect is defined as the average racial differential in the probability of becoming a poor adult, irrespective of class origins. The results indicate that, for all minority-by-gender groups, the class effect is larger than the racial effect. Our findings underscore the continuing significance of the comparatively large effects of class origins, which have not been adequately acknowledged in recent research. Full article
18 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
Educating in History: Thinking Historically through Historical Reenactment
by José-Manuel González-González, Jesús-Gerardo Franco-Calvo and Darío Español-Solana
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060256 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4370
Abstract
This paper aimed to identify trends in the scientific literature that relate the link between two concepts: historical thinking and historical reenactment. The definition of both concepts and their commonalities were examined. Convinced that History instruction and Heritage education could improve new methods [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to identify trends in the scientific literature that relate the link between two concepts: historical thinking and historical reenactment. The definition of both concepts and their commonalities were examined. Convinced that History instruction and Heritage education could improve new methods and techniques, and aware of the benefits of reenactments in active learning and participation in and outside the classroom, we came to the obvious conclusion that merging both aspects is a must and should be disseminated. We also analyzed the presence of second-order concepts in reenactment practices and how they are addressed by actors and spectators. Reenactments foster the acquisition of critical thinking by citizens through education; their quality, however, must be improved through research and didactics—didactics based on reenactment that help us value the past and the traces still present in local areas. Local and global identity and heritage, emotions, reproduction of objects, the use of sources, relevance, empathy, multiperspectives, causation, communication, the relationship between past and present, and the sustainable economy proposed by the 2030 Agenda, are all aspects that should take center stage in turning this phenomenon into a living and lasting history as an experience. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 293 KiB  
Review
Criminal Legal Systems and the Disability Community: An Overview
by Sandra M. Leotti and Elspeth Slayter
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060255 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3568
Abstract
While the scale and scope of the criminal legal system is often discussed with attention to racial disproportionalities, the fact that disabled people are overrepresented at all points in the system is less discussed by social workers. Disabled people come into contact with [...] Read more.
While the scale and scope of the criminal legal system is often discussed with attention to racial disproportionalities, the fact that disabled people are overrepresented at all points in the system is less discussed by social workers. Disabled people come into contact with the criminal legal system as suspects, defendants, incarcerated persons, victims, and witnesses. Compared to people without disabilities, disabled people are more likely to experience victimization, be arrested, be charged with a crime, and serve longer prison sentences once convicted. These trends are even more profound for disabled people with intersecting marginalized identities, such as people of color, women, poor people, and those who identify as LGBTQ. This article provides an overview of the connections between disability, law enforcement, and practices of imprisonment in the United States. We provide a historical overview of the involvement of disabled people in the criminal legal system, review the prevalence of disability in the criminal legal system, and then discuss the unique ways in which disabled people are impacted by the criminal legal system. We conclude by providing recommendations for social work practice and advocacy based in disability justice. Full article
7 pages, 216 KiB  
Article
Hannah’s Suffering: The Power of Voice
by Stephanie M. House-Niamke
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060254 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Hannah’s story in the Old Testament has been written about considerably by Jewish feminists, womanist theologians, and other biblical scholars. This paper strives to build upon these works in asking the reader to consider Hannah’s story from a liberatory theological theory of suffering [...] Read more.
Hannah’s story in the Old Testament has been written about considerably by Jewish feminists, womanist theologians, and other biblical scholars. This paper strives to build upon these works in asking the reader to consider Hannah’s story from a liberatory theological theory of suffering by Sölle, as well as a postmodern and non-religious lens as discussed by Sandoval’s Theory of Oppositional Consciousness in Methodology of the Oppressed and Lorde’s “Transformation of Silence into Language and Action”. This paper asks if this narrative can serve as an example of taking back one’s power by confronting a complex system of power and oppression for Black women. Intercessory prayer aptly defines the personal as political, especially with the multiple minoritized identities of Hannah. I argue that Hannah’s story can serve as a complex narrative of differential consciousness and the reclamation of one’s own power, by using her voice. Her audacity to correct a prophet, fight for her valid desire of motherhood, and determine her own happiness is evidence of an empowerment ethic that is necessary for minoritized women in a post-modern era and political climate where the erasure of all forms of difference and consciousness is the priority. Full article
20 pages, 622 KiB  
Article
Barriers That Keep Vulnerable People as NEETs
by Carlos Pesquera Alonso, Almudena Iniesta Martínez and Práxedes Muñoz Sánchez
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060253 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
The rates of young people Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) in the Mediterranean European Economic Area (MED EEA) are high. Hence, the European Union and national governments have developed and implemented different policies aimed to tackle the NEET situation. In this [...] Read more.
The rates of young people Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) in the Mediterranean European Economic Area (MED EEA) are high. Hence, the European Union and national governments have developed and implemented different policies aimed to tackle the NEET situation. In this article, we try to identify and understand the most relevant barriers that keep vulnerable people as NEETs. We focused on youth as being at the highest risk of becoming NEETs: migrant women aged 25–29. By using semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders and NEETs in the Spanish region of Murcia, we collected their views on and experiences with different programs and strategies. We conclude that this group is exposed to additional barriers due to the intersectionality of their characteristics. There are structural and contextual aspects, such as motherhood, a lack of social networks, or not knowing the language, which NEET policies do not address. We highlight the need of (i) improving the adaptiveness of relevant policies by being tailored to specific problems NEETs face, (ii) expanding the focus of NEET policies, and (iii) including the regional perspective in NEET policy design. In our comprehensive approach, we stress that the NEET policy alone cannot solve the NEET problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1234 KiB  
Article
Podcasting: The Radio of Generation Z in Spain
by Rafael Galán-Arribas, Francisco-Javier Herrero-Gutiérrez and Francisco-Javier Frutos-Esteban
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060252 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
The fact that traditional radio is synchronous and unidirectional, with little or no room for interaction and content selection, is one of the main reasons why young people have turned their backs on it. In retrospect, conventional radio never cared for the younger [...] Read more.
The fact that traditional radio is synchronous and unidirectional, with little or no room for interaction and content selection, is one of the main reasons why young people have turned their backs on it. In retrospect, conventional radio never cared for the younger generation, never designing strategies to bring them in. As a result, radio lost its relevance and it does not feature as part of young people’s digital diet. Over the last year, the number of podcast consumers has steadily increased, which is causing this format to become more and more cemented in society. It could be a way to gain younger listeners, an opportunity not to be missed by the radio industry. In the past, young people continued to listen to the radio as they got older, but that is no longer the case nor is radio seen as the go-to resource for new musical content. The challenge for radio is clear: regaining its influence through proposals with added value to differentiate itself from global platforms. In order to carry out this research, a total of 410 young university students were surveyed. The results show what the current picture is in such a changing atmosphere. It has been observed that this audience bases their audio consumption on personal preferences, they mainly access it via social media and they would find it useful and interesting to create their own podcast. This paper includes a podcast where academic experts and audio professionals, interviewed for the doctoral thesis “xxx (anonymity for review)”, reflect on the strategies that radio should adopt in order to gain young listeners. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
What Works? How Combining Equal Opportunity and Work–Life Measures Relates to the Within-Firm Gender Wage Gap
by Charlotte K. Marx and Martin Diewald
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060251 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate how organizational equal opportunity and work–life measures when combined are associated with the gender wage gap within large German establishments. By looking at both kinds of measures as parts of a comprehensive personnel strategy, we provide a novel [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate how organizational equal opportunity and work–life measures when combined are associated with the gender wage gap within large German establishments. By looking at both kinds of measures as parts of a comprehensive personnel strategy, we provide a novel way to distinguish between a career-supportive implementation of work–life measures versus implementation as a compensating differential. Using a linked employer–employee dataset, we performed a cross-sectional multilevel regression analysis with fixed effects for 6439 respondents within 122 establishments. The results indicate that work–life measures that support employees in their parenthood responsibilities are linked to a significantly higher GWG, particularly for parents. Our results indicate that the implementation of work–life measures is used as compensating differentials, primarily for mothers. Particularly, this can be found when looking at the combination of multiple measures. In combination with equal opportunity measures for women, work–life measures that highlight the long-term absence from the workplace are associated with a higher GWG for parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Gender Income Inequality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
‘We Are Family’—How Urban Specialty Shops Portray the Consumers of Rural Provenance Foods
by Teresa Forte and Elisabete Figueiredo
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060250 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
The literature on food consumption and marketing has been mainly concerned with identifying the appeal of the physical and sensorial features of food products, consumer choice determinants and their profiling according to socioeconomic characteristics, and perceptions and practices. This paper takes a different [...] Read more.
The literature on food consumption and marketing has been mainly concerned with identifying the appeal of the physical and sensorial features of food products, consumer choice determinants and their profiling according to socioeconomic characteristics, and perceptions and practices. This paper takes a different approach by analyzing how consumers are being represented and engaged with in the promotion of rural provenance foods, an overlooked topic within the literature. For this purpose, a content analysis was conducted on promotional materials (printed materials—including brochures, business cards and leaflets), website publications and social media (Facebook and Instagram) posts issued by 30 specialty shops located in three Portuguese cities (Aveiro, Lisbon and Porto). A total of 7491 files were analyzed. Empirical evidence shows that consumers are mainly portrayed through references to their symbolic features or as elements of a connection established and nurtured by the shops. Sociodemographic features lack relevance in opposition to the relevance attributed to the interaction between the shops and the consumers. All in all, the analysis highlights the significance of the interaction between the shops and the consumers in the promotion of products, fostering close and familiar relationships attentive to consumer preferences, emotions and values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
15 pages, 1395 KiB  
Communication
Overcoming Identity Threat: Using Persona Pedagogy in Intersectionality and Inclusion Training
by Cate Thomas
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060249 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
There are many efforts and strategies in place to increase the inclusivity of workplaces which is a positive approach, but little thought is provided to the personal cost of participants in undertaking some of these initiatives. Often due to the choice of pedagogy, [...] Read more.
There are many efforts and strategies in place to increase the inclusivity of workplaces which is a positive approach, but little thought is provided to the personal cost of participants in undertaking some of these initiatives. Often due to the choice of pedagogy, participants may be placed in the situation to reveal hidden parts of their identity which leads to vulnerability and unpredicted exposure in the workplace and organisation. The paper examines the key issue of identity threat whilst undertaking inclusion and intersectional-type training. The paper highlights the continued need to challenge bias and other forms of exclusionary behavioural and cultural practices, however, this must be carried out in a cautious manner to uphold the safety of well-being of all individuals. A solution to minimize or overcome identity threat is offered via the use of persona pedagogy where personas are used expands one’s own world views and limits vulnerability exposure. The persona approach initiates experiences different to an individual’s lived experience which evokes critical reflection of one’s own positionality by taking on another persona. The paper concludes that the use of persona pedagogy leads to true transformative learning in the workplace whilst protecting the identity of individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Is a Good Boss Always a Plus? LMX, Family–Work Conflict, and Remote Working Satisfaction during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Ferdinando Toscano, Salvatore Zappalà and Teresa Galanti
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060248 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3941
Abstract
This study investigated the relationships between leader–member exchange (LMX) and workers’ perceptions of family–work conflict (FWC) and between LMX and satisfaction with remote working (SRW). It also assessed the moderating effect of employees’ ability to cope (AC) with the work in the interaction [...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationships between leader–member exchange (LMX) and workers’ perceptions of family–work conflict (FWC) and between LMX and satisfaction with remote working (SRW). It also assessed the moderating effect of employees’ ability to cope (AC) with the work in the interaction between LMX and FWC. Using a cross-sectional design, this study tested a moderated mediation model using Model 7 of Macro “PROCESS” for SPSS. The study sample consisted of 455 employees engaged in remote working activities during the COVID-19 health emergency. Surprisingly, the results showed that LMX was positively associated with FWC, while the latter was negatively associated with SWR. There were neither direct nor indirect effects of LMX on SRW, but the moderation of the AC with work on the relationship between LMX and FWC was significant and negative. In particular, the results showed that, in workers who reported lower values of AC, the increase in the quality of LMX also corresponded to an increase in FWC. Conversely, in employees with very high AC, as LMX increased, FWC decreased. Good relationships with the boss in a new and challenging situation such as remote working during COVID-19 threatens employees’ well-being when accompanied by poor coping skills. This study sheds light on these mechanisms and opens new questions in the literature about family–work conflict and remote working. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking Home Office, Digitalizedwork and Work-Family Interface)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 748 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Victimization, and Academic Achievement in High School Students
by Ana María Martínez-Martínez, Christian Roith, José M. Aguilar-Parra, Ana Manzano-León, José M. Rodríguez-Ferrer and Remedios López-Liria
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060247 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3719
Abstract
The study of bullying implies analyzing the emotional competences of students, and it has been demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the poor management of emotions. This study explores whether high scores in Emotional Intelligence (EI) are positively related to academic performance [...] Read more.
The study of bullying implies analyzing the emotional competences of students, and it has been demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the poor management of emotions. This study explores whether high scores in Emotional Intelligence (EI) are positively related to academic performance and negatively to bullying. The sample composition focused on students of Compulsory Secondary Education, formed by 3451 subjects aged between 11 and 18 years (50.88% women and 49.12% men). The selection of the high schools was made for non-random convenience, administering Peer Bullying Questionnaire (CAI), TMM-24 and school grades. To analyze the results, a model of structural equations was used by estimating the maximum likelihood together with the bootstrapping procedure. We concluded that EI stands as a protector against bullying and has a positive impact on academic performance. This infers that having greater clarity, repair and emotional attention correlates with a lower possibility of being bullied, at the same time, a school climate without aggressiveness generates positive links towards the school and towards optimal learning environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing School Violence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1381 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Interface between Asylum, Human Trafficking and/or ‘Modern Slavery’ within a Hostile Environment in the UK
by Patricia Hynes
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060246 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4604
Abstract
While the drivers and processes of forced migration may overlap for people seeking refuge or experiencing human trafficking, responses are invariably rooted in legislation and policy rather than empirical enquiry. In the UK, tightening of legislation around asylum has, for the past three [...] Read more.
While the drivers and processes of forced migration may overlap for people seeking refuge or experiencing human trafficking, responses are invariably rooted in legislation and policy rather than empirical enquiry. In the UK, tightening of legislation around asylum has, for the past three decades, resulted in a ‘hostile environment’. During this time, a discourse around human trafficking (also referred to as ‘modern slavery’ in the UK) has emerged. This paper looks at asylum and human trafficking in the UK to consider a fractioning of protection and resulting fractioning of support for basic needs and welfare provision, provided through the establishment of parallel systems of support for both populations. This paper explores the distinctions, interface, key points of contact, and disconnects between asylum and trafficking in the UK. It details the trajectory of asylum policy, provides an overview of the pre-history to the hostile environment, the impacts of fractioning refugee protection, and what this means for trust as a result. It is argued that trust is an essential component of UK government policies but that the trajectory of asylum policy from a focus on integration to a culture of hostility runs directly counter to efforts to identify ‘victims’ of ‘modern slavery’. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2187 KiB  
Article
Institutions, Labor Market Insecurity, and Well-Being in Europe
by Hande Inanc and Arne L. Kalleberg
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060245 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
We examined the differences among seventeen European countries regarding the extent to which several key institutional and labor market characteristics affect the degrees of insecurity that people feel about their jobs and employment prospects, as well as their well-being (economic security and subjective [...] Read more.
We examined the differences among seventeen European countries regarding the extent to which several key institutional and labor market characteristics affect the degrees of insecurity that people feel about their jobs and employment prospects, as well as their well-being (economic security and subjective well-being). We estimate how macrostructural factors affect well-being by fitting random-intercept multi-level models and decomposing the variance across national and individual levels, using data from the 2004 and 2010 European Social Surveys. We find that there is substantial country-level variation in labor market insecurity, economic security and subjective well-being. Active labor market policies, the generosity of unemployment benefits, and collective bargaining coverage explain a considerable portion of the identified differences among countries in labor market insecurity and well-being. The effects of employment protection legislation vary depending on whether the worker has a permanent or temporary contract. We did not find substantial differences between 2004 and 2010, suggesting that the effects of institutions and worker power on labor market insecurity and well-being reflect longer-term structural changes associated with the transformation of employment relations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Innovative ICT Based Solutions and (Im)migrants Integration
by Maryam Karimi, Giuliana Costa and Grazia Concilio
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060244 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 1720
Abstract
For (im)migrants, understanding how to navigate a host country and how to access the existing social systems and the public welfare ecosystem are among the most difficult and confusing tasks [...] Full article
16 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Crossing the Binaries of Mobility Control: Agency, Force and Freedom
by Angelo Martins, Jr. and Julia O’Connell-Davidson
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060243 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
This article draws on qualitative data on journeys to Europe or Brazil undertaken by adults and teenagers from Sub-Saharan African countries to develop a conceptual analysis of the blurriness of the lines drawn between supposedly different types of movement via referencing the conceptual [...] Read more.
This article draws on qualitative data on journeys to Europe or Brazil undertaken by adults and teenagers from Sub-Saharan African countries to develop a conceptual analysis of the blurriness of the lines drawn between supposedly different types of movement via referencing the conceptual binary of forced/voluntary movement (such as asylum, trafficking, smuggling). It questions the liberal model of ‘agency’ that is employed not just by state actors, but also by many antislavery, anti-trafficking, child rights, and refugee rights activists, to construct boundaries between different ‘types’ of people on the move. Conceptual divisions between refugees and economic migrants, trafficked and smuggled persons, forced and voluntary labourers, child and adult migrants, and the idea of ‘modern slavery’, deflect attention from the structures that limit the choices open to people on the move. This article argues that the voluntary/forced binary encourages a tendency to falsely conflate choice with freedom and works to preserve the illusion that human freedom is a defining feature of liberal democratic societies rather than working to universally protect the freedoms of actual living human beings. Full article
14 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
The “Problem” of Multispecies Families: Speciesism in Emergency Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Shelters
by Sarah May Lindsay
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060242 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
When a woman seeks emergency shelter from an abusive relationship, she may bring her children but rarely companion animals. Through a Critical Animal Studies (CAS) lens, this article qualitatively analyzes in-depth interviews with shelter workers in Ontario, Canada, exploring the place of multispecies [...] Read more.
When a woman seeks emergency shelter from an abusive relationship, she may bring her children but rarely companion animals. Through a Critical Animal Studies (CAS) lens, this article qualitatively analyzes in-depth interviews with shelter workers in Ontario, Canada, exploring the place of multispecies families in intimate partner violence (IPV) shelters. The findings indicate that companion animals are viewed as problematic, as obstacles to their clients’ safe relocation, falling outside the scope of IPV shelters (who rarely take a co-sheltering approach), and as potential strains on an already resource-stretched social institution. Addressing a gap in the literature about the effects of companion animal policies in social housing on clients and staff, the results are relevant to social service providers and policymakers working with multispecies families, including insights about women and children’s reactions to separation from companion animals, contradictions in related policies, and institutional priorities. The article concludes that multispecies families are poorly accounted for in the IPV shelter system and suggests that researchers and shelters should collaborate with their communities to advocate for resources and policies that accommodate families with companion animals. Full article
13 pages, 634 KiB  
Article
Sports Event Image, Satisfaction, Motivation, Stadium Atmosphere, Environment, and Perception: A Study on the Biggest Multi-Sport Event in Indonesia during the Pandemic
by Kenius Kogoya, Tri Setyo Guntoro and Miftah Fariz Prima Putra
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060241 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3904
Abstract
The National Sports Week (known in Bahasa Indonesia as Pekan Olahraga Nasional or PON) consumes a large budget as Indonesia’s largest multi-sports event. This raises the question of whether it is only a sporting event or has an impact on society. Studies related [...] Read more.
The National Sports Week (known in Bahasa Indonesia as Pekan Olahraga Nasional or PON) consumes a large budget as Indonesia’s largest multi-sports event. This raises the question of whether it is only a sporting event or has an impact on society. Studies related to multi-sports events, specifically in the form of local or small-scale, such as PON, are still limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate six important domains (constructs) of the 20th PON (PON XX) held in Papua in 2021: sports event image, motivation, satisfaction, stadium atmosphere, environment, and perception of the impacts. In addition, this study assessed the correlations between those six constructs and associations between the explanatory variables (gender, distance of residence, and involvement in the sporting event) and those six constructs. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess those six constructs and the explanatory variables. We included 675 respondents aged between 17–57 years, with a mean age of 22.87 years in the study. The results showed that the implementation of PON XX was positively received by the community and their highest motivation to watch this event was for entertainment. The involvement of the participant in the event was significantly associated with sports event image, satisfaction, motivation, stadium atmosphere, environment, and the perception of PON impact. The distance of the residence from the venues was only significantly associated with the perceived impact of PON XX on the community while gender had no association with all six constructs. There was a strong correlation between the other five investigated constructs and the perceived impact of PON XX. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
Discourse, Difference, and Divergence: Exploring Media Representations and Online Public Sentiments toward Marginalized Urban Communities in Jamaica during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Aleem Mahabir, Romario Anderson, Robert Kinlocke, Rose-Ann Smith, Kristinia Doughorty and Chandradath Madho
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060240 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Despite lacking the resources to adequately adhere to public health protocols, urban residents belonging to impoverished communities in Kingston, Jamaica were prominently featured in local news reports that highlighted their breaches of social distancing. These reports generated an overwhelmingly prejudiced online social discourse, [...] Read more.
Despite lacking the resources to adequately adhere to public health protocols, urban residents belonging to impoverished communities in Kingston, Jamaica were prominently featured in local news reports that highlighted their breaches of social distancing. These reports generated an overwhelmingly prejudiced online social discourse, characterized by derogatory and dehumanizing remarks. This research aims to explore the ways media representations of calls for social distancing have unearthed latent social cleavages and contributed to the othering of Kingston’s poor. A thematic analysis was used to understand the nature of the public response to these news reports. The comments were manually coded, and emergent themes were classified based on the sentiments expressed. The comments generated evoked class, place, race, and political tensions, potentially perpetuating the public perception of vulnerable groups as the ‘threatening other’. These comments possibly represent deeper problems associated with the social divergence of Jamaican society. The lack of sensitivity exhibited shows a general disregard for the stark social realities commonly experienced by subaltern groups. These findings suggest media coverage promoting public safety, while important, may inadvertently lead to heightened social tensions and perpetuate social stigmas against marginalized groups, potentially stirring social divergence and countering efforts toward inclusiveness and integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 533 KiB  
Article
The Effects of COVID-19 on Family Climate: A Fuzzy Clustering Approach to Examine Spanish Households
by Juan Carlos Martín-Quintana, Juan Carlos Martín and Pedro F. Alemán
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060239 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Spain was one of the countries in which more severe lockdown policies were imposed during the second term of 2020 to mitigate the unprecedented health crisis. The measures restricted citizens’ mobility, obliging families to stay confined at homes for 99 days since 15 [...] Read more.
Spain was one of the countries in which more severe lockdown policies were imposed during the second term of 2020 to mitigate the unprecedented health crisis. The measures restricted citizens’ mobility, obliging families to stay confined at homes for 99 days since 15 March 2020. The measures created a number of challenges that affect the family climate. This paper aims to empirically analyse how the family climate in Spain has been affected by COVID-19. The family climate assessment was based on an online questionnaire answered by 2034 citizens. A multi-criteria decision-making method rooted in fuzzy logic and TOPSIS, and a fuzzy clustering method, are applied to analyse the effects of the COVID-19 on the family climate. The fuzzy clustering method reveals that there are three different family climate profiles, namely (1) extreme positive, (2) extreme negative, and (3) intermediate. Our results show that some traits affect having a more or less positive family climate. The authors discuss the main contributions and the policy implications that could provide insights into future measures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 372 KiB  
Article
Deployments of Multiracial Masculinity and Anti-Black Violence: The Racial Framings of Barack Obama, George Zimmerman, and Daunte Wright
by Jasmine Mitchell
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060238 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
In this article, I examine how political and media discourses of multiraciality are deployed to justify guilt and innocence. I trace the deployment of multiraciality to determine who is deserving of life or death in media coverage, political rhetoric, and court records during [...] Read more.
In this article, I examine how political and media discourses of multiraciality are deployed to justify guilt and innocence. I trace the deployment of multiraciality to determine who is deserving of life or death in media coverage, political rhetoric, and court records during Obama’s presidency, in George Zimmerman’s 2013 acquittal, and in the 2021 killing of Daunte Wright. I examine the weaponization of discourses of multiracial identities as tools of white supremacy and anti-Blackness. Through such weaponization, the construction of the multiracial man as an index of racial progress and post-racism evident in the Barack Obama era enabled the violence and miscarriages of justice in the killings of Trayvon Martin and Daunte Wright. I consider how transnational and U.S. narratives of multiraciality, joined with anti-Blackness and white supremacy, enabled the acquittal of George Zimmerman. Furthermore, I examine how white womanhood and fears of Black masculinity facilitated the sympathy garnered towards Kim Potter. In considering the killing of Daunte Wright, this paper shows how multiraciality and racial malleability are valuable only when utilized for preserving racial hierarchies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
16 pages, 334 KiB  
Article
Emancipation Life Paths of Portuguese Cigano/Roma Women
by Olga Magano
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060237 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
In Portuguese society, some Cigano/Roma women, during their life paths, distance themselves from the Cigano cultural tradition, particularly in regard to marriage, schooling, employment and social life. On the one hand, there is a feeling of attachment to traditional values as family pressure [...] Read more.
In Portuguese society, some Cigano/Roma women, during their life paths, distance themselves from the Cigano cultural tradition, particularly in regard to marriage, schooling, employment and social life. On the one hand, there is a feeling of attachment to traditional values as family pressure to marry or in relation to gender differentiation; on the other hand, these women express a desire for empowerment autonomy and emancipation in order to draw up their own trajectories and life projects. The results obtained with 21 in-depth interviews, 10 women and 11 men, indicate that Cigano women face greater difficulties with regard to early and inbred marriage and are more prone to be victims of family and domestic violence, but they are also the main drivers of change and social transformation of Cigano/Roma families. Full article
27 pages, 1318 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Family Transmission of Ethnic Prejudice: A Systematic Review of Research Articles with Adolescents
by Ioana Zagrean, Daniela Barni, Claudia Russo and Francesca Danioni
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060236 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6897
Abstract
Ethnic prejudice is one of the most studied topics in social psychology. Empirical research on its development and intergenerational transmission is increasing but still scarce. This systematic review collected and analyzed psychosocial studies focused on the transmission of ethnic prejudice within families with [...] Read more.
Ethnic prejudice is one of the most studied topics in social psychology. Empirical research on its development and intergenerational transmission is increasing but still scarce. This systematic review collected and analyzed psychosocial studies focused on the transmission of ethnic prejudice within families with adolescents. Specifically, it aimed at addressing the following research questions: (a) To what extent is there a vertical (between parents and children) and horizontal (between siblings) transmission of ethnic prejudice within the family? (b) Is this process unidirectional (from parents to children) or bidirectional (between parents and children)? (c) Which individual and/or relational variables influence this process? (d) Can adolescents’ intergroup contact experiences affect the family influence on adolescents’ ethnic prejudice? The literature search of four databases (Ebsco, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science), carried out from February 2021 to May 2021, following the PRISMA guidelines, yielded 22 articles that matched the eligibility criteria. The findings highlighted a moderate bidirectional transmission of ethnic prejudice between parents and adolescents, which was influenced by several individual and relational variables (e.g., the adolescents’ age and sex and the family relationship quality). Moreover, the adolescents’ frequent and positive contacts with peers of different ethnicities reduced the parents’ influence on the adolescents’ ethnic prejudice. The findings are discussed, and their limitations and implications for intervention and future research are considered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop