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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2022) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this article, we analyze the emergence of a global security norm of the COVID-19 epidemic as a threat to international security. Here, we provide a framework for understanding the securitization of the COVID-19 epidemic as an international norm defined and promoted by the World Health Organization as a norm entrepreneur and cascaded down to the level of member states. We identify the actors who developed the main strategic prescriptions of the security norm and the international mechanisms that promoted the cascading of its contents throughout the international system. We further develop the notion of primary and secondary norms, which explain the striking differences amongst industrialized states with regard to the contents, scope, and implementation timeline of the various measures aiming to curb the spread of the virus. View this paper
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17 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Digital Exclusion and the Structural Barriers to Safety Strategies among Men and Non-Binary Sex Workers Who Solicit Clients Online
by Brett Koenig, Alka Murphy, Spencer Johnston, Jennie Pearson, Rod Knight, Mark Gilbert, Kate Shannon and Andrea Krüsi
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070318 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
Background: Evidence shows that online solicitation facilitates sex workers’ ability to mitigate the risk of workplace violence. However, little is known about how end-demand sex work criminalization and the regulation of online sex work sites shape men and non-binary sex workers’ ability to [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence shows that online solicitation facilitates sex workers’ ability to mitigate the risk of workplace violence. However, little is known about how end-demand sex work criminalization and the regulation of online sex work sites shape men and non-binary sex workers’ ability to maintain their own safety while soliciting services online. Methods: We conducted 21 semi-structured interviews with men and non-binary sex workers in British Columbia between 2020–2021 and examined their ability to enact safety strategies online in the context of end-demand criminalization. Analysis drew on a structural determinants of health framework. Results: Most participants emphasized that sex work is not inherently dangerous and described how soliciting services online facilitated their ability to enact personal safety strategies and remain in control of client interactions. However, participants also described how end-demand criminalization, sex work stigma, and restrictive website policies compromise their ability to solicit services online and to enact safety strategies. Conclusions: Alongside calls to decriminalize sex work, these findings emphasize the need to normalize sex work as a form of labour, promote access to online solicitation among men and non-binary sex workers, and develop standards for online sex work platforms in partnership with sex workers that prioritize sex worker safety. Full article
18 pages, 356 KiB  
Article
The Human Rights Situation of Intersex People: An Analysis of Europe and Latin America
by Yessica Mestre
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070317 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2982
Abstract
Today, intersex people of Europe and Latin America are subjected to different degrees of invisibility and discrimination for being part of bodily diverse communities. Thus, these experiences have been addressed as violations of intersex human rights. This research intends to explore intersex human [...] Read more.
Today, intersex people of Europe and Latin America are subjected to different degrees of invisibility and discrimination for being part of bodily diverse communities. Thus, these experiences have been addressed as violations of intersex human rights. This research intends to explore intersex human rights across Europe and Latin America through a scoping review and legal research, including the review of activist documents. It seeks to study the experiences of violence suffered by intersex people, the role of states in promoting justice, and the possibilities offered by a human rights framework to guarantee a dignified life for bodily diverse communities. This research also illustrates that, although regional, cultural and social landscapes differ in both continents, intersex groups are subject to constant violations of their human rights, and they struggle for recognition and for their bodies to be respected outside the binary categories of sex and gender. Furthermore, European and Latin American states have made proven legislative advances that have led to the greater visibility of intersex people but also face remaining difficulties and gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
15 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
The Interaction between Basic Psychological Needs, Decision-Making and Life Goals among Emerging Adults in South Africa
by Eugene Lee Davids
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070316 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
The interaction between emerging adult psychological well-being and decision-making, in South Africa, has not been explicitly explored in Self-Determination Theory. Life goals have been thought to play a role in the interaction between basic psychological needs and decision-making to promote psychological well-being. The [...] Read more.
The interaction between emerging adult psychological well-being and decision-making, in South Africa, has not been explicitly explored in Self-Determination Theory. Life goals have been thought to play a role in the interaction between basic psychological needs and decision-making to promote psychological well-being. The current study, therefore, aimed to examine whether the decision-making styles employed, and the life goals which were deemed important, contribute to the understanding of the satisfaction or frustration of the basic psychological needs of emerging adults in South Africa. Data were collected cross-sectionally, using a secure, online survey among 1411 participants. The interaction between decision-making, life goals and basic psychological needs variables were examined using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations and hierarchical regression analyses. The results in the study suggest that adaptive (vigilant) decision-making and intrinsic life goals were significant predictors for the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. Some forms of maladaptive decision-making and extrinsic goals were predictors of the frustration of basic psychological needs. The variance explained by the various models were between 15.6–32.6%, with the results suggesting all models were significant. The results provide a novel contribution to emerging adult well-being in South Africa and Self-Determination Theory, with the implications for society, research and practice discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
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12 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Lecturers’ Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Students’ Disposition towards Studying during Online Teaching in the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Rubén Abello-Riquelme, Milenko Del Valle, Yaranay López-Angulo, Cristian Sanhueza-Campos and Yasmina Contreras-Soto
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070315 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1869
Abstract
When examining learning at university, especially in a pandemic context, it is important to analyze the actions taken by lecturers to promote students’ disposition towards studying. The objectives of this research project were to analyze the activities lecturers implement in class to promote [...] Read more.
When examining learning at university, especially in a pandemic context, it is important to analyze the actions taken by lecturers to promote students’ disposition towards studying. The objectives of this research project were to analyze the activities lecturers implement in class to promote their students’ disposition towards studying; examine lecturers’ basic psychological needs satisfaction levels; and determine the relationship between feedback, beliefs, and affect for self-regulation and lecturers’ basic psychological needs satisfaction. A quantitative methodological approach, with a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional design was used, with a sample of 97 lecturers from Chilean universities. Data collection took place through a battery of instruments: the promotion of disposition towards studying survey; the feedback scale for self-regulation; the beliefs and affect in self-regulation survey; the satisfaction of basic psychological needs survey; and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The results showed that the promotion of disposition towards studying was a key factor to face social distancing and the loss of self-regulation for learning because of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, a positive correlation was found between beliefs and affect in relation to self-regulation and satisfaction levels of basic psychological needs in the participating lecturers. Full article
13 pages, 795 KiB  
Article
Student Perception of Competencies and Skills for Social Entrepreneurship in Complex Environments: An Approach with Mexican University Students
by Marco Cruz-Sandoval, José Carlos Vázquez-Parra and Patricia Esther Alonso-Galicia
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070314 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
The aim of this article is to present the results of a diagnostic study carried out on a group of Mexican university students regarding their perceived achievement of social entrepreneurship competence and its subcompetences. By means of a multivariate descriptive statistical analysis, it [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to present the results of a diagnostic study carried out on a group of Mexican university students regarding their perceived achievement of social entrepreneurship competence and its subcompetences. By means of a multivariate descriptive statistical analysis, it was possible to evaluate the perception of this group on their level of perceived achievement considering the variable age. The results show a positive perception on the personal subcompetences and a low perception on the subcompetences of social innovation and business management. This article concludes with the need to promote projects and training programs that improve students’ perception of the achievement of the economic and administrative subcompetences linked to the management processes of the social entrepreneurship competence. This will allow future social entrepreneurs to develop an optimistic view of their professional tools when it comes to materializing their projects. Full article
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13 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
The Agency of Difference in Chilean School Policies and Practices: A BioSocioCultural Way-Out Perspective
by Claudia Matus and Valentina Riberi
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070313 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2367
Abstract
In this paper, we explore the active production of difference (as lacking) through the School Vulnerability Index and the School Inclusion Law in Chile. Through a diffractive reading, we present the contradiction between these two policies. While discriminatory knowledge about school subjects is [...] Read more.
In this paper, we explore the active production of difference (as lacking) through the School Vulnerability Index and the School Inclusion Law in Chile. Through a diffractive reading, we present the contradiction between these two policies. While discriminatory knowledge about school subjects is produced in the School Vulnerability Index as truth and common knowledge for the school community, the School Inclusion Law is designed to solve practices of discrimination at school. We contend that, to address issues of segregation in school settings, we have to question the kind of knowledge we need for a more democratic and just future. As a result, we trouble the separation of biological, social, and cultural realms on which instruments are based to continue segregation practices as a natural way to frame inclusion policies in educational contexts. We argue that both policies and instruments play a decisive role in the continuity of a culture of segregation in a neoliberal school tradition. Full article
19 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
Protective Support and Supportive Protection: Critical Reflections on Safe Practice and Safety in Supervision
by Carmel Devaney and Caroline Mc Gregor
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070312 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
This paper was based on a framework for practice and supervision based on ‘protective-support and supportive-protection’ (PS-SP) that can be used to discuss and plan for practice in a way that maximises the capacity of workers in child protection and welfare (CPW) services [...] Read more.
This paper was based on a framework for practice and supervision based on ‘protective-support and supportive-protection’ (PS-SP) that can be used to discuss and plan for practice in a way that maximises the capacity of workers in child protection and welfare (CPW) services to provide support and protection simultaneously. The framework is underpinned by a long-established assumption about social work in child protection and welfare as a socio-legal practice of mediation in the social. The PS-SP framework was initially developed within an ecological context with a focus on networks and networking. In this paper, we developed this framework further, framing practice supervision using four functions of supervision (management, support, development, and mediation) and including a fifth component on safety. We did this alongside a review of related considerations around safety in supervision in general and in child protection and welfare in particular. While noting the important contribution of this work, we identified ongoing gaps for supervision focused on safety when considered within an ecological context. Bearing in mind the well-evidenced stress, challenges, and vicarious nature of child protection and welfare practice, we argued the importance of a wider framework based on PS-SP for supervision and support to manage this complexity with a particular emphasis on ‘safety’ as a contribution to this. To illustrate our framework and discussion, we referred to a case study throughout. This case study is drawn from a high-profile child abuse inquiry in Ireland over a decade ago. This case was chosen as it demonstrates the complex interplay of needs for support and protection over extended time. We considered how the PS-SP framework may be used in the present (hypothetically) regarding such a case scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Child Protection Studies)
23 pages, 2093 KiB  
Article
The Gender Gap in Income and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Ireland
by Karina Doorley, Cathal O’Donoghue and Denisa M. Sologon
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070311 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
The gender income gap is large and well documented in many countries. Recent research shows that it is mainly driven by differences in working patterns between men and women but also by wage differences. The tax–benefit system cushions the gender income gap by [...] Read more.
The gender income gap is large and well documented in many countries. Recent research shows that it is mainly driven by differences in working patterns between men and women but also by wage differences. The tax–benefit system cushions the gender income gap by redistributing it between men and women. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented levels of unemployment in 2020 in many countries, with some suggestions that men and women have been differently affected. This research investigated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the gender gap in income in Ireland. By using nowcasting techniques and microsimulation, we modeled the effect of pandemic-induced employment and wage changes on the market and disposable income. We showed how the pandemic and the associated tax–benefit support could be expected to change the income gap between men and women. Policy conclusions were drawn about future redistribution between men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Gender Income Inequality)
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17 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Publicly Accessible Child Protection in Sport Education and Reporting Initiatives
by Ellen MacPherson, Anthony Battaglia, Gretchen Kerr, Sophie Wensel, Sarah McGee, Aalaya Milne, Francesca Principe and Erin Willson
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070310 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2785
Abstract
Despite sport being a vehicle through which youth may achieve positive developmental outcomes, maltreatment in the youth sport context remains a significant concern. With increased athlete advocacy and research demonstrating the high prevalence of maltreatment in sport, and the urgent need to address [...] Read more.
Despite sport being a vehicle through which youth may achieve positive developmental outcomes, maltreatment in the youth sport context remains a significant concern. With increased athlete advocacy and research demonstrating the high prevalence of maltreatment in sport, and the urgent need to address it, many international organisations have created child protection in sport initiatives. Of particular focus to athletes and researchers is the provision of evidence-based comprehensive education and independent reporting mechanisms for athletes who experience harm. The current study examined the extent to which the publicly accessible information provided by three sport-specific child protection organisations regarding education and reporting is aligned with recommendations provided by researchers and athletes. With regard to education, the findings highlight accessibility, programming for various stakeholders, and coverage of topics of interest (e.g., forms of harm and reporting processes). However, educational information about equity, diversity, and inclusion and information on how to foster positive environments in sport was lacking. For reporting mechanisms, results showed that each organisation’s approach to receiving reports of maltreatment varied, including their ability to directly intake, investigate, and sanction instances of maltreatment. The findings are interpreted and critiqued considering previous literature and recommendations for future research and practice are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Child Protection Studies)
13 pages, 810 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Exploration of a Biopsychosocial Profile for Experiencing Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sports
by Mercede van Voorthuizen, Irene Renate Faber, Daphne van de Bongardt and Nicolette Schipper-van Veldhoven
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070309 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3415
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore a biopsychosocial profile for experiencing sexual harassment and abuse in sports. A qualitative approach was used; data were collected from semi-structured in-depth interviews covering seven cases of sexual harassment and abuse in sports in the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore a biopsychosocial profile for experiencing sexual harassment and abuse in sports. A qualitative approach was used; data were collected from semi-structured in-depth interviews covering seven cases of sexual harassment and abuse in sports in the Netherlands. The interview transcripts were analysed and aligned with the biopsychosocial model. The results reveal biological (i.e., aged under 18, sex, and sexual orientation), psychological (i.e., high degree of naivety, altruism and agreeableness, low self-esteem, perfectionism, emotional or disorders) and social factors (i.e., poor or negative relationship with parents, social pressure to perform, incest at home, social isolation, elite sports and too much power of a single trainer/coach) that can contribute to the risk of experiencing sexual harassment and abuse in sports. These findings provide important directions for prevention and recognition in sports practice and future research. Full article
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14 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
New Media, New Practices? A Study of the First Spanish Podcast Community and Its Pioneers
by David García-Marín
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070308 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3971
Abstract
About to celebrate its first two decades of life, podcasting is one of the fastest-growing mediums in recent years. This medium, promoted from the amateur sphere as a result of the arrival of Web 2.0, has become an increasingly professional practice thanks to [...] Read more.
About to celebrate its first two decades of life, podcasting is one of the fastest-growing mediums in recent years. This medium, promoted from the amateur sphere as a result of the arrival of Web 2.0, has become an increasingly professional practice thanks to the work of major production companies and platforms such as Spotify. In this context of increasing professionalization, this paper aims to investigate the origins of podcasting in Spain in order to analyze the decisive role that the first community of Spanish amateur podcasters played in its development. An ethnographic research study, focused on the first seven years of the medium in this country (2004–2010), was carried out. The study was based on interviews with the pioneers, a review of source documents, and participant observation. The difficulties and the main milestones related to the medium’s origin are analyzed. Likewise, the parallels between the beginning of this practice and the role assumed by radio amateurs at the beginning of radio in Spain a century ago are discussed. This parallel trajectory linking the origin of both media (radio and podcast) can be useful to envision a perspective on the possible developments of podcasting in the coming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Politics of New Media Practices)
17 pages, 3921 KiB  
Article
Social Sciences Teaching: Building a Holistic Approach from Student Teachers’ Social Representations
by Yamilé Pérez-Guilarte, Francisco Xosé Armas-Quintá and Xosé Carlos Macía-Arce
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070307 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2303
Abstract
The dynamics that today’s society is facing require critical citizens capable of understanding the complexity of problems from their various dimensions. This work aimed to investigate the social representations that future primary school teachers have about socio-environmental problems, sustainability, purposes of socio-environmental education, [...] Read more.
The dynamics that today’s society is facing require critical citizens capable of understanding the complexity of problems from their various dimensions. This work aimed to investigate the social representations that future primary school teachers have about socio-environmental problems, sustainability, purposes of socio-environmental education, and strategies to train in Global Citizenship Education and in Education for Sustainable Development. An exploratory case study was carried out, framed in an action-research approach in the classes of Social Sciences Teaching of the Primary Education Degree of two universities in Galicia (Spain): the University of A Coruña and the University of Santiago de Compostela. A quantitative and qualitative analysis was developed by applying a questionnaire to a sample of 200 students. The results showed that students focus on problems such as climate change or environmental pollution, leaving aside issues such as social inequalities, poverty, or gender issues. In addition, they have difficulties in recognizing the strategies by which teachers can provide their students with critical thinking that leads to social transformation. Significant differences were observed in some researched aspects according to the university of origin, the grade, and the gender of the students, with gender being the one that influenced the greatest number of questions. Full article
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13 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Teachers’ Innovative Work Behavior Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version and Measurement Invariance across Genders
by Angelos Gkontelos, Julie Vaiopoulou and Dimitrios Stamovlasis
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070306 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Innovation refers to the implementation of creative ideas into practice. In that sense, innovative work behavior (IWB) is a type of behavior and a multidimensional construct that involves four factors: the generation, promotion, realization, and sustainability of new ideas for the whole organizations’ [...] Read more.
Innovation refers to the implementation of creative ideas into practice. In that sense, innovative work behavior (IWB) is a type of behavior and a multidimensional construct that involves four factors: the generation, promotion, realization, and sustainability of new ideas for the whole organizations’ benefit. Thus, the development of instruments for measuring and singling IWB is an interesting and necessary endeavor. The present study appraises the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the innovative work behavior scale (IWBS-G), a 44-item self-reported instrument, using data collected from two studies with in-service teachers. In the first study dataset (N = 485), exploratory factor analysis was applied, which, by implementing scree plot with parallel analysis, revealed the dimensionality of four factors, namely: Idea Generation (IG), Idea Promotion (IP), Idea Realization (IR), and Idea Sustainability (IS). The corresponding reliability measures using Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega ranged between 0.917 and 0.944. In the second study dataset (N = 964), confirmatory factor analysis validated a sufficient fit of the measurement model [χ2 = 396.85, df = 203, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.995; TLI = 0.994; RMSEA = 0.031], while the corresponding internal consistency measures ranged between 0.814 and 0.914. Furthermore, measurement invariance was conducted, which demonstrated insignificant differences between genders. Discussion on the significance of innovative work behavior and the potential implementation of the IWBS instrument in educational research is provided. Full article
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24 pages, 1932 KiB  
Project Report
An Exploration of the Impact of COVID-19 on Police Demand, Capacity and Capability
by Eric Halford
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070305 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2603
Abstract
This project report outlines the findings of an initial exploratory study of the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the demand, capacity, and capability of the police within the United Kingdom. Freedom of information requests provide data regarding employees affected by COVID-19, [...] Read more.
This project report outlines the findings of an initial exploratory study of the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the demand, capacity, and capability of the police within the United Kingdom. Freedom of information requests provide data regarding employees affected by COVID-19, including those working from home. A survey of police employees adds richness by exploring the departments and specialist capabilities affected. Preliminary results indicate a shift in demand away from property-related and violent crime, to online criminality, and disorders such as anti-social behavior and breaches of coronavirus legislation. Combined with high volumes of absent employees throughout 2020, the study postulates a reduction in police satisfaction, trust, and confidence may have occurred in the response to cyber investigation and policing anti-social behavior. Investment in agile technology to increase workforce flexibility and improved contingency planning are identified as requirements to prepare for future pandemics and avoid repetition. Full article
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26 pages, 3008 KiB  
Article
How Do Gendered Labour Market Trends and the Pay Gap Translate into the Projected Gender Pension Gap? A Comparative Analysis of Five Countries with Low, Middle and High GPGs
by Gijs Dekkers, Karel Van den Bosch, Mikkel Barslund, Tanja Kirn, Nicolas Baumann, Nataša Kump, Philippe Liégeois, Amílcar Moreira and Nada Stropnik
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070304 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3081
Abstract
This article explores how the Gender Pension Gap (GPG)—the relative difference in average pension received by men and women—might evolve in the future in various European countries, given past, current, and projected future labour market behaviour and earnings of women and men, and [...] Read more.
This article explores how the Gender Pension Gap (GPG)—the relative difference in average pension received by men and women—might evolve in the future in various European countries, given past, current, and projected future labour market behaviour and earnings of women and men, and current pension regulations. The GPG reflects career inequalities between women and men, though these are partly mitigated by the redistributive impact of the public retirement pensions. They are further mitigated by survivor benefits. This study aims to document both mechanisms in the projections of the GPG. As the GPG varies widely across European countries, we analyse countries with a high (Luxembourg), high and low middle (Belgium and Switzerland Portugal), and low (Slovenia) GPG. We find that the GPG will fall significantly in all five countries over the coming decades. The fundamental drivers behind this development are discussed. In addition to the base scenario, we simulate two variants to show the impact of the Gender Pension Coverage Gap and of survivor pensions. Additionally, we project the GPG if current labour market gender gaps were to remain at their present level, and, conversely, if these were to disappear overnight. These alternative scenarios, one of which also serves as a robustness test, suggest that the future decline of the GPG is largely the result of labour market developments that have already happened during the past decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Gender Income Inequality)
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16 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Green Lights and Red Flags: The (Im)Possibilities of Contextual Safeguarding Responses to Extra-Familial Harm in the UK
by Carlene Firmin and Jenny Lloyd
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070303 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3823
Abstract
Young people experience significant harm in a range of social contexts and from adults and peers unconnected to their caregivers. The recognition of this by policymakers in England, Scotland, and Wales has resulted in child protection policy frameworks increasingly requiring social work responses [...] Read more.
Young people experience significant harm in a range of social contexts and from adults and peers unconnected to their caregivers. The recognition of this by policymakers in England, Scotland, and Wales has resulted in child protection policy frameworks increasingly requiring social work responses to the extra-familial contexts where such harm occurs, as well as to the young people affected. This paper presents results from an embedded research project in which five local children’s social care departments used a Contextual Safeguarding framework to respond to this shifting policy direction. The data collected via ethnographic methods over three years included meeting and practice observations (n = 65), meeting participation (n = 334), reviews of young people’s case files (n = 122), interviews (n = 27) and focus groups (n = 33) with professionals, focus groups (n = 6), interviews (n = 2) and surveys (n = 78) with parents and young people, and analysis of local policies and procedures (n = 101). At two stages in the project, the researchers used this dataset to review the progress in each participant site against the Contextual Safeguarding framework. Reporting on the progress made across the five sites, this paper identifies elements of the system change that appeared most feasible or challenging. The results demonstrate four ways in which current policy reforms fall short in creating national contexts that are conducive to the implementation of Contextual Safeguarding, despite local progress towards this goal. The implications for the policy and practices are outlined, with fundamental questions asked of the statutory systems which need to protect, but all too often criminalise, young people abused beyond their front doors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Child Protection Studies)
15 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Sex Education for Students with an Intellectual Disability: Teachers’ Experiences and Perspectives
by Iva Strnadová, Julie Loblinzk and Joanne Danker
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070302 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5861
Abstract
Background: Sex education assists students in the development of a healthy sexual identity and relationships. However, students with an intellectual disability tend to receive less holistic sex education as compared to students without a disability. In this inclusive study, we explored the perspectives [...] Read more.
Background: Sex education assists students in the development of a healthy sexual identity and relationships. However, students with an intellectual disability tend to receive less holistic sex education as compared to students without a disability. In this inclusive study, we explored the perspectives of 10 high school teachers through interviews and focus groups on how students with an intellectual disability are informed about sexual relationships and prepared for their future life living with as much autonomy as possible, including living with a partner and becoming parents. Method: The interviews and focus groups were analysed using the inductive content analysis. Results: Data analysis revealed three themes: (a) sex education; (b) self-determination and self-advocacy skills; and (c) teachers’ concerns. Conclusions: Several recommendations are discussed. These include incorporating sexuality education-related goals in an Individualised Learning Plan (ILP); teachers adopting a rights-based approach and focusing on students’ self-determination, agency, and rights regarding sex education; and providing schools with necessary resources to teach sex education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
18 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Uganda: Evidence from Multilevel Modelling of Population-Level HIV/AIDS Data
by Patrick Igulot
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070301 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
Background: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is highly prevalent in Uganda and its link with HIV infection and compromising access to HIV/AIDS services is known. However, current evidence is controversial. Most of the studies indicate a positive relationship but a few indicate otherwise. [...] Read more.
Background: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is highly prevalent in Uganda and its link with HIV infection and compromising access to HIV/AIDS services is known. However, current evidence is controversial. Most of the studies indicate a positive relationship but a few indicate otherwise. Moreover, there is no research examining the effects of community-level SGBV on HIV infection. Objectives: This research explores the association between SGBV and vulnerability to HIV infection. Methods: Multilevel binary logistic regression is applied to secondary data of Uganda AIDS Indicators Survey conducted in 2011. The survey data comprises 12,153 women and 9588 men. Results: SGBV significantly increases the likelihood of HIV infection, with victims having 34%, 1.34 [1.06–1.70] higher odds than non-victims. At the community level, wealth, and pre-sex alcohol abuse are important determinants. Conclusions: Vulnerability to the risk of HIV infection in Uganda is associated with individual-level and community factors. Effective HIV prevention policies need to pay attention to victims of SGBV using individual- and community-level strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Global Perspectives)
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14 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Effect of Education on the Economic Income of Households in Peru, Application of the Mincer Theory in Times of Pandemic (COVID-19)
by Julio Cesar Quispe-Mamani, Miriam Serezade Hancco-Gomez, Amira Carpio-Maraza, Santotomas Licimaco Aguilar-Pinto, Adderly Mamani-Flores, Giovana Araseli Flores-Turpo, Wily Leopoldo Velásquez-Velásquez, Balbina Esperanza Cutipa-Quilca and Maria Isabel Alegre-Larico
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070300 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
The objective was to determine the effect of education on the economic income of households in Peru in times of the pandemic (COVID-19), for which a quantitative research approach was applied, of a non-experimental type and of descriptive-correlational design; the econometric model of [...] Read more.
The objective was to determine the effect of education on the economic income of households in Peru in times of the pandemic (COVID-19), for which a quantitative research approach was applied, of a non-experimental type and of descriptive-correlational design; the econometric model of log-linear type was used, based on the Mincer equation, with the information from the database of the National Household Survey, for the period of 2021. The economic income on average was 275.96 soles, with a standard deviation of 1451.41 soles, with high variability, identifying very precarious economic income ranging from 15.00 to 15,000.00 soles/month per worker; the years of schooling of the worker on average were 12 years, showing the scope of complete secondary training, with a population without years of education, and on the contrary, there are workers with postgraduate education, with the variability of 4 years. Finally, the effect of education measured through years of schooling on economic income is positive, or direct, since education explains 14.34% of economic income; the experience of the worker, gender, area of residence, age and marital status, in the same way, have a positive effect on economic income, strongly highlighting gender and area of residence which explain 19.86% and 30.45% of the economic income in the household in Peru. Full article
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14 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Gender and Ethnicity: The Role of Successful Women in Promoting Equality and Social Change
by Raquel Alexandra Ferreira and Maria Helena Santos
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070299 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3382
Abstract
This article analyzes the experiences and strategies of white and black women in positions of some power, in which they are able to strive to reduce inequalities and promote social change. From a qualitative perspective, this seeks to open the discussions around the [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the experiences and strategies of white and black women in positions of some power, in which they are able to strive to reduce inequalities and promote social change. From a qualitative perspective, this seeks to open the discussions around the possible applications of intersectionality between gender and “race”/ethnicity for studying the “tokenism phenomenon”. The results reveal six major themes that demonstrate how, while both white and black women share negative consequences of tokenism, the intersections of gender and “race”/ethnicity create dynamics that make black women’s experiences unique. Overall, we may therefore conclude the interviewees represent “agents of change” and deploy their power to promote equality in a variety of ways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
16 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Its Impact on Widows: Insights from Low-Resourced Communities in Binga District, Zimbabwe
by Misheck Dube
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070298 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
The lives of women change immediately after the death of their husbands. After the death of their husbands, they experience extraordinary isolation which excludes them from important socioeconomic decisions. This paper discusses how widows are isolated and excluded in pertinent socioeconomic spheres and [...] Read more.
The lives of women change immediately after the death of their husbands. After the death of their husbands, they experience extraordinary isolation which excludes them from important socioeconomic decisions. This paper discusses how widows are isolated and excluded in pertinent socioeconomic spheres and decisions that impact negatively on their lives including the lives of their children in low resourced communities of Binga District in Zimbabwe. Twenty-four widows were participants in this study, which used a qualitative research approach, a phenomenological research design and purposive sampling strategy. Ten widows participated in individual interviews whilst fourteen widows participated in two separate focus group interviews comprising seven widows each to provide insights on how they were isolated after the death of their husbands. Germain to isolation, thematic data analysis findings revealed that, upon the death of their husbands, widows are vulnerable to exclusion from critical decisions on accrued wealth, socioeconomic amenities and activities needed for their optimal well-being and the welfare of their children. The findings show the need for negotiated professional and community social interventions that are organised and integrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
19 pages, 399 KiB  
Review
Intimate Relationships during COVID-19 across the Genders: An Examination of the Interactions of Digital Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Mental Health
by Amanda Evangeline Ting and Craig Steven McLachlan
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070297 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7204
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in economic hardship, psychological stress, anxiety, and depression in a significant proportion of the global population. However, the bidirectional effects of social isolation and pre-existing or developed psychological stress could inform sexual behaviors and affect digital dating outcomes. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in economic hardship, psychological stress, anxiety, and depression in a significant proportion of the global population. However, the bidirectional effects of social isolation and pre-existing or developed psychological stress could inform sexual behaviors and affect digital dating outcomes. Additionally, it is unknown whether intimate behaviors and relationships have been equally affected across the genders during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to contrast the course of intimate relationships pre-and post-COVID-19, with a focus on diverse genders, digital dating, mental health, and behavior. A review of the dating landscape during COVID-19 is developed in this study, encompassing themes including diverse genders, sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, the state of psychological wellbeing, and interactions with digital dating apps. The authors reviewed the trends and challenges of digital romance. Dating before and during the pandemic is explored, discussing how COVID-19 experiences may inform future romantic partnerships. Mobile dating applications saw a surge in downloads and usage across popular platforms, including Tinder (3 billion swipes in March 2020) and Ok Cupid (700% increase in dates), with the top 20 dating apps gaining 1.5 million daily users. Cross-sectionally, being younger, single, and having higher levels of stress was a predictor of higher dating-app usage during the COVID-19 lockdowns. Risky sexual behavior and having multiple sexual partners were reduced during social distancing as there was an increased worry of contracting the virus. Heightened incidents of domestic/intimate partner abuse have caught the headlines in several countries. COVID-19 during lockdown has also posed barriers to accessing support and help from sexual and mental health services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
22 pages, 3345 KiB  
Article
Leaving No One Behind: A Photovoice Case Study on Vulnerability and Wellbeing of Children Heading Households in Two Informal Settlements in Nairobi
by Robinson Karuga, Rosie Steege, Inviolata Njoroge, Millicent Liani, Neele Wiltgen Georgi, Lilian Otiso, Nelly Muturi, Linet Atieno Okoth, Sally Theobald and Rachel Tolhurst
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070296 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3839
Abstract
Children heading households (CHH) in urban informal settlements face specific vulnerabilities shaped by limitations on their opportunities and capabilities within the context of urban inequities, which affect their wellbeing. We implemented photovoice research with CHHs to explore the intersections between their vulnerabilities and [...] Read more.
Children heading households (CHH) in urban informal settlements face specific vulnerabilities shaped by limitations on their opportunities and capabilities within the context of urban inequities, which affect their wellbeing. We implemented photovoice research with CHHs to explore the intersections between their vulnerabilities and the social and environmental context of Nairobi’s informal settlements. We enrolled and trained four CHHs living in two urban informal settlements—Korogocho and Viwandani—to utilise smartphones to take photos that reflected their experiences of marginalisation and what can be done to address their vulnerabilities. Further, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight more CHHs. We applied White’s wellbeing framework to analyse data. We observed intersections between the different dimensions of wellbeing, which caused the CHHs tremendous stress that affected their mental health, social interactions, school performance and attendance. Key experiences of marginalisation were lack of adequate food and nutrition, hazardous living conditions and stigma from peers due to the limited livelihood opportunities available to them. Despite the hardships, we documented resilience among CHH. Policy action is required to take action to intervene in the generational transfer of poverty, both to improve the life chances of CHHs who have inherited their parents’ marginalisation, and to prevent further transfer of vulnerabilities to their children. This calls for investing in CHHs’ capacity for sustaining livelihoods to support their current and future independence and wellbeing. Full article
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19 pages, 3257 KiB  
Article
Challenges with Complex Situations in the Teaching and Learning of Social Sciences in Initial Teacher Education
by Cristina Yáñez de Aldecoa and Isabel María Gómez-Trigueros
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070295 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3014
Abstract
This article not only presents a paradigm shift as a methodological model for teaching heritage and social sciences (SSCC), but also offers a methodological foundation for the challenge-based learning (CBL) methodology. We present various educational innovations in social science teaching and cultural heritage [...] Read more.
This article not only presents a paradigm shift as a methodological model for teaching heritage and social sciences (SSCC), but also offers a methodological foundation for the challenge-based learning (CBL) methodology. We present various educational innovations in social science teaching and cultural heritage education based on the use of CBL during initial teacher training at the University of Andorra. These methodological proposals take into account the TPACK model (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) based on the interrelation of three types of knowledge: pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK). This set of best practices requires students to respond to a complex social challenge by designing and creating specific educational proposals for tackling content and learning through gamification. Students work on the various dimensions of the SSCC, thereby developing spatial competency, teaching competency, and competency in democratic citizenship. ICTs are included throughout in order to develop students’ digital competency. As a result, students feel empowered through having acquired the different competencies and developed an awareness of the value of cultural heritage as a cornerstone of democratic citizenship. Full article
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20 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
Protecting Trafficked Persons through Refugee Protection
by Jean-Pierre Gauci
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070294 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2386
Abstract
This paper critically engages with the long-term protection of trafficked persons. In particular, it assesses whether, and the conditions under which, trafficked persons can be considered as refugees under Article 1A of the Geneva Refugee Convention. The importance of international refugee law in [...] Read more.
This paper critically engages with the long-term protection of trafficked persons. In particular, it assesses whether, and the conditions under which, trafficked persons can be considered as refugees under Article 1A of the Geneva Refugee Convention. The importance of international refugee law in this context is highlighted both by the number of trafficked persons seeking international protection and by its suitability to overcome the shortcomings of existing protection provisions in anti-trafficking instruments, which remain discretionary, conditional, and limited in scope. The paper begins by discussing the relevance of refugee protection for trafficked persons. It then applies the various components of the refugee definition to trafficked persons, focusing on the concepts of persecution and membership of a particular social group. Within these, it focuses on aspects of the debate that are currently missing from the broader literature. This includes the question of whether trafficking qua trafficking meets the threshold of persecution and the value of developments in international law in that regard, the merit of using race as a convention ground in cases of trafficked persons, and the contribution of legislative developments recognizing former victims of trafficked persons as members of a particular social group. It then concludes by highlighting the benefits of refugee protection for trafficked persons and indicating the challenges on the road to that protection. Full article
22 pages, 3613 KiB  
Article
Bibliometric Analysis of Smart Public Governance Research: Smart City and Smart Government in Comparative Perspective
by Petra Vujković, Dejan Ravšelj, Lan Umek and Aleksander Aristovnik
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070293 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3440
Abstract
The concept of smart public governance (SPG) is gaining attention among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners around the world, especially in response to the modernisation of public administration through emerging technologies in both local (smart city) and national (smart government) levels. Spurred by the [...] Read more.
The concept of smart public governance (SPG) is gaining attention among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners around the world, especially in response to the modernisation of public administration through emerging technologies in both local (smart city) and national (smart government) levels. Spurred by the noticeable lack of understanding of the SPG concept, the paper aims to comprehensively examine the SPG research by considering the characteristic differences between the smart city and smart government concepts. Bibliometric analysis is based on the Scopus database, containing 775 documents published in the last two decades and facilitated by several established and innovative bibliometric approaches. The results reveal the growth of SPG research over time. Despite the smart city concept being the dominant focus in the SPG research, the smart government concept has been becoming more relevant in recent years, as indicated by some prominent documents published in reputable journals like Government Information Quarterly. Moreover, Anglo-Saxon countries are chiefly engaged in SPG research. However, New Zealand and South Korea are identified as countries with a stronger focus on the smart government concept. The results show the smart city concept is connected with several smart-related initiatives (e.g., smart transportation, smart living, smart energy, etc.), while the smart government concept is primarily associated with smart (de)regulation and smart grid. The findings may add to the understanding of the future development of SPG research, on both local and national levels. Full article
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19 pages, 4192 KiB  
Article
Who Did Spanish Politicians Start Following on Twitter? Homophilic Tendencies among the Political Elite
by Verónica Israel-Turim, Josep Lluís Micó-Sanz and Miriam Diez Bosch
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070292 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Political communication has undergone transformations since the advent of digital networks, but do these new platforms promote interactivity and a public sphere with a more democratic political debate or do they function as echo chambers of the elites? In this research, we study [...] Read more.
Political communication has undergone transformations since the advent of digital networks, but do these new platforms promote interactivity and a public sphere with a more democratic political debate or do they function as echo chambers of the elites? In this research, we study the accounts that Spanish politicians started following on Twitter from 2017 to 2020, with the aim of understanding whether they reproduce patterns of homophilic tendencies or if they give space to new voices. To do so, we selected a sample from the deputies that were in the Spanish parliament during the four years of the study and through a big data and machine learning software, we identified the accounts they started following as a network and categorized them. We combined manual and computational data analysis methods and used data visualization techniques to look for patterns and trends. The results suggest that the Spanish political elites exhibit homophilic behaviors in terms of account types and geographic proximity and present a gender balance among the accounts. This study also suggests that the behavior of the political elite presented particularities during the electoral period, where we can observe an intensification of the homophilic patterns. Full article
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17 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Perverse Fluidity?—Differential Impacts of Family Resources on Educational and Occupational Attainment for Young Adults from White and Ethnic Minority Heritages in England
by Yaojun Li
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070291 - 08 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2590
Abstract
This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family resources (class, education and income) on people’s educational and occupational attainment in their early career life. It asks whether parental resources remain effective or fall into insignificance. It also asks whether the resources operate in [...] Read more.
This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family resources (class, education and income) on people’s educational and occupational attainment in their early career life. It asks whether parental resources remain effective or fall into insignificance. It also asks whether the resources operate in a similar way for the ethnic minorities as for the majority. Drawing on data from the Longitudinal Study of Young Persons in England, the study focuses on resource transmission in degree attainment, access to elite class position, unemployment rates, labour market earnings, and continuous income. In each aspect, we test not only the net effects of parental resources, but also the differential transmission between the majority and ethnic minority groups. The analysis shows strong effects of parental resources on educational and occupational attainment for whites but rather weak effects for the ethnic minorities. Ethnic minority children tend to grow up in poor families, yet even those whose parents manage to achieve socio-economic parity with whites do not enjoy similar benefits. Reducing inequality in family socio-economic conditions and inequality in labour market opportunities is key to achieving social justice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and White Supremacy in the 21st Century)
24 pages, 699 KiB  
Article
Self-Confidence of Venezuelan Migrant Entrepreneurs in Colombia
by Neida Albornoz-Arias and Akever-Karina Santafé-Rojas
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070290 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
This study determines the personality and behavioural factors related to pull motivation that explains the self-confidence of Venezuelan migrant entrepreneurs. Using a quantitative approach, this study conducted a survey with 88 migrants who own productive units in the urban area of Gramalote, North [...] Read more.
This study determines the personality and behavioural factors related to pull motivation that explains the self-confidence of Venezuelan migrant entrepreneurs. Using a quantitative approach, this study conducted a survey with 88 migrants who own productive units in the urban area of Gramalote, North of Santander, in Colombia. This study examines the association between the variable ‘perception of having self-confidence’ with demographic and motivational contextual factors. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the evidence of a statistically significant association between the variables. The findings of the multivariate multinomial logistic regression model suggest that the factors related to a high level of self-confidence are gender, perception of ability to take advantage of opportunities, perception of demanding efficiency and quality and perception of taking risks. These factors are to be considered in the policies of the Colombian state regarding education programmes and the formalisation of the labour market with a gender approach in a post-pandemic context. Given that the COVID-19 pandemic caused a crisis in countless aspects, one of which was in the labour market, this study is relevant because it analyses self-confidence as a driver of entrepreneurial development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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20 pages, 436 KiB  
Comment
The Role of Expertise in Discovery. Comment on Sutton and Griffiths (2018). Using Date Specific Searches on Google Books to Disconfirm Prior Origination Knowledge Claims for Particular Terms, Words, and Names. Social Sciences 7: 66
by J. F. Derry
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070289 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2401
Abstract
In claiming that expertise are unnecessary for making discoveries that contribute to knowledge, Sutton and Griffiths in their 2018 paper made analogous comparisons with metal detection, then proceeded to provide six examples in support of their argument. This response demonstrates the fallacy of [...] Read more.
In claiming that expertise are unnecessary for making discoveries that contribute to knowledge, Sutton and Griffiths in their 2018 paper made analogous comparisons with metal detection, then proceeded to provide six examples in support of their argument. This response demonstrates the fallacy of that analogy, and reveals how each of those six examples were undermined by a lack of expertise in the relevant disciplines. The mistakes contained in that paper by Sutton and Griffiths make it evident that expertise are required to identify the validity of a discovery, and ensure that a claim is not false. This assurance is particularly needed for the bold claims made by the Sutton and Griffiths paper. Full article
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