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Soc. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 47 articles

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22 pages, 1257 KiB  
Review
Influence of Cognitive Factors on Adherence to Social Distancing and the Use of Masks during the COVID-19 Pandemic by Young Adults: A Systematic Review
by Marina Almeida-Silva, Graça Andrade, Tamara Luis, Margarida Santos and Ana Grilo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050275 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Social distancing and the use of masks are crucial to prevent the spread of SARS-COV-2. Knowledge of the determinants of this behavior is essential to promote effective communication with the public in future public health crises that require mass public compliance with preventive [...] Read more.
Social distancing and the use of masks are crucial to prevent the spread of SARS-COV-2. Knowledge of the determinants of this behavior is essential to promote effective communication with the public in future public health crises that require mass public compliance with preventive behaviors. This systematic review focused on scientific evidence related to cognitive factors that underlie the intention of young adults’ intention to adhere to preventive social behavior (distancing and/or the use of facial masks) against COVID-19. A systematic literature search on the electronic database, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO was performed in December 2022 according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The PEO (Population: young adults, Exposure: COVID-19, and Outcome: cognitive factors that underlie the intention of young adults to adhere to social distancing and/or the use of facial masks) was developed to identify search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Eight studies met the eligibility criteria. None of the studies were seriously flawed according to the quality assessment, and they were considered to have a low risk of bias for selection. Several cognitive determinants emerged in the analysis. For both social distancing and the use of masks, the most relevant factors related to adherence include risk perception and perceived severity, the moral value of fairness, social responsibility, trust in the government, respect for authority, and the quality of institutional communication. Adherence to social distancing was found related to self-efficacy. These results reinforce social cognitive models showing the relevance of cognitions to adherence behavior, and highlight the responsibility of official institutions in the development of contexts and in adapting the communication for the effective promotion of adherence to the recommendations they launch. Full article
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19 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Age and Burnout: The Mediating Role of Emotion-Regulation Strategies
by Bianca Mendes and Isabel Miguel
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050274 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 320
Abstract
In the context of an aging workforce, this study explores the interaction between age, burnout, and emotion-regulation strategies (ERS). Despite recognized challenges in managing age diversity and employee well-being, the direct impact of age on burnout and the mediating role of ERS remain [...] Read more.
In the context of an aging workforce, this study explores the interaction between age, burnout, and emotion-regulation strategies (ERS). Despite recognized challenges in managing age diversity and employee well-being, the direct impact of age on burnout and the mediating role of ERS remain unexplored. Analyzing data from 604 Portuguese workers (aged 18–65), this study utilizes a mediation model to investigate if age is directly related to the main problems that affect the workforce presently, focusing specifically on burnout and the role that emotion-regulation abilities (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) have in controlling the burnout effects (measured by emotional exhaustion and disengagement). The findings indicate that age does not have a straightforward linear relationship with burnout or ERS choice. Although age alone does not significantly influence burnout outcomes, ERS markedly impacts these outcomes, suggesting that factors beyond age predominantly drive ERS selection and effectiveness in managing burnout. This study emphasizes the critical role of ERS in influencing burnout, suggesting the importance of equipping workers with effective emotion-regulation skills to mitigate burnout risks. Further research is warranted to disentangle the complex interrelations among age, burnout, and ERS in organizational contexts. Full article
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11 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Pro-Environmental Behavior: The Role of Efficacy Beliefs
by Ivana Vrselja, Lana Batinić and Mario Pandžić
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050273 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Efficacy beliefs are important determinants of human behavior. In the context of social cognitive theory, the perception of collective efficacy is closely related to the individual perception of self-efficacy, which is influenced by socio-structural factors such as socioeconomic status (SES). Surprisingly, the relationship [...] Read more.
Efficacy beliefs are important determinants of human behavior. In the context of social cognitive theory, the perception of collective efficacy is closely related to the individual perception of self-efficacy, which is influenced by socio-structural factors such as socioeconomic status (SES). Surprisingly, the relationship between these variables has received little attention in the literature on environmental issues. Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the aim of this study was to investigate whether SES has a direct effect on pro-environmental behavior and whether it has an indirect effect via perceptions of self-efficacy and collective efficacy, in relation to climate change mitigation behavior. An online cross-sectional study was conducted using a quota sample of 1075 participants (51.9% women) aged 18–79 years. Participants reported their SES using objective and subjective measures, perceptions of their own and collective efficacy in mitigating climate change, and the frequency of their pro-environmental behaviors. Structural equation modeling revealed that the model with serial mediation effects of self-efficacy and collective efficacy between SES (both objective and subjective) and pro-environmental behaviors showed a good model fit. As expected, both objective and subjective SES had no direct effect on pro-environmental behavior. Surprisingly, neither objective nor subjective SES had an indirect effect (via efficacy beliefs) on pro-environmental behavior. However, both self-efficacy and collective efficacy were associated with pro-environmental behavior. These findings have practical implications for the development of strategies aimed at enhancing pro-environmental behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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15 pages, 2008 KiB  
Article
Inclusive Education through Digital Comic Creation in Higher Learning Environments
by Jose Belda-Medina
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050272 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 193
Abstract
This research aims to promote diversity and inclusion among higher education students by examining the integration of technology into project-based learning (PBL) for English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher candidates. Based on a mixed-methods approach and convenience sampling (n = 84 [...] Read more.
This research aims to promote diversity and inclusion among higher education students by examining the integration of technology into project-based learning (PBL) for English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher candidates. Based on a mixed-methods approach and convenience sampling (n = 84 participants), this study involved pre-service teachers who collaboratively employed several authoring tools to create 16 digital comic strips for teaching English. The focus of the project was on inclusivity, cultural diversity, and affective education. This study consisted of five stages corresponding to different critical thinking skills: comprehension, negotiation, creation, presentation, and evaluation. The instruments used for quantitative data included a pre/post-survey based on two validated scales. Qualitative data were gathered through class discussions and semi-structured interviews. The results, analyzed through SPSS and QDA Miner Lite, revealed that teacher candidates lacked prior experience using digital tools to create EFL-inclusive materials. However, the study also highlighted increased awareness of inclusive education and strong advocacy for the integration of transformative technology in teacher training programs. Full article
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22 pages, 366 KiB  
Article
Lived Expertise in Homelessness Policy and Governance
by Anna Kopec and Alison Smith
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050271 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Lived expertise (LE) is a valuable form of expertise that can lead to more effective policymaking. Existing research points to important mechanisms for where and how to include LE. It also offers lessons around the potential exclusionary effects such mechanisms may have. In [...] Read more.
Lived expertise (LE) is a valuable form of expertise that can lead to more effective policymaking. Existing research points to important mechanisms for where and how to include LE. It also offers lessons around the potential exclusionary effects such mechanisms may have. In this article, we bring the discussions together and ground them in the Canadian case of homelessness. Failures in Canadian homelessness governance and policy highlight the utility of LE where it has been included, but we also find that its prevalence is unknown. Recent mechanisms including LE are still limited and their influence is questioned. We insist that the inclusion of LE cannot be haphazard or merely a nod to its value. Rather, it requires careful and considerate inclusion that centers LE throughout the policy process, encourages its influence and innovation, and embeds mechanisms for its long-term involvement within governance structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Populations Rendered ‘Surplus’ in Canada)
21 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
Sex Differences in the Influence of Relationships on Adolescent Offending
by Sara Zedaker, Ashley K. Fansher and Amanda Goodson
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050270 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
The impact of romantic relationships during the adolescent period has received significantly less attention in the literature compared to the influence of romantic relationships during adulthood. Specifically, how these influences may differ between females and males. As such, the current study uses four [...] Read more.
The impact of romantic relationships during the adolescent period has received significantly less attention in the literature compared to the influence of romantic relationships during adulthood. Specifically, how these influences may differ between females and males. As such, the current study uses four waves of data from the Pathways to Desistance study to examine how elements of romantic relationships, including relationship quality, monitoring, and antisocial influence, affect adolescent delinquent behaviors by sex. Results indicated several important findings regarding the desistance effects of romantic relationship quality, monitoring, and antisocial influence on adolescent violent and non-violent offending, and these varied widely by sex. Limitations, future research, and policy recommendations are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Violence, Crime and Juvenile Justice)
18 pages, 953 KiB  
Systematic Review
Arts and Humanities Education: A Systematic Review of Emerging Technologies and Their Contribution to Social Well-Being
by Nancy Usca, Mariela Samaniego, Carlos Yerbabuena and Isaac Pérez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050269 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 352
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify the most applied emerging technologies in the field of arts and humanities, exploring their advantages and potential obstacles. The research results aim to contribute to social and cultural well-being by enhancing the understanding and application [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to identify the most applied emerging technologies in the field of arts and humanities, exploring their advantages and potential obstacles. The research results aim to contribute to social and cultural well-being by enhancing the understanding and application of these technologies in cultural, linguistic, and artistic domains. Through a systematic literature review based on the PRISMA protocol, using search strings in two scientific databases, 158 studies were obtained that helped address the research questions posed. The findings indicate that, in arts and humanities, emerging technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet of Things, and mobile learning are transforming creativity, teaching, and management. Identified benefits include interactive, collaborative, and innovative learning, as well as increased accessibility to education. However, challenges such as a lack of digital skills among educators, deficiencies in infrastructure, and resistance to change highlight the need for training programs and overcoming obstacles for effective implementation of these technologies in arts and humanities education. It is concluded that the integration of emerging technologies in the fields of arts and humanities presents an opportunity to promote digital intervention in social well-being, as well as to stimulate creativity and cultural exploration. These initiatives facilitate the dissemination and appreciation of cultural heritage, while also promoting community participation and strengthening an ever-evolving cultural identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
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15 pages, 336 KiB  
Review
Europeanisation in the Field of Housing: Its Areas of Influence, Different Approaches, Mechanisms, and Missing Links
by Jorge Afonso and Paulo Conceição
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050268 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Housing has been, and continues to be, a central concern of economic, geographical and political research, as well as of social debates. It is worth noting that the European Union (EU) does not possess exclusive or shared competence in the field of housing. [...] Read more.
Housing has been, and continues to be, a central concern of economic, geographical and political research, as well as of social debates. It is worth noting that the European Union (EU) does not possess exclusive or shared competence in the field of housing. Rather, its influence is the result of policies in other areas. Building on the call in the literature to examine both Europeanisation and housing studies, we present and discuss the areas of the EU’s influence—economic, environmental, legal, political, social, and urban. The literature shows that these influences have resulted from different shifts in the European agenda, with different approaches (top-down, bottom-up) and mechanisms (legislative, economic and fiscal, cognitive), creating conflicting housing narratives. In conclusion, future research should focus on understanding the influences of member states as well as the intersection between housing and other policy areas. Additionally, the distribution and transfer of power in decision-making within the EU should be examined, as well as the strategic interactions between (housing) political actors from different member states and EU institutions, and the consequences of such interactions. Full article
14 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
COVID-19: Uses and Perceptions of Music during Lockdown from a Gender Perspective
by Cristina Arriaga-Sanz, Alberto Cabedo-Mas, Antoni Ripollés-Mansilla and Lidón Moliner-Miravet
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050267 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Starting in the middle of March 2020, various lockdown measures and degrees of confinement were put in place in most European countries as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this situation meant that more people were likely to experience poorer mental health, [...] Read more.
Starting in the middle of March 2020, various lockdown measures and degrees of confinement were put in place in most European countries as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this situation meant that more people were likely to experience poorer mental health, largely due to the imposition of social distancing measures, many individuals incorporated music into their coping routines to help improve their psychological well-being. Using a gender perspective, this study analyzes how individuals used music during lockdown and explores the differences between men’s and women’s views on the impact that listening to and making music has on their perceived level of well-being. A questionnaire, MUSIVID19, was administered to a sample of 1868 participants from all the autonomous regions in Spain. The results reveal that in the uses and perceptions of music, the stereotypes underlying the patriarchal system were also reproduced during confinement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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12 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
Mediatised Participation: Citizen Journalism and the Decline in User-Generated Content in Online News Media
by Simón Peña-Fernández, Ainara Larrondo-Ureta and Irati Agirreazkuenaga
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050266 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The second generation of web tools shook the journalist profession approximately two decades ago with the proactive incorporation of audiences into the media. Citizen journalism and user-generated content arose as an object of interest due to the democratising value of participation attributed to [...] Read more.
The second generation of web tools shook the journalist profession approximately two decades ago with the proactive incorporation of audiences into the media. Citizen journalism and user-generated content arose as an object of interest due to the democratising value of participation attributed to them, with empowered citizens who could emulate the professional and institutional practises of journalists. However, difficulties soon came to the surface, and audience participation in news media began to be limited. Within this context, this article conducts a critical review of studies on audience participation in news media based on a systematic literature review. The results indicate that, in general, audiences showed low interest in the creation of informative content and that their participation has grown increasingly problematic. In addition, journalists are reticent as they defend their professional role above all else, while company strategies have prioritised making participation profitable. For this reason, the idea of citizen journalism that offers user-created content through the media appears to be a thing of the past, with many characteristics that could define it as a failed innovation. Therefore, the text concludes that audience participation in the media could be defined as mediatised participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Digital Journalism: Issues and Challenges)
20 pages, 1694 KiB  
Article
Centering Women of Color: Chronic Vulvovaginal Pain (CVVP) Communication
by Olivia R. Adams, Amanda N. Gesselman and Margaret Bennett-Brown
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050265 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Background: Black and white women describe their chronic vulvar pain (CVVP) symptoms differently, indicating a patient–provider communication deficit. This may contribute to the diagnostic delay commonly reported by patients with CVVP and/or pelvic pain. Methods: A pilot study demonstrated CVVP terminology differences between [...] Read more.
Background: Black and white women describe their chronic vulvar pain (CVVP) symptoms differently, indicating a patient–provider communication deficit. This may contribute to the diagnostic delay commonly reported by patients with CVVP and/or pelvic pain. Methods: A pilot study demonstrated CVVP terminology differences between women of color and white women. The present study (N = 488) includes a sample of predominantly cisgender women who identified their race/ethnicity as Black, Hispanic/Latinx, Native American/American Indian, and/or Asian. Participants reported how they describe their CVVP, their healthcare experiences, and characteristics of their diagnostic journey. Results: Descriptions of CVVP were not uniform. Instead, there was great variability in how women described their pain across racial/ethnic identities and pain contexts (e.g., sexual activity, menstrual product use, and pelvic exam). Some pain experiences and descriptors were associated with healthcare outcomes related to diagnostic delay. Conclusions: This study sheds light on the pain communication experiences of women of color with CVVP, an understudied population within the broader CVVP literature. By resisting white and non-white comparative methodologies, this study demonstrates the applicability of intersectionality principles to the study of CVVP and contributes to the existing literature regarding pain communication, race, and ethnicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Health Conditions and Bodies: Methods, Meanings, and Medicine)
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19 pages, 367 KiB  
Article
Burnout among Retail Workers in Spain: The Role of Gender, Personality and Psychosocial Risk Factors
by Susana Rubio-Valdehita, Eva María Díaz-Ramiro, Ana María Rodríguez-López and Wei Wang
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050264 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
This study examines the direct and interaction relationships between personality traits, psychosocial risk factors, and burnout among male and female workers in the retail sector in Spain. Through a cross sectional design involving 667 participants (241 men, 426 women), it employs self report [...] Read more.
This study examines the direct and interaction relationships between personality traits, psychosocial risk factors, and burnout among male and female workers in the retail sector in Spain. Through a cross sectional design involving 667 participants (241 men, 426 women), it employs self report questionnaires to measure these variables. In addition to a sociodemographic questionnaire, the MBI (burnout), NEO-FFI (personality), CarMen-Q (cognitive, temporal, emotional, and performance demands), and DECORE (support, control, and rewards) were administered. Results indicate that women exhibit higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Results from stepwise multiple regression confirmed that personality traits directly impact burnout dimensions and psychosocial risk factors. Specifically, neuroticism and emotional job demands significantly influence emotional exhaustion, while depersonalization correlates with neuroticism, agreeableness, temporal demands, and organizational support. Personal accomplishment links with extraversion, interacting with temporal demands in men and cognitive demands in women. Individuals high in neuroticism and low in extraversion tend to perceive elevated emotional job demands, leading to intensified emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The study confirms that personality traits and working conditions affect burnout differently for men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
12 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Ecofeminism and the Cultural Affinity to Genocidal Capitalism: Theorising Necropolitical Femicide in Contemporary Greece
by Anastasia Christou
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050263 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Resilient necrocapitalism and the zombie genre of representations of current dystopias are persistent in their political purpose in producing changes in the social order to benefit plutocracies around the world. It is through a thanatopolitical lens that we should view the successive losses [...] Read more.
Resilient necrocapitalism and the zombie genre of representations of current dystopias are persistent in their political purpose in producing changes in the social order to benefit plutocracies around the world. It is through a thanatopolitical lens that we should view the successive losses of life, and this zombie genre has come to represent a dystopia that, for political purposes, is intended to produce changes in societies which have tolerated the violent deaths of women. This article focuses on contemporary Greece and proposes a theoretical framework where femicide is understood as a social phenomenon that reflects a global gendered necropolitical logic which equals genocide. Such theoretical assemblages have to be situated within intersectional imperatives and tacitly as the result of the capitalist terror state performed in an expansive and direct immediate death, exacerbated by the lingering slow social death of the welfare state. The article contends that the scripted hetero-patriarchal social order of the necrocapitalist state poses a unique political threat to societies. With the silence of the complicity of the state, what is necessary is the creation and spread of new political knowledge and new social movements as resilient political tactics of resistance. This article foregrounds an ecofeminist perspective on these issues and considers ways through which new pedagogies of hope can counter the gendered necropolitics of contemporary capitalism in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feminist Solidarity, Resistance, and Social Justice)
22 pages, 630 KiB  
Article
The Mediating Effect of Post-Traumatic Growth on the Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Psychological Distress in Adults
by Sara Caetano and Henrique Pereira
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050262 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Background: Research has shown that Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are prevalent and are associated with psychological distress. Some studies indicate facing these adversities can lead to post-traumatic growth. This study aims to assess the impact of ACEs on psychological distress and post-traumatic growth [...] Read more.
Background: Research has shown that Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are prevalent and are associated with psychological distress. Some studies indicate facing these adversities can lead to post-traumatic growth. This study aims to assess the impact of ACEs on psychological distress and post-traumatic growth and to determine the mediating effect of post-traumatic growth between ACEs and psychological distress, in a sample of adults. Methods: In this study, there were 521 participants (mean = 31.32, SD = 12.28), who answered the following surveys online: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Family ACE Questionnaire, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Results: ACEs were positive and significant predictors of psychological distress, and the “Change in the perception of the self and life in general” factor of post-traumatic growth was the strongest predictor of lower perceived psychological distress. Post-traumatic growth did not mediate the relationship between ACEs and psychological distress. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the improvement of clinical practice and health policies and highlight the need for a more in-depth understanding of the impact of ACEs on mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Systemic Causes of Adverse Childhood Experiences)
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22 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
The More Democracy, the Better? On Whether Democracy Makes Societies Open
by Cristian López
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050261 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
It is a common view that Popper’s defense of the open society has been a defense of Western, liberal democracies. This seems to imply that by fostering democratic institutions we are ipso facto fostering open societies. I criticize this view by arguing that [...] Read more.
It is a common view that Popper’s defense of the open society has been a defense of Western, liberal democracies. This seems to imply that by fostering democratic institutions we are ipso facto fostering open societies. I criticize this view by arguing that in-built incentives in democratic mechanisms move us away from (or hamper) the open society. Democracy promotes voters’ ignorance, indulges voters’ irrationality, and allows voters to externalize costs. This is contrary to well-informed, rational decisions and personal responsibility that lie at the fundamentals of the open society. I suggest that it has been free-market capitalism, or free-market societies, which has moved us closer to the ideal of the open society and which best realizes open society’s values. Full article
11 pages, 237 KiB  
Article
A Study of Environmental Organizations in Puerto Rico Advocating for Social and Environmental Justice
by Clara E. Rodriguez and Carmen Collins
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050260 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 470
Abstract
After Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico, we wanted to determine how the islanders viewed environmental organizations as part of an effort to understand the relationships between attitudes, institutions, and environmental and social justice issues. As a category 5 hurricane, Hurricane Maria was one [...] Read more.
After Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico, we wanted to determine how the islanders viewed environmental organizations as part of an effort to understand the relationships between attitudes, institutions, and environmental and social justice issues. As a category 5 hurricane, Hurricane Maria was one of the strongest to hit Puerto Rico. Yet, the US mainstream media coverage of this and other environmental issues was lacking. From a total of 90 environmental organizations in Puerto Rico, we surveyed 19 that were active in the southwest of the island. We asked: (1) How do local people view environmental and social justice issues and (2) given their organizations’ efforts to deal with these issues, what are their successes? To address these questions, we developed a survey in English and Spanish and conducted personal and online interviews with 30 relevant individuals. Their most successful outcomes included: (1) educating and creating greater awareness of environmental issues; (2) introducing environmental changes into their communities; and (3) becoming and surviving as economically sustainable organizations. The results inform our understanding between environmental organizations and social and environmental justice in Puerto Rico and more broadly, because the organizations surveyed are at the center of fighting climate change and achieving environmental justice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Justice)
24 pages, 622 KiB  
Systematic Review
Domestic Violence Victimization Risk Assessment in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
by Daniela Rita Ribeiro Cunha, Maria Emília Leitão and Ana Isabel Sani
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050259 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Background: Risk assessment is the process of collecting information towards the goal of protecting the physical and psychological integrity of the victim, taking into account factors associated with violence to assess the severity of violence, protect victims, and prevent recidivism. This type of [...] Read more.
Background: Risk assessment is the process of collecting information towards the goal of protecting the physical and psychological integrity of the victim, taking into account factors associated with violence to assess the severity of violence, protect victims, and prevent recidivism. This type of risk assessment is commonly used in situations of domestic violence and needs to be adjusted for the contexts of child and adolescent victimization. Objective: Resources and standardized criteria to guide a child-centered domestic violence victimization risk assessment are lacking. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the instruments, risk factors and outcomes identified in the literature for situations of domestic violence involving children. Methods: Following the PRISMA protocol, 313 articles from the EBSCO, Web of Science and PubMed databases were screened and 13 were identified for analysis. Results: An analysis of the characteristics of some instruments created to assess the impact of domestic violence involving children shows that caregivers’ risk factors are strong predictors of child abuse, highlighting the interrelationship with other factors, as well as warning about the cumulative risk, including child homicide. Conclusions: The literature confirms the importance of family system factors regarding the risk of the mistreatment of children in situations of domestic violence. Risk assessment must cater to the needs and specificities of individual children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crime and Justice)
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10 pages, 239 KiB  
Article
“Vulnerability” and Its Unintended Consequences
by Jeanette Skoglund and Renee Thørnblad
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050258 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
“Vulnerability” is now a widely used term in different settings—from politics and academia to everyday life. In response, a growing body of research has emerged critiquing and challenging the use of the concept in the social sciences. In this paper, we explore the [...] Read more.
“Vulnerability” is now a widely used term in different settings—from politics and academia to everyday life. In response, a growing body of research has emerged critiquing and challenging the use of the concept in the social sciences. In this paper, we explore the use of the term vulnerability in research on children in out-of-home care and discuss the possible negative consequences of this—for the people involved and for the knowledge produced. Showing some of the problems involved in classifying these children as “particularly vulnerable”, we argue that there is a need for more nuanced understandings of children growing up in out-of-home care. Full article
16 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Gender-Based Biopsychosocial Correlates of Truancy in Physical Education: A National Survey among Adolescents in Benin
by Medina Srem-Sai, Edmond Kwesi Agormedah, John Elvis Hagan, Jr., Newton Isaac Gbordzoe and Jacob Owusu Sarfo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050257 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Truancy among in-school adolescents has long been established as a major issue that negatively impacts educational attainment or goals and mental health-related issues. However, research on subjects such as physical education (PE) truancy and its correlates is somewhat limited. This study estimated the [...] Read more.
Truancy among in-school adolescents has long been established as a major issue that negatively impacts educational attainment or goals and mental health-related issues. However, research on subjects such as physical education (PE) truancy and its correlates is somewhat limited. This study estimated the prevalence of PE and assessed the factors associated with PE truancy in Benin among in-school adolescents. The 2016 Benin’s Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) data from a sample of in-school adolescents (n = 2496; 13–17 years) were used for data analysis. The overall prevalence of past 30-day truancy in PE class was 15.4%, with female adolescents reporting a higher prevalence of PE truancy than their male counterparts. Stratified by gender, the regression analyses showed that males in 3rd–6th grade (aOR = 0.69, CI = 0.50–0.96) experiencing hunger (aOR = 0.51, CI = 0.32–0.81) and having suicidal ideations (aOR = 1.64, CI = 1.07–2.53) predisposed adolescents to PE truant behaviour. For female in-school adolescents experiencing hunger (aOR = 1.75, CI = 1.15–2.65), drinking alcohol (aOR = 0.62, CI = 0.44–0.87), having sedentary lifestyles (aOR = 0.62, CI = 0.40–0.96), and being physically attacked (aOR = 0.53, CI = 0.33–0.87) were significantly associated with PE truancy. However, understanding and supportive parents [aOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41–0.91] was a protective factor against PE truancy. The present findings suggest the design of gender-sensitive school-based interventions to help minimise or prevent PE truancy among in-school adolescents in Benin based on the predisposing factors while emphasising the protective influences. Full article
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20 pages, 1277 KiB  
Article
How Power Affects Moral Judgments: The Presence of Harm to Life Modifies the Association between Power and Moral Choices
by Mufan Zheng, Ana Guinote and Wei Luo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050256 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Lammers and Stapel reported that high power increases deontological (rule-based) moral thinking, and low power increases utilitarian (outcome-based) moral thinking. However, the dilemmas were mild and did not involve harm to life. Here, we examined whether the presence or absence of harm to [...] Read more.
Lammers and Stapel reported that high power increases deontological (rule-based) moral thinking, and low power increases utilitarian (outcome-based) moral thinking. However, the dilemmas were mild and did not involve harm to life. Here, we examined whether the presence or absence of harm to life affects the moral decisions of powerholders. To help establish the replicability and validity of the effects of power on moral judgments in the absence of harm to life, we first performed an exact replication of a study conducted by Lammers and Stapel, and this experiment was followed up by a similar study in an organizational context in China (Studies 1 and 2). Studies 3 and 4 investigated whether power and the presence/absence of harm to life interacted with preferences for deontological versus utilitarian moral judgments. Power consistently triggered deontological thinking. However, power differences in moral reasoning only emerged when there was no harm to life. Harm prompted deontological responses among control and powerless individuals, which nullified differences across the power conditions. The findings demarcate the generalizability of the association between power and a moral thinking style. Full article
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14 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Mental Health Predictions: A Gradient Boosted Model for Sri Lankan Camp Refugees
by Indranil Sahoo, Elizabeth Amona, Miriam Kuttikat and David Chan
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050255 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
This study explores the mental health challenges encountered by Sri Lankan camp refugees, a population often marginalized in mental health research, and analyzes a range of factors including socio-demographic characteristics, living conditions in camps, and psychological variables. In quantitative mental health research, linear [...] Read more.
This study explores the mental health challenges encountered by Sri Lankan camp refugees, a population often marginalized in mental health research, and analyzes a range of factors including socio-demographic characteristics, living conditions in camps, and psychological variables. In quantitative mental health research, linear regression serves as a conventional approach for assessing the influence of diverse factors on mental health outcomes. However, this method fails to accommodate non-linear relationships between mental health variables and predictors and relies on stringent model assumptions that often do not align with real-world conditions. This study introduces a model-agnostic, advanced machine learning/artificial intelligence (ML/AI) technique, glmboost, as a viable alternative to linear regression. The glmboost algorithm is capable of fitting non-linear prediction models while also conducting variable selection. Moreover, the coefficients obtained from the glmboost model retain the same interpretability as those derived from linear regression. While the glmboost model identifies several key factors including post-migration living difficulties, post-traumatic stress disorder, difficulty in sleeping, poor family functioning, and lower informal support from families as markers of declining mental well-being among the Sri Lankan refugees, the linear regression overlooks vital predictors such as family functioning and family support, highlighting the importance of utilizing advanced ML/AI techniques like glmboost to comprehensively capture complex relationships between predictor variables and mental health outcomes among refugee populations. Thus, by introducing a novel, data-driven approach to mental health risk assessment, this study paves the way for more precise and efficient analyses and interventions in refugee settings, with the potential for improved resource allocation and personalized support, thus revolutionizing mental health service delivery in challenging environments. Additionally, it contributes to the academic discussion on refugee mental health while emphasizing the pivotal role of advanced data analytics in addressing complex health issues within humanitarian contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
16 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Reflections on Recidivism and Relapse Prevention among Italian Justice-Involved Juveniles: A General Overview
by Valeria Saladino, Danilo Calaresi, Filippo Petruccelli and Valeria Verrastro
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050254 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Research interprets antisocial and illegal behavior among juveniles as an expression of needs, as a conscious action, or as an adherence to family, cultural, and social contexts. Professionals and researchers interested in the topic could benefit from reflections and insights on relapse prevention [...] Read more.
Research interprets antisocial and illegal behavior among juveniles as an expression of needs, as a conscious action, or as an adherence to family, cultural, and social contexts. Professionals and researchers interested in the topic could benefit from reflections and insights on relapse prevention among justice-involved juveniles (JIJs). In light of these considerations, we investigated the criminal conduct of JIJs, identifying their background, individual characteristics, and the educational and rehabilitative programs of the 17 Italian youth detention centers from a sample of 234 JIJs (214 males and 20 females, 14–25 years old). The sample completed the following questionnaires: the high-risk situation checklist, deviant behavior questionnaire (DBQ), and the neighborhood perception questionnaire (NPQ). The study aims to provide a general overview of the justice-involved adolescents and young adults in Italian youth detention centers, focusing on perpetrator profiles, family systems and the quality of life in the Italian youth detention centers. To achieve our goals, we investigated their occupations and education, the perceived quality of life in their neighborhoods, the use of drugs, and the tendency to commit illegal or antisocial behaviors before incarceration. The study also explored the awareness related to the personal perception of the risk factors in relapse, with the aim of stimulating reflections on behavior and crime-related cognitions to promote relapse prevention. We discuss the main findings and future implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Violence, Crime and Juvenile Justice)
14 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Energy Poverty and Health Expenditure: Empirical Evidence from Vietnam
by Hang Thu Nguyen-Phung and Hai Le
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050253 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Utilizing data from the 2016 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, we undertake an empirical investigation into the influence of energy poverty on the health expenditure of Vietnamese households. Employing a double-hurdle model, our empirical findings reveal a negative relationship between energy poverty and [...] Read more.
Utilizing data from the 2016 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, we undertake an empirical investigation into the influence of energy poverty on the health expenditure of Vietnamese households. Employing a double-hurdle model, our empirical findings reveal a negative relationship between energy poverty and health expenditure. Specifically, our results indicate that for each incremental unit increase in energy poverty, there is a substantial reduction of 42.5 percentage points in the overall health expenditure of the households. Furthermore, as energy poverty deepens, we observe declines of 24.6 percentage points and 45.5 percentage points in the expenses incurred for inpatient/outpatient care and self-treatment, respectively. To validate the robustness of our results, we conduct several sensitivity analyses, including propensity score matching, double/debiased machine learning. Across all these methods, our findings consistently underscore the significant and persistent adverse impact of energy poverty on the examined outcome variables. Additionally, to examine the underlying pathways, we conduct a structural equation modeling analysis and find that the relationship between energy poverty and health expenses is mediated by household hospitalization and expenditures on essential items, such as food and daily necessities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
21 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
“We Cannot Go There, They Cannot Come Here”: Dispersed Care, Asian Indian Immigrant Families and the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Rianka Roy, Bandana Purkayastha and Elizabeth Chacko
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050252 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted families and displaced individuals. For migrant workers, these disruptions and displacements exacerbated the state-imposed constraints on family formation. But how did high-skilled and high-wage immigrants, presumably immune from these challenges, provide care to and receive care from families during [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted families and displaced individuals. For migrant workers, these disruptions and displacements exacerbated the state-imposed constraints on family formation. But how did high-skilled and high-wage immigrants, presumably immune from these challenges, provide care to and receive care from families during the pandemic? Based on 33 in-depth interviews with high-skilled Asian Indian immigrants in the USA during the pandemic, we note disruptions in their care to and from families. These disruptions reveal a persistent pattern of dispersion in immigrant families which leads to what we call “dispersed care.” By “dispersed care” we identify the effects of various state-imposed immigration laws and policies, which force immigrants to divide and allocate care among multiple fragments of their families in home and host countries. Dispersed care affects immigrant workers’ professional output, forcing them to make difficult choices between their career and care commitments. To unsettle the assumed homogeneity of high-skilled “Asian Indians,” we choose participants at diverse intersections of their migration pathways—naturalized US citizens, permanent US residents, and temporary visa holders or nonimmigrants. While naturalized US citizens and permanent residents have better resources to maintain transnational family ties than nonimmigrants, all of them face the intersectional challenges of dispersed care. Full article
20 pages, 646 KiB  
Article
Exploring Motivators for Trust in the Dichotomy of Human—AI Trust Dynamics
by Michael Gerlich
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050251 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 442
Abstract
This study analyses the dimensions of trust in artificial intelligence (AI), focusing on why a significant portion of the UK population demonstrates a higher level of trust in AI compared to humans. Conducted through a mixed-methods approach, this study gathered 894 responses, with [...] Read more.
This study analyses the dimensions of trust in artificial intelligence (AI), focusing on why a significant portion of the UK population demonstrates a higher level of trust in AI compared to humans. Conducted through a mixed-methods approach, this study gathered 894 responses, with 451 meeting the criteria for analysis. It utilised a combination of a six-step Likert-scale survey and open-ended questions to explore the psychological, sociocultural, and technological facets of trust. The analysis was underpinned by structural equation modelling (SEM) and correlation techniques. The results unveil a strong predilection for trusting AI, mainly due to its perceived impartiality and accuracy, which participants likened to conventional computing systems. This preference starkly contrasts with the scepticism towards human reliability, which is influenced by the perception of inherent self-interest and dishonesty in humans, further exacerbated by a general distrust in media narratives. Additionally, this study highlights a significant correlation between distrust in AI and an unwavering confidence in human judgment, illustrating a dichotomy in trust orientations. This investigation illuminates the complex dynamics of trust in the era of digital technology, making a significant contribution to the ongoing discourse on AI’s societal integration and underscoring vital considerations for future AI development and policymaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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17 pages, 4187 KiB  
Article
Perpetuation of Gender Bias in Visual Representation of Professions in the Generative AI Tools DALL·E and Bing Image Creator
by Teresa Sandoval-Martin and Ester Martínez-Sanzo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050250 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI)-based generative imaging systems such as DALL·E, Midjourney, Stable Diffusion, and Adobe Firefly, which work by transforming natural language descriptions into images, are revolutionizing computer vision. In this exploratory and qualitative research, we have replicated requests for images of women in [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI)-based generative imaging systems such as DALL·E, Midjourney, Stable Diffusion, and Adobe Firefly, which work by transforming natural language descriptions into images, are revolutionizing computer vision. In this exploratory and qualitative research, we have replicated requests for images of women in different professions by comparing these representations in previous studies with DALL·E, observing that this model continues to provide in its last version, DALL·E 3, inequitable results in terms of gender. In addition, Bing Image Creator, Microsoft’s free tool that is widely used among the population and runs under DALL·E, has been tested for the first time. It also presents a sexualization of women and stereotypical children’s representations. The results reveal the following: 1. A slight improvement in terms of the presence of women in professions previously shown only with men. 2. They continue to offer biased results in terms of the objectification of women by showing sexualized women. 3. The representation of children highlights another level of gender bias, reinforcing traditional stereotypes associated with gender roles from childhood, which can impact future decisions regarding studies and occupations. Full article
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13 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
Health Education for Women Released from Prison in Brazil: Barriers and Possibilities for Intervention
by Patrícia de Paula Queiroz Bonato, Carla Apaecida Arena Ventura, Renata Karina Reis, Claudio do Prado Amaral, Stefaan De Smet, Sergio Grossi, Emanuele Seicenti de Brito and Isabel Craveiro
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050249 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The aim of this work is to present the results of research carried out in a city in the interior of São Paulo that sought to understand the health needs of women released from prisons in the region who are cared for at [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to present the results of research carried out in a city in the interior of São Paulo that sought to understand the health needs of women released from prisons in the region who are cared for at a Center for Attention to Egress and Family (CAEF) as well as the barriers they report in obtaining support, discussing them in light of educational health interventions described in the international literature. This study conducted formative research to identify the themes and issues that should be included in educational material. Data were collected through body-map storytelling and semi-structured interviews with six and twenty women released from prison, respectively, and nine interviews with professionals from the CAEF and the health sector of a women’s penitentiary in the study location. The main health demands of the women identified in the study were chronic diseases, mental health, gynecological problems, and sexually transmitted diseases, which constitute individual barriers and are aggravated by others of a relational, institutional, and political-systemic nature. It is hoped that the present study will inspire new interventions to be considered in the Brazilian context based on these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crime and Justice)
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19 pages, 1991 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Urban Flooding on Gender in a Slum of Bangladesh
by Zarin Subah, Sujit Kumar Bala and Jae Hyeon Ryu
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050248 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Urban flooding is a frequent disaster during the monsoon period (June–October), hindering the daily lives of city dwellers, especially slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study assessed the impact of urban flooding on the lives of Baganbari slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh using [...] Read more.
Urban flooding is a frequent disaster during the monsoon period (June–October), hindering the daily lives of city dwellers, especially slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study assessed the impact of urban flooding on the lives of Baganbari slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh using Moser analytical tools to explore how urban flooding affects individuals of different genders. Participatory and survey methods involving 50 slum dwellers (25 men, 25 women) were carried out to collect feedback and comments. Additionally, focus group discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured and key informant interviews (KII) were also conducted to express gender-related discrimination (e.g., men vs. women). Women are usually involved in “double day” roles (100% in reproductive and 72% in productive roles) while 92% of men are found to have no contribution in those roles. Moreover, women’s participation in community roles is significantly affected during urban flooding (almost 100%) as it imposes a compulsion for them to stay home and carry out their reproductive work. Thus, women encounter numerous challenges in meeting their practical and strategic needs, including ensuring food supplies, managing diseases and menstrual health, upholding sanitation, restricted movement, education obstacles, and more. The result shows that women in the Baganbari slum are found to have only 35% access and 6% control over resources, benefits, health facilities, and decision-making power during urban flooding. The significant decline in the access and control profile of women during urban flooding aggregates their difficulties and drives them into vulnerable positions in their own households. Full article
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17 pages, 366 KiB  
Essay
History Matters: The Institutionalization and Innovation Paradox in the Judiciary
by Thiago Maia Sayão de Moraes and Marcos de Moraes Sousa
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050247 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 543
Abstract
The judiciary is a field lacking research in relation to its administration and innovation; however, different theoretical perspectives can be followed. This work reviews this trend while adding to it. An institutional perspective is presented, as is its explanatory potential. This perspective captures [...] Read more.
The judiciary is a field lacking research in relation to its administration and innovation; however, different theoretical perspectives can be followed. This work reviews this trend while adding to it. An institutional perspective is presented, as is its explanatory potential. This perspective captures the context of the public sector; however, when analyzing its interpretation in terms of innovation, it is revealed to be doubly paradoxical. From the theoretical point of view, institutionalization focuses on the maintenance of processes, while innovation, gradually or abruptly, investigates their disruptions. Nevertheless, institutionalization can be observed as part of the sedimentation of innovation. Institutionalization is presented, in the context of innovation, as a selection mechanism that shapes such innovation. This paradox is presented under the review of organizational institutionalism vis-à-vis innovation and, for its unfolding, considers the adoption of innovation as an adaptation to the prevalent rationalized elements. This presentation is paralleled with the interpretation that innovation is limited by a structure that, sometimes rationalized, forms its trajectory. Considering the social function of the judiciary that is anchored in institutionalism, historical institutionalism is thus added, centrally placing the judiciary in the current institutional matrix and associating its path dependence with the dimensions of its innovation. Based on these outlines, propositions and a suggested agenda for future research are presented. Full article
16 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Using Social Media to Recruit Seldom-Heard Groups: Reaching Women and Girls with Experience of Violence in Iran
by Ladan Hashemi, Fateme Babakhani, Nadia Aghtaie and Sally McManus
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050246 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Social media recruitment and online surveys are valuable tools in social science research, but their effectiveness in reaching seldom-heard victims of gender violence in low-middle income (LMI) countries is under-explored. This empirical study aims to: (1) describe violence and abuse experiences and (2) [...] Read more.
Social media recruitment and online surveys are valuable tools in social science research, but their effectiveness in reaching seldom-heard victims of gender violence in low-middle income (LMI) countries is under-explored. This empirical study aims to: (1) describe violence and abuse experiences and (2) assess the benefits and limitations of using social media to document violence against women and girls (VAWGs) in a LMI country to render visible the experiences of potentially isolated victims. A total of 453 Iranian women (aged 14–59, mean = 28.8, SD = 8.04) responded to an Instagram invitation for a study on women’s health and violence exposure from February 2020 to January 2022. The questionnaire covered general gendered abuse, domestic violence (DV), and forced unemployment. The analysis was performed using Stata 17. Nearly all participants reported abuse, including sexual (85.0%), psychological (83.4%), and technology-facilitated (57.4%) abuse, with 77.4% experiencing multiple forms. The street (62%) and home (52.8%) were common abuse locations. The perpetrators included known individuals (75.9%) and strangers (80.8%), with 56.7% reporting abuse by both. DV was reported by 72.6%, mainly involving psychological (73.1%), physical (53.4%), and/or sexual (17.2%) violence, with fathers (47.8%), husbands (42.7%), and brothers (40.2%) as frequent perpetrators. A quarter reported forced unemployment. Those experiencing DV and/or forced unemployment showed higher depression levels, suicidal ideation, and lower marital satisfaction. The study suggests using social media recruitment for VAWG research but cautions against overgeneralising from these data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Measuring Interpersonal Violence)
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