New Directions in Gender Research

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Gender Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 52881

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Research and Social Intervention, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: gender and professions; gender inequalities; affirmative action
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Center for Research in Applied Communication, Culture, and New Technologies (CICANT), Lusófona University, 4000-098 Porto, Portugal
Interests: gender and media; feminist movements and activisms; intersectionality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gender studies has generated decades of important research in multiple scientific areas, starting out with difficulty in being implemented in universities, seconded and even stigmatized, until it managed to position itself as an autonomous scientific area. Its growth in recent decades should be noted, with the proliferation of research projects, master and doctoral theses, undergraduate and post-graduate courses, scientific associations, and public policies aimed at gender equality and diversity.

Despite the long road travelled, this is an area where achievements cannot be taken for granted. In recent years, political changes in several countries have led to setbacks in this area. Anti-gender movements and other manifestations are present in diverse geographical contexts with different forms of expression and are affecting the scientific field.

In a changing world marked by continuous advancements—but also tensions, setbacks and paradoxes—many challenges are faced by the scientific area of gender studies. This is even more apparent at a time when we are experiencing a global crisis—the COVID-19 pandemic—which is demonstrating an increase in various social inequalities, including in terms of gender.

This Special Issue invites articles that explore backlash in the field and the challenges that are posed to those who research in this area, as well as new thematic agendas. Theoretical and empirical contributions are expected, based on various methodologies, showing the great diversity and richness of scientific production in this area in diverse contexts. 

Thus, articles are welcomed across a range of topics, including but not limited to:

  • Gender studies, women/feminist movements and activism
  • Academia, neoliberalism, and gender studies
  • Backlash in the field of gender studies
  • New agendas in the gender studies field
  • Intersectional, decolonial, and postcolonial approaches in gender research
  • Discussions around “gender ideology” and anti-gender movements and manifestations
  • COVID-19 pandemic impacts on gender equality and diversity

Dr. Maria Helena Santos
Dr. Carla Cerqueira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Social Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gender
  • gender inequalities
  • gender relations
  • gender diversity
  • gender ideology
  • gender identities
  • intersectionality

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

0 pages, 219 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial Introduction to New Directions in Gender Research
by Maria Helena Santos and Carla Cerqueira
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(11), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12110607 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
There have been many transformations in intellectual scope, in theories and methods, which have also marked research in the field of gender studies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

24 pages, 380 KiB  
Article
Achieving Gender Equality through Paid and Unpaid Work: An Exploration of Mothers’ Perspectives on Work
by Sarah Madörin and Sofia Jacinto
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12040218 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
The prevailing understanding of work as paid work is reflected in political efforts to achieve gender equality, which include emphasising that women, like men, should increasingly pursue paid work. This exploratory research aims to question whether this idea to align female with male [...] Read more.
The prevailing understanding of work as paid work is reflected in political efforts to achieve gender equality, which include emphasising that women, like men, should increasingly pursue paid work. This exploratory research aims to question whether this idea to align female with male life patterns is conducive to gender equality and to promote new insights based on mothers’ experiences. Our analysis is based on guided interviews with eight Swiss mothers in part-time employment who have at least one child aged three or older, and a working partner in the same household. The interviews show that these mothers do not share the expectation that all mothers should take on the main responsibility for domestic and care work, nor the expectation that all women should be doing full-time paid work. They would like to see greater acceptance and appreciation of different forms of work. This research concludes that gender justice can be understood as a freedom of choice that includes both the right to be doing paid work and the right to have time for domestic and care work—for men and women. Gender equality efforts do not have to be restricted to one form of work, but can leave room for different types of work and the appreciation of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
14 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
Intimate Lovers, Legal Strangers—The Politics of Dissident Relationality in Portugal
by Ana Cristina Santos and Ana Lúcia Santos
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12030144 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Dominant cultural frameworks, laws, and social policy in Southern Europe often stem from and replicate a collective imaginary based on a reproductive, cohabiting, monogamous, and cis-heterosexual couple. Concomitantly, despite significant advances in legislation in recent years, LGBTQ+ intimacies continue to be subject to [...] Read more.
Dominant cultural frameworks, laws, and social policy in Southern Europe often stem from and replicate a collective imaginary based on a reproductive, cohabiting, monogamous, and cis-heterosexual couple. Concomitantly, despite significant advances in legislation in recent years, LGBTQ+ intimacies continue to be subject to daily prejudice, violence, and shame. The purpose of this article is to understand how state recognition contributes to the un/doing of the abject culturally attached to LGBTQ+ intimacies; and to examine personal, sociocultural, and legal traits that shape biographies turning intimate citizens into intimate lovers and/or legal strangers. The first part of this chapter involves an outlining of developments regarding law and relational diversity in Portugal. The second part deals with the visibility of non-normative sexuality that is often a target of abject gaze, rejection, and other cultural practices of discrimination. It is suggested that legally recognized marital status can become a way to overcome the abject or the invisible, both in relation to the state and the cultural milieu. We offer the notion of relational performativity and suggest that non-monogamy (even when consensual) is a major cultural source of the relational abject, encapsulating moral panic around the promiscuous, unhealthy, and uncommitted sexual monster. The article finishes with reflections that move beyond the examples provided to dialogue with dissident relationality as a concept that describes the intimate experiences of aging LGBTQ+ people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
10 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Violence against Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic: From Children to the Elderly
by Cristina Soeiro, Rita Ribeiro, Iris Almeida, Rosa Saavedra, Sónia Caridade, Ana Oliveira and Manuela Santos
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020091 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Women of all ages can be exposed to violence both within and outside of the home, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to analyze violence against women (VAW) before and during the first year of [...] Read more.
Women of all ages can be exposed to violence both within and outside of the home, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to analyze violence against women (VAW) before and during the first year of the pandemic in Portugal. Crimes perpetrated against female victims from 17 years old and younger to 65 years old and older were analyzed by comparing requests for help in 2019 and 2020. A total of 12,045 requests for help for VAW were received by the Portuguese Association for Victim Support and analyzed in the current study. The findings reveal a 16% increase in requests for help in 2020 and a 95% increase when the lockdown was implemented. That said, the most reported, intimate partner violence (IPV), showed a decrease of 5% in 2020. Furthermore, compared to 2019, requests for help concerning criminal offenses involving psychological violence in non-IPV contexts increased 79% in 2020, especially for victims 17 years old or younger (116%), and attempted femicide/femicide requests for help increased 53%. We are still in the early stages of understanding how the pandemic will affect this situation. Future directions concerning support of female victims during the pandemic are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
13 pages, 713 KiB  
Article
Looking at Resilience among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in Portugal: Gender Affirmation Paths and Parenting Aspirations
by Carla Moleiro, Violeta Alarcão and Alain Giami
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020068 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
The transgender and gender diverse (TGGD) population is highly diverse. To date, research on the association of the various family–parenthood aspirations of TGGD people with distinct affirming paths and identities remains scarce. A survey was conducted aiming to characterize the TGGD population’s diversity [...] Read more.
The transgender and gender diverse (TGGD) population is highly diverse. To date, research on the association of the various family–parenthood aspirations of TGGD people with distinct affirming paths and identities remains scarce. A survey was conducted aiming to characterize the TGGD population’s diversity and socio-demographic profile. A community-based convenience sample of 115 self-identified TGGD adults living in Portugal was collected. Most of the participants (69%) did not have any children, 10% had children of their own, and about 20% did not have children in the present but reported their intensions to have children in the future. The results were discussed, highlighting the heterogeneity found in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, gender identification, and gender affirmation pathways (social, legal, and medical), with a focus on the participants’ parenthood aspirations. The under- or non-representation of transgender individuals in population surveys, such as demographic and health surveys, is a barrier to understanding the social determinants and health disparities faced by this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 343 KiB  
Article
Lived Experiences of Mothering and Teaching during the Pandemic: A Narrative Inquiry on College Faculty Mothers in the Philippines
by Alma Espartinez
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010024 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5147
Abstract
How do academic mothers navigate their embodied selves in a disembodied academic life? More particularly, how do mothers in Philippine Higher Education balance the demands of mothering and teaching during the pandemic? This qualitative study used a narrative inquiry approach involving in-depth interviews [...] Read more.
How do academic mothers navigate their embodied selves in a disembodied academic life? More particularly, how do mothers in Philippine Higher Education balance the demands of mothering and teaching during the pandemic? This qualitative study used a narrative inquiry approach involving in-depth interviews with academic mothers from various faculties and ranks at some Philippine Higher Education Institutions. This approach explored the complex and often contradictory discourses surrounding the tension between the polarizing models of the ideal caring mother and ideal academic, trying to excel in both roles during the pandemic. The research began with an overview by way of a literature review of the pre-pandemic mother academics. It then reflected on eight mother college professors who balanced their careers with childcare, some with adult care, as this pandemic amplified deeply ingrained traditional social norms that perpetuate social inequities. Finally, it concluded that the two domains—academy and family—remained inhospitable to professing mothers in the Philippines. This study proposed that care work should be valorized, work–family narratives normalized and mainstreamed, and public and educational policies that support mothering and teaching rethought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
19 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
Gender, Class, and Ethnicity: Perspectives of White Portuguese and Black African Women on Labor Dynamics in the Cleaning Sector
by Maria Helena Santos, Núria Romão and Carla Cerqueira
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010020 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2270
Abstract
This study focuses on cleaning services in Lisbon, Portugal, to understand the dynamics of operating in this feminine context, mostly employing women of African origin. From a qualitative and intersectional perspective, the study encompasses 17 semi-structured individual interviews with women working in these [...] Read more.
This study focuses on cleaning services in Lisbon, Portugal, to understand the dynamics of operating in this feminine context, mostly employing women of African origin. From a qualitative and intersectional perspective, the study encompasses 17 semi-structured individual interviews with women working in these services, nine of African origin (Black) and eight of Portuguese origin (White) between 29 and 66 years of age. The thematic analysis returned five themes portraying the specificities associated with women carrying out their activities in a context of low social status, particularly for Black women. Although we verified some of the negative consequences associated with tokenism, the intersections of gender, class, and race/ethnicity generated dynamics that also contradict this phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
13 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
Wellbeing and (Mental) Health: A Quantitative Exploration of Portuguese Young Adults’ Uses of M-Apps from a Gender Perspective
by Eduardo Antunes, Rita Alcaire and Inês Amaral
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010003 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Acknowledging the importance of technology in the mental health and wellbeing of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper aims to analyse the uses of mobile health applications by young Portuguese adults focusing on the following research question: How do the uses of [...] Read more.
Acknowledging the importance of technology in the mental health and wellbeing of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper aims to analyse the uses of mobile health applications by young Portuguese adults focusing on the following research question: How do the uses of m-apps by young adults interact with health and wellbeing from a gender perspective? An online survey was conducted to a representative sample of young Portuguese adults (18–30 years), under the objectives of the MyGender project that studies the interconnections of young adults with m-apps, with their technicity and imaginaries. The approach followed in this paper is quantitative-extensive. Results reveal low usage of overall health and wellbeing apps, particularly among single respondents who do not have children. Health and self-tracking apps are among the 10 most frequently used apps. Only 6.20% of the sample considers mental health apps (mHapps) as one of the three most important types of apps. Having children is a factor for a bigger interconnectedness of the respondents with overall health and wellbeing apps and the general quality of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
18 pages, 2082 KiB  
Article
Disparities in COVID-19 Impacts on Work Hours and Career Satisfaction by Gender and Race among Scientists in the US: An Online Survey Study
by Seulkee Heo, Pedro Diaz Peralta, Lan Jin, Claudia Ribeiro Pereira Nunes and Michelle L. Bell
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120577 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on work–life balance may be unequal between female and male scientists. Further information is needed regarding whether the working conditions and career satisfaction for women and racialized scientists are disproportionately affected by the pandemic. This online survey [...] Read more.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on work–life balance may be unequal between female and male scientists. Further information is needed regarding whether the working conditions and career satisfaction for women and racialized scientists are disproportionately affected by the pandemic. This online survey collected data from 1171 scientists in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM), and medicine (STEMM), public health, or other areas of science/engineering working in the US to examine potential disparities in changes in work hours and career satisfaction by gender and race/ethnicity. A significantly higher percentage of women reported increased work hours compared to men. Women, especially racialized women, experienced disproportionately higher increases in teaching and service than the other groups, which contributed to the increased total work hours for women. Satisfaction with the current career progress was lowest for racialized women compared to their counterparts. Our results indicate that the pandemic has inequitably affected allocation of workloads and career satisfaction by gender and race in scientific fields. Institutions of higher education and other research organizations should acknowledge the gender/race differences in science before and during the pandemic to better support the career development and achievement of all scientists, especially women and even more so racialized women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Misogynistic Influences of Female Managers in Local Governments: A Social Construction or Lived Experience
by Josephine Ahiante and Emeka Ndaguba
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110533 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3718
Abstract
There is a disdain for women in leadership positions in South African local government, and this can be attributed to manifold factors. Some of these factors may include distrust of women’s capacity or capability and leadership styles, flexibility and consultation in decision-making, issues [...] Read more.
There is a disdain for women in leadership positions in South African local government, and this can be attributed to manifold factors. Some of these factors may include distrust of women’s capacity or capability and leadership styles, flexibility and consultation in decision-making, issues of values and ethos, demography and social class, and political considerations in South African local government system. The objective of this article is to (1) explore gender roles in South African local government systems, (2) assess distrust of women in leadership positions in South African local government, and (3) explore how the male boss syndrome suppresses the creativity and efficiency of women in leadership positions in South African local governments. Data for this study were derived from female managements in several municipalities in the Northwest Province of South Africa. The findings demonstrate that innovation and a creative mindset are overlooked by male leaders in local government, simply because they emanate from a woman. Further, while women are hailed and acknowledged for their successes in business, science, technology, and innovation, and even have been considered for the presidency, at government levels, the sentiments are different, in that males in the sector consider the local parlance as a settlement for the liberation struggle. In conclusion, the transformation of gender relations may not be dramatic, but disruptions can quicken the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
24 pages, 2517 KiB  
Article
Quantifying for Qualifying: A Framework for Assessing Gender Equality in Higher Education Institutions
by Josilene Aires Moreira and Catarina Sales Oliveira
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100478 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3215
Abstract
The objective of this study is to present the development of a framework for assessing gender inequality in higher education institutions (HEIs) which reveals how this academic environment is progressing in terms of gender balance. It proposes a multi-dimension-based index comprised by five [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to present the development of a framework for assessing gender inequality in higher education institutions (HEIs) which reveals how this academic environment is progressing in terms of gender balance. It proposes a multi-dimension-based index comprised by five dimensions—Empowerment, Education, Health, Violence, and Time. The mathematical model used enables the user to assign a weight value to each dimension, customizing the results according to the institution addressed. The paper is based on a post-doctoral research project which analyzed six globally recognized indexes (Gender Inequality Index; Global Gender Gap Index; Women, Business, and Law Index; Gender Equality Index; Social Institutions Global Index; Women Empowerment Principles) to construct a new framework for gender inequality evaluation tailored for HEIs. It used a Laplace–Gauss-based scale. The research included an experiment of concrete application to two instiutions, one in Europe and the other in South America. While the first one had a Gender Equality Plan, the second had not. The analysis was successfully conducted in both institutions. The two institutions presented general results above 60%. These results need to be read in the specific context of each university. The Gender Equality in Higher Education Institutions Index (GEHEI) provides a user-friendly way of checking the existence of gender inequality, summarized into a single number but able to be detailed in several levels and to provide insight into progression over time. The handling of the GEHEI tool is also very straightforward. The proposal is designed to be used in different HEIs; it is recommended that researchers customize the weights of the dimensions according to their relevance in the specific organization. This paper provides a new methodological model to measure gender inequality in HEIs based on easy-to-obtain data, distinguishing itself from global indexes by its ease of application and interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Gender-Balanced Seats, Equal Power and Greater Gender Equality? Zooming into the Boardroom of Companies Bound by the Portuguese Gender Quota Law
by Sara Falcão Casaca, Susana Ramalho Marques, Maria João Guedes and Cathrine Seierstad
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100449 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2294
Abstract
This paper seeks to analyse the potential for change in the gender quota law on corporate boards in Portugal. This is achieved by incorporating concepts and insights drawn from political science and the study of quotas in politics and adjusting these to the [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to analyse the potential for change in the gender quota law on corporate boards in Portugal. This is achieved by incorporating concepts and insights drawn from political science and the study of quotas in politics and adjusting these to the boardroom context. It adds to the literature on women on boards by shedding light on the importance of looking at descriptive representation, substantive representation, substantive equality and transformative institutional change, in order to understand a quota law’s potential for eliciting gender balance in the boardroom, as well as greater gender equality in directorship positions, in board dynamics and at the workplace level. This study uses multi-strategy research methods. Evidence provided by the quantitative analysis of survey data, combined with the qualitative analysis of interviews undertaken with female and male board members and the contents of Gender Equality Action Plans (GEAPs), shows that there have been some changes in terms of descriptive representation, but fewer in relation to substantive equality, as men are still largely over-represented in positions associated with effective power and influence over decision-making. Moreover, although the promotion of gender equality at the workplace is valued by both groups, and particularly so by women, weaknesses have been found in the materialisation of such a commitment (substantive representation) through the adoption of GEAPs designed to tackle gendered patterns at the workplace (transformative institutional change). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Backlash by Men against the Socio-Economic and Political Promotion of Women in Europe
by Anne-Marie Parth
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100428 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2433
Abstract
The gender gap in voting for far-right parties is significant in many European countries. While most studies focus on how men and women differ in their nationalist and populist attitudes, it is unknown how the socio-economic and political promotion of women is associated [...] Read more.
The gender gap in voting for far-right parties is significant in many European countries. While most studies focus on how men and women differ in their nationalist and populist attitudes, it is unknown how the socio-economic and political promotion of women is associated with the gender gap in far-right political orientation. The following paper compares the effect of four different spheres of gender equality on this gender gap. By estimating multilevel logit models for more than 25 European countries and testing the mechanism via a socially conservative attitude toward gendered division of work, I find that the visible field of representation in particular—measured by the share of women in parliament and women on boards—is associated with a gender gap in far-right orientation. This paper contributes to the literature in two important ways: first, it combines policy feedback with cultural backlash theory, enlarging the scope of both theories; second, it demonstrates the importance of gender equality policies for the study of the far-right gender gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2310 KiB  
Article
Gender Equality Impact Drivers Revisited: Assessing Institutional Capacity in Research and Higher Education Institutions
by Lut Mergaert, Marina Cacace and Marcela Linková
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(9), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11090379 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3173
Abstract
This article presents the development and piloting of an innovative tool to assess the sustainability and impact of institutional change towards gender equality, termed the Impact Driver model. It provides a description of the model and the resulting tool, as well as how [...] Read more.
This article presents the development and piloting of an innovative tool to assess the sustainability and impact of institutional change towards gender equality, termed the Impact Driver model. It provides a description of the model and the resulting tool, as well as how it has been developed, based on earlier models. It also presents the revised model following a pilot test and accompanying workshop, which were carried out to gather feedback on the use and potential of the tool. In conclusion, the article provides recommendations for the use of the tool, considering the EU context and policy framework, which pushes towards the institutionalisation of gender equality in research and innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Death Threats and Attempted Femicide in the Context of Domestic Violence in Portugal
by Sofia Neves, Emília Silva, Joana Topa, Janete Borges, Alice Pereira and Estefânia Silva
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(8), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080347 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
Domestic violence is a serious problem in Portugal, affecting mainly women. The significant number of femicides in the context of intimate partner violence has been showing not only the severity of the crime, but also the necessity to reinforce strategies to prevent and [...] Read more.
Domestic violence is a serious problem in Portugal, affecting mainly women. The significant number of femicides in the context of intimate partner violence has been showing not only the severity of the crime, but also the necessity to reinforce strategies to prevent and combat it. Although several studies were developed in the last decades to portray domestic violence, research on the threat of death and attempted femicide is scarce. This study aims to characterize death threats and attempts of femicide, in the light of the professionals’ perspectives from the Portugal National Support Network for Victims of Domestic Violence, contributing to informing best practices of risk assessment. Seventy-one professionals, 62 female (87.3%) and 9 male (12.7%), at an average age of 37.69 years, filled a questionnaire survey. Results suggest weaknesses in the application of current legislation and the adoption of effective measures in situations where victims experience death threats and attempted murders. Although there are criminal proceedings before these episodes, this does not seem to have effective consequences in terms of protection and security, whereby the development of strategies that safeguard victims from tragic endings such as femicide are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
14 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Big Girls Don’t Cry: An Assessment of Research Units’ Leadership and Gender Distribution in Higher Education Institutions
by Ricardo Morais, Clara E. Fernandes and Valeriano Piñeiro-Naval
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(8), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080345 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
Academia is often pointed out as a challenging environment to evolve in, especially for women. Whilst women perform in multidisciplinary settings, studies point out still-existing gender gaps in academia, especially in positions of power. This study looks at decision-making positions in Higher Education [...] Read more.
Academia is often pointed out as a challenging environment to evolve in, especially for women. Whilst women perform in multidisciplinary settings, studies point out still-existing gender gaps in academia, especially in positions of power. This study looks at decision-making positions in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), specifically in Portuguese academic research. Furthermore, we seek to understand if research roles are distributed equally gender-wise among cohorts in research units, as well as if deans’ genders are a factor of influence in such role attributions. We will look at the research roles in academia, particularly research units fostered by HEIs, to observe gender distribution based on total cohorts. Using univariate and bivariate tests, our research aims to assess gender distribution in leading research roles in public and private institutions. We take the specific case of Portugal; therefore, we cannot extrapolate the results to other countries. However, outcomes point out resisting differences in fields of research and coordination and role distribution among R&D units, as well as in fundamental relations between power positions in academia and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
14 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Gender and Ethnicity: The Role of Successful Women in Promoting Equality and Social Change
by Raquel Alexandra Ferreira and Maria Helena Santos
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(7), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070299 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3392
Abstract
This article analyzes the experiences and strategies of white and black women in positions of some power, in which they are able to strive to reduce inequalities and promote social change. From a qualitative perspective, this seeks to open the discussions around the [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the experiences and strategies of white and black women in positions of some power, in which they are able to strive to reduce inequalities and promote social change. From a qualitative perspective, this seeks to open the discussions around the possible applications of intersectionality between gender and “race”/ethnicity for studying the “tokenism phenomenon”. The results reveal six major themes that demonstrate how, while both white and black women share negative consequences of tokenism, the intersections of gender and “race”/ethnicity create dynamics that make black women’s experiences unique. Overall, we may therefore conclude the interviewees represent “agents of change” and deploy their power to promote equality in a variety of ways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
19 pages, 3010 KiB  
Article
Young Women, Employment and Precarity: The Face of Two Periods of Crisis in Spain (2008–2021)
by M. Àngels Cabasés and Miquel Úbeda
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060264 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Youth employment in Spain is characterised by temporary contracts, part-time jobs, and low wages, a long-standing situation that has been further accentuated since the 2008 crisis, placing young people, especially women, in a position of vulnerability at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. [...] Read more.
Youth employment in Spain is characterised by temporary contracts, part-time jobs, and low wages, a long-standing situation that has been further accentuated since the 2008 crisis, placing young people, especially women, in a position of vulnerability at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through different data, this article argues that young women’s working conditions have deteriorated in comparison to those of previous generations and young men, in a period in which there have been two crises that have affected youth employment. Linking the results with the main youth employment policies allows us to observe why the precarisation of Spanish youth has not been stopped. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 694 KiB  
Article
Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Lives of Women with Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds and Victimization Experiences in Portugal
by Ana Lúcia Teixeira, Dalila Cerejo, Maria do Rosário Rosa and Manuel Lisboa
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060258 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
The heavy economic, social, and psychological toll of pandemic lockdowns around the world and their disproportionate effect on women are widely acknowledged, but different socioeconomic backgrounds and contexts may influence the degree to which stay-at-home measures impact their lives. Additionally, knowing that violence [...] Read more.
The heavy economic, social, and psychological toll of pandemic lockdowns around the world and their disproportionate effect on women are widely acknowledged, but different socioeconomic backgrounds and contexts may influence the degree to which stay-at-home measures impact their lives. Additionally, knowing that violence against women tends to increase during times of crisis, we are testing if the additional burden of victimization represents an added load to the perceived social impacts of the lockdown. Using 2021 survey data from a random sample of 1541 Portuguese women, the paper explores, through logistic regression models, the social impact of the lockdown on the lives of women, its socioeconomic determinants, and the role played by violence against women during the pandemic. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown did not equally affect all facets of women’s social lives, and women with higher education status and that experienced income reductions due to the measures taken to control the pandemic are more prone to experience a more severe negative impact of the lockdown on the various facets of their lives. Additionally, having been a victim during the pandemic partially mediates the effect of education and income reduction on the social outcomes of the lockdown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

13 pages, 493 KiB  
Systematic Review
Women’s Working Conditions during COVID-19: A Review of the Literature and a Research Agenda
by Omar Mazzucchelli, Claudia Manzi and Cristina Rossi Lamastra
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120539 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered new working modalities, typically aimed at flexibility. However, the COVID-related restrictions caused adverse effects such as unemployment, precariousness, and social anxiety. Effects on working conditions differ depending on the socio-demographic features of those affected (e.g., gender, social status, economic [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered new working modalities, typically aimed at flexibility. However, the COVID-related restrictions caused adverse effects such as unemployment, precariousness, and social anxiety. Effects on working conditions differ depending on the socio-demographic features of those affected (e.g., gender, social status, economic situation, ethnicity). Scholars agree that people who were disadvantaged before the pandemic—the so-called minority power groups, e.g., women, young people, and immigrants—suffered the most from its effects. This literature review systematizes the main findings of studies on one of these minority power groups, namely women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop