Barriers That Keep Vulnerable People as NEETs
2. Theoretical Background
“The impact of being a migrant is huge. There is a lack of help and a lot of difficulties. You don’t receive support and you suffer a lot of discrimination”.(NEET)
“There are many [migrants] born in Spain”.(WC)
“There are not many migrants on the Youth Guarantee list. They sign up for employment offices, because they are looking for a job. They do not think about training”.(A)
“We have to do anything to survive”.(NEET)
“One of the things that closes many doors is the veil [used by Muslim women]”.(WC)
“People prefer to hire people from East Europe […] before migrants from other countries. If there are none, if they have to decide, they’d rather hire a South American. If there are no South Americans, they prefer to hire a person of colour. And if there is no person of colour, then they already hire a Moroccan person. If there are no Moroccans […] Algerians, the last are Algerians”.(T)
“Thus, I would only be able to get manual job positions. In the job market, I have experienced discrimination. People do not trust you. They think that maybe you are a bad person”.(NEET)
“Because I am a woman, nobody would hire me for some jobs […] a woman can work cleaning and caring while men wouldn’t be hired. It depends on the kind of job”.(NEET)
“Traditionally, work was the way out of the situation of exclusion. Today, it is not real. Therefore, they, who choose very low-skilled jobs, continue to be affected by this situation”.(NGO)
“It is that if you work and you still have to depend on your parents, that is… you have to live with your parents... And only to cover expenses. That is like working when you were 16. I don’t think you can consider yourself an independent adult in this situation”.(NEET)
“Surely outsiders will always have a disadvantage. That’s obvious. If we want to accept it or not. A person who comes from another country, who does not know the language well, does not understand the culture, … it is always going to be at a disadvantage”.(NEET)
“Many do not finish school. They have no studies. Basically, what they are asking for now, […] one of the requirements for all positions is the school certificate”.(WC)
“I think there are a lot of female immigrants who do not attend these programs. Some come on their own initiative, others because they are forced because they receive basic income and the other percentage… I do not know. And there is another part that the husband may not let her”.(PO)
“It is difficult because of the lack of support and resources”.(NEET)
“Many of the women we had in Youth Guarantee were young women with dependent children”.(A)
“[Muslim women] don’t take the kids to day care”.(WC)
“Yes, [women aged 25–29] come when they are invited to be informed about the courses and the training opportunities. However, after that, because of their schedules, they cannot sign up”.(A)
“We take into account the work–life balance needs that they may have, either using public resources, orienting them towards the use of those public resources, or we, if this is not possible, create parallel spaces for it”.(NGO)
“For many, Spain is a stop on a path, not where they want to stay”.(WC)
“I would have no problem emigrating to another place. In fact, Germany seems like a good place to go”.(NEET)
“I just arrived in this country and the lack of network connections is important”.(NEET)
“The final destination for most of the migrants is not Spain. Their goal is mainly in France, in countries of central Europe. […] There are their social networks, which are the social networks they need for support and coverage”.(NGO)
“First learning Spanish. Without learning Spanish, there is no possibility of joining the labour market”.(NGO)
“Local people will always have preference. Always. Especially in unskilled jobs. People who know the language go after”.(NEET)
“There are no flexible schedules for these women [with kids] to go to learn Spanish”.(WC)
“I can talk about cases of a Venezuelan lawyer, who has to join high school here right now”.(NGO)
“I have met people from Africa and South America. From South America, usually women, who have higher degrees and are training as vegetable handlers and maybe they studied law”.(PO)
“Nobody wants you because you have no papers, so you just have to wait. For me it is like starting from zero again. It is as if all my previous studies and training are gone”.(NEET)
“My experience has been satisfactory. I found that this kind of education is very useful because it helps to find a job in the sector you want to have a position in”.(NEET)
“People, when they finish studying, are not ready for the market”.(NEET)
“Public schools should not be the only ones who accept immigrant children”.(NGO)
“Basic training, what the basic educational system should provide, is key”.(WC)
“We cannot put all the groups that we label as vulnerable in the same place [neighbourhood]”.(NGO)
“[…] She comes to the [YG’s] first session, you explain to her what it is for and that she comes and tells you that she is not interested at all if you call her, because she works very well with web pages and social networks and others things for job searching, and that this [YG] is a waste of time”.(C)
“I have always worked finding work on my own and not through agencies, they have always wasted my time”.(NEET)
“One of the main problems of Youth Guarantee is the recruitment of young people, especially young people who are away from any institution, are the most difficult to reach”.(A)
“Often there is a lack of knowledge about the existing resources”.(C)
“People who get into agriculture stay in agriculture because there is no way out. […] Everybody [in agriculture] has been working without a contract”.(T)
“Someone tells me that there is something for a day or a week and I do it. It does not matter what it is: gardener, walking dogs, construction… They are mainly physical jobs. Those are the options that I have as an illegal migrant”.(NEET)
“The young people themselves have no interest in agriculture either”.(T)
“[You are only going to be accepted] if you are coming to work in the fields for thirty euros a day. Then perfect, with open arms”.(NEET)
“I believe it is very important to work with them [migrant NEET women]: education in values, breaking down stigmas, recognizing the worth of women, all those things”.(WC)
“This kind of scheme provides you an opportunity to increase your knowledge. It allowed me to choose things that better fit my profile, more specific things which were more coherent with my motivation and interests”.(NEET)
“They have a lot of interest and they try hard. People who woke up at 5 AM stayed active in my courses until 10 PM. You see that they are interested in the courses and in training”.(PO)
“Now there is a change in motivation and we also see that in the data”.(A)
“I say, on a theoretical level I have high expectations. The world is beautiful”.(NEET)
“Every day I wake up waiting for the news to say something, but there was never anything”.(NEET)
“I think the situation is not going to change much. I am positive, but I don’t know”.(NEET)
“However, with those who commit and come, in fact, you can move forward with them”.(C)
“There is still some difficulty in leaving the closest environment”.(A)
“Of course, they do not consider going outside the town. Don’t forget that I’m talking about places like Molina del Segura, which is 5 kilometres away”.(C)
“Because they already emigrate, they have that mobility predisposition and do not have ties to specific people”.(T)
“As a migrant, I wouldn’t have the problem of moving again, even if I have to move to another country”.(NEET)
“To identify what are the capacities, potentialities and, above all, the weaknesses that one has in his/her personal and training environment”.(NGO)
“Sometimes there are external circumstances […] You are working with a person who has other problems. Sometimes it is not their time”.(WC)
“[Talking about experiences with tailored policies] Yes, it really is very practical. Because it teaches you to create a business. Not a company. To open a store. Something that can really feed you. If you do it right, you put in hours and such... You earn a salary and more”.(NEET)
“When it started there were many problems, the registration issue was especially problematic. This discouraged many young people from approaching the Youth Guarantee”.(A)
“However, after 5 years, there is still the negative connotation that it is a program for people with practically no qualifications. People with qualifications do not easily attend”.(C)
“Then you have to go out with a bow to catch them. It is not a matter of the first year, we are observing this for three years”.(C)
“There are many people who do not know that these resources exist. They are not promoting it as much as they should”.(WC)
“They do not know the available resources and that is also very important. That’s the reason why they need to repeat it again, for mediators”.(WC)
“The most effective is word of mouth”.(NGO)
“But those things [offers from institutions] … they seem like garbage opportunities to me”.(NEET)
“They [employment agencies] don’t help you”.(NEET)
“If a person in need is going to earn €900 a month in a project that lasts a year, maybe they train even if they don’t like it”.(A)
“It happens. We have courses that, although trainees get paid, nobody participates”.(C)
“Every year we collect information from entrepreneurs from relevant sectors to see where the training trends are going. With that information, we organise the courses”.(A)
“It’s good, because there you have something like a job, which is like between work and an internship. But it is paid. Then it gives you the possibility to live in the country where you are going to do that job. And it is also a job that is related to your interest and what you want to do in your life”.(NEET)
“We need a tool [common national database]. We work in a globalised world, we have e-government … It is sad that we use sticks and stones”.(C)
“Honestly, after so many years of fighting so much, I don’t see the effort it takes, I don’t see the results it should bring”.(C)
“If these things [NEET policies] don’t change, the situation will continue to be the same”.(WC)
5. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- The importance of the social economy in the integration of NEETs;
- Does this business contribute to training and offering jobs?
- How do they provide feedback to the public institutions and trainers?
- Is it perceived as a relevant factor?
- Knowing that it is very important in the first sector, how well do they integrate NEETs?
- The role of the primary sector as a training and labour integration space;
- Is it a sector that asks for jobs?
- How is it socially considered from the NEETs’ perspective?
- What kind of conditions are offered?
- What is the importance of the rural essence of the 1st sector in NEETs integration?
- The effects and importance of European funding on the programs aimed at young, unemployed and migrant people;
- Have they increased?
- Do the EU funding decide which programs are implemented or do they depend more from the national/regional/local level?
- Is it efficiently distributed and implemented?
- Is it enough?
- On the types of entry profiles (more common and more and less successful);
- Do people come from different sectors?
- What are the kind of successful jobs people get into?
- Are there people from one sector that directly do not apply into training programs?
- On the perceived success of NEET public policy;
- Do people trust the training programs?
- Do NEETs enter some programs because of direct profits (paid training programs) instead of looking for the training itself?
- Does the Administration implement this policy believing it is going to be successful or does it look for the short term money input?
- On the participants’ motivation before, during and after participating in the various programs;
- Do NEETs believe they are going to get a new job after the training?
- Do they enter the programs without nothing if it is worthy?
- Do they leave the programs before they finish?
- On the changes on the former educational/labour paths of the trainees;
- Do they decide what labour path to follow or is it decided by the programs or the economy?
- Are people reluctant to move from one sector to another, to enter a training program of a different sector?
- Do they successfully reorient their paths?
- What are the different perceptions of the NEETs depending on their educational background?
- On the effective feedback mechanisms included in the programs and how they work;
- Where does the feedback come from?
- Is it considered into the policy?
- Is the policy flexible enough to take it into account?
- On the approaches (bottom-up or a top-down) of the implementation follow related to NEET programs;
- Does the design come from a more governamental perspective or from the NEETs themselves?
- Do the different sectors have a say into the policy?
- how have the training programs been modified over time and geographically in the region;
- Do the training programs adapt to the economical changes?
- Are they too stable compared to the changes in technology?
- Do they follow a common national education and training plan or a more regional/local one?
- On the incorporation of direct economic aid in the programs;
- Does direct economic aid destroy the motivation of the people?
- Does the topic become irrelevant when people only join because of economic aid?
- On the dissemination of the information of the different programs;
- Are there different spread methods depending on gender and nationality?
- How important are websites compared to mouth to ear?
- Do businesses help to spread the word?
- On the stratification of the programs and on the profiles of the applicants;
- Is there diversity in the programs?
- Do the NEETs divide themselves depending on the kind of training?
- Do migrants enter into different kinds of training than nationals?
- On the interaction between institutions, companies, associations, trainers and individuals;
- how responsible/independent are the companies/state in terms of the training/employment offers;
- Can companies influence the administration to offer special training courses?
- Do the companies invest in training or do they wait for the government to do that?
- Can the national government decide or does the EU decide?
- On differences between immigrant and native profiles;
- Do nationals and migrants have different backgrounds and how does it influence their probabilities to be NEETs and integrate into the labour market?
- Are nationals ready to work in the 1st sector?
- How geographical mobility helps migrants to move to more rural areas?
- Please describe briefly your experiences in the course of your education.
- Please describe briefly your experiences from training schemes, beyond formal education, you may have participated.
- Why are you currently not employed?
- If you are not seeking employment, education or training, what is the reason? Please describe briefly the situation.
- If you are seeking employment, what is making it hard for you to find a job? Please describe the difficulties/prospects in finding a job in your local labour market.
- When you were younger, what did you want to do upon growing up? Please describe your aspirations and dreams.
- So now you are older. Do you still have the same aspirations/goals? Are you planning to seek/find a job in another local labour market than the one you currently live in? Please define in which local labour market (of your country of residence or abroad) you wish to migrate.
- What do you think is missing to encourage you to take further training/school and/or seek employment? (focus on state employment policies).
- What is the impact of being a woman on your educational and working life? Please describe briefly your experiences and specific real situations/incidents.
- What is the impact of being a migrant/refugee on your educational and working life? Please describe briefly your experiences and specific real situations/incidents.
- Please describe briefly the ways in which you are making a living.
- Please describe briefly the opportunities and obstacles that youth in your city/locality is faced with when trying to gain access into the labour market. Do you see any difference or resemblance to the capital city? (If the participant lives in the capital city, then the NEET should speak about the opportunities and obstacles of the capital in relation to the periphery).
- Individual/social responsibility:
- In general, why do you think there are so many young people who neither study nor work? Is it more because of the people or is it because of the general situation? Why?
- Do you identify as NEETs? Why?
- How do you think society perceives you (failed, lazy, opportunistic, unlucky, …)? Why?
- In your opinion, which are the reasons for being in this situation of not having a job or being in training?
- Do you think it’s your fault? Why?
- Do you think that the economic situation is to blame? Why?
- Have you previously looked for work and found nothing? Why do you think it was unsuccessful? How long have you been in that situation?
- Under which conditions would you accept a job (the level of salary, close to home, the type of work, etc.)? Do you think you ask for too much? Do you think that there are hardly any jobs with those conditions? Why?
- If your situation were different (you had more or less resources, your families could not support you, you were more or less young, etc.), do you think you would be in the same situation? Why?
- If your social/economic situation were different (the economy was as before the crisis), do you think you would be in the same situation? Why?
- How has COVID-19 affected your expectations? Why?
- Do you think you will find a job soon? Why?
- Do you think you will find stable work? Why?
- Do you think that the general situation of the economy will improve, worsen or be more or less the same? Why?
- Do you think that your particular situation will improve, worsen or be more or less the same? Why?
- Do you think that programs aimed at people in your situation work? Why?
- Have you participated in a similar program before? If so, was it helpful? Do you see this project differently?
- Why did you join this project? Has it met your expectations? How?
- Do you think that these programs favour social inclusion?
- Do you think it will be useful to you? Why?
- Do you trust the employment agencies to find a job? Why?
- Do you think these programs should focus on gender? And as for where do people come from (whether they are migrants or not)? And should they consider the personal situation of each person?
- What do you think should be done to improve your situation?
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Pesquera Alonso, C.; Iniesta Martínez, A.; Muñoz Sánchez, P. Barriers That Keep Vulnerable People as NEETs. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11, 253. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060253
Pesquera Alonso C, Iniesta Martínez A, Muñoz Sánchez P. Barriers That Keep Vulnerable People as NEETs. Social Sciences. 2022; 11(6):253. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060253Chicago/Turabian Style
Pesquera Alonso, Carlos, Almudena Iniesta Martínez, and Práxedes Muñoz Sánchez. 2022. "Barriers That Keep Vulnerable People as NEETs" Social Sciences 11, no. 6: 253. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060253