Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic condition induced by insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have biological significance because they regulate processes such as the molecular signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. The hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF-1 alpha) is a transcription factor found in hepatocytes and the pancreas. Mutations in the HNF-1 alpha gene were reportedly associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between MiR-27a, MiR-146, and HNF-1 alpha single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) with T2D risk in the Saudi population. Methodology: We evaluated the association of SNVs of miR-27a rs895819 A>G, 146a-rs2910164 C>G, and HNF-1 alpha rs1169288 G>T (I27L) with the risk of T2D in Saudi patients with the Amplification Refractory Mutation System PCR (ARMS-PCR). For the miR-27a SNVs, we used 115 cases (82 males, 33 females) and 117 matched healthy controls (HCs); for the Mir-146 SNVs, we used 103 cases (70 males, 33 females) and 108 matched HCs; and for the HNF-1 alpha, we employed 110 patients (80 males, 30 females) and 110 HCs. The blood biochemistry of the participants was essayed using commercial kits, and the methods of statistical analysis used were the Chi-square test, the Fisher exact test, and a multivariate analysis based on logistic regression, like the odds ratio (OD) and risk ratio (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The MiR-27a rs895819 AG genotype was linked to increased T2D susceptibility, with OR = 2.01 and p
-value = 0.011, and the miR-146 rs2910164 CG genotype and C allele were linked to an elevated risk of T2D, with OR = 2.75, p
-value < 0.0016, OR = 1.77, and p
-value = 0.004. The results also showed that the GT genotype and T allele of the HNF-1 alpha (rs1169288) G>T is linked to T2D, with OR = 2.18, p
-value = 0.0061, and 1.77, p
-value = 0.0059. Conclusions: The SNVs in miR-27a, miR-146, and HNF-1 alpha can be potential loci for T2D risk. The limitations of this study include the relatively small sample size and the fact that it was a cross-sectional study. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the association between miR-27a, miR-146, and HNF-1 alpha SNVs and the risk of T2D in the Saudi population. Future large-scale case–control studies, as well as studies on the functions of the proteins and protein interaction studies for HNF-1 alpha, are required to verify our findings. Furthermore, these findings can be used for the identification and stratification of at-risk populations via genetic testing for T2D-prevention strategies.