Topic Editors

Department of Chemistry, Physics and Materials Science, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, NC 28301, USA
Dr. Gibin George
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SCMS School of Engineering & Technology, Kerala 683576, India
Department of Chemistry, Physics and Materials Science, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, NC 28301, USA

Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Their Applications

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 March 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
20 May 2024
Viewed by
30742

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical and optoelectronic properties are important in materials. Research into these properties has made significant advances in recent years and they have been used for a wide range of applications that directly impact global energy conversion, storage, and consumption. This Special Issue calls for original research and review papers in the areas of optical and optoelectronic properties of materials and their applications. Manuscripts should cover, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Fluorescence and phosphorescence;
  • Luminescence (photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, electroluminescence, radioluminescence, thermoluminescence, mechanoluminescence, etc.);
  • Materials’ optical properties and devices;
  • Nanophotonics and applications;
  • Optical fibers;
  • Optical materials and optical devices;
  • Optical sensors;
  • Optoelectronics and devices;
  • Organic light-emitting diodes;
  • Perovskite solar cells;
  • Photocatalysis;
  • Photonic and optical devices;
  • Photovoltaics;
  • Radiation detection;
  • Raman and UV-Vis-NIR;
  • Scintillators.

Prof. Dr. Zhiping Luo
Dr. Gibin George
Dr. Navadeep Shrivastava
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • energy
  • light
  • luminescence
  • optical property
  • optoelectronic
  • radiation
  • Raman
  • scintillator
  • sensor
  • solar cell

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Photonics
photonics
2.4 2.3 2014 15.5 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Polymers
polymers
5.0 6.6 2009 13.7 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (27 papers)

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11 pages, 2194 KiB  
Article
Buried Depressed-Cladding Waveguides Inscribed in Nd3+ and Yb3+ Doped CLNGG Laser Crystals by Picosecond-Laser Beam Writing
by Gabriela Croitoru, Florin Jipa, Madalin Greculeasa, Alin Broasca, Flavius Voicu, Lucian Gheorghe and Nicolaie Pavel
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081758 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Buried depressed-cladding waveguides were fabricated in 0.7-at.% Nd:Ca3Li0.275Nb1.775Ga2.95O12 (Nd:CLNGG) and 7.28-at.% Yb:CLNGG disordered laser crystals grown by Czochralski method. Circular waveguides with 100 μm diameters were inscribed in both crystals with picosecond (ps) laser [...] Read more.
Buried depressed-cladding waveguides were fabricated in 0.7-at.% Nd:Ca3Li0.275Nb1.775Ga2.95O12 (Nd:CLNGG) and 7.28-at.% Yb:CLNGG disordered laser crystals grown by Czochralski method. Circular waveguides with 100 μm diameters were inscribed in both crystals with picosecond (ps) laser pulses at 532 nm of 0.15 μJ energy at 500 kHz repetition rate. A line-by-line writing technique at 1 mm/s scanning speed was used. Laser emission at 1.06 μm (with 0.35 mJ pulse energy) and at 1.03 μm (with 0.16 mJ pulse energy) was obtained from the waveguide inscribed in Nd:CLNGG and Yb:CLNGG, respectively, employing quasi-continuous wave pumping with fiber-coupled diode lasers. The waveguide realized in RE3+-doped CLNGG crystals using ps-laser pulses at high repetition rates could provide Q-switched or mode-locked miniaturized lasers for a large number of photonic applications. Full article
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15 pages, 2543 KiB  
Article
Unraveling Broadband Near-Infrared Luminescence in Cr3+-Doped Ca3Y2Ge3O12 Garnets: Insights from First-Principles Analysis
by Wei Zou, Bibo Lou, Mekhrdod S. Kurboniyon, Maksym Buryi, Farhod Rahimi, Alok M. Srivastava, Mikhail G. Brik, Jing Wang and Chonggeng Ma
Materials 2024, 17(7), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071709 - 08 Apr 2024
Viewed by 480
Abstract
In this study, we conducted an extensive investigation into broadband near-infrared luminescence of Cr3+-doped Ca3Y2Ge3O12 garnet, employing first-principles calculations within the density functional theory framework. Our initial focus involved determining the site occupancy of [...] Read more.
In this study, we conducted an extensive investigation into broadband near-infrared luminescence of Cr3+-doped Ca3Y2Ge3O12 garnet, employing first-principles calculations within the density functional theory framework. Our initial focus involved determining the site occupancy of Cr3+ activator ions, which revealed a pronounced preference for the Y3+ sites over the Ca2+ and Ge4+ sites, as evidenced by the formation energy calculations. Subsequently, the geometric structures of the excited states 2E and 4T2, along with their optical transition energies relative to the ground state 4A2 in Ca3Y2Ge3O12:Cr3+, were successfully modeled using the ΔSCF method. Calculation convergence challenges were effectively addressed through the proposed fractional particle occupancy schemes. The constructed host-referred binding energy diagram provided a clear description of the luminescence kinetics process in the garnet, which explained the high quantum efficiency of emission. Furthermore, the accurate prediction of thermal excitation energy yielded insights into the thermal stability of the compound, as illustrated in the calculated configuration coordinate diagram. More importantly, all calculated data were consistently aligned with the experimental results. This research not only advances our understanding of the intricate interplay between geometric and electronic structures, optical properties, and thermal behavior in Cr3+-doped garnets but also lays the groundwork for future breakthroughs in the high-throughput design and optimization of luminescent performance and thermal stability in Cr3+-doped phosphors. Full article
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25 pages, 4495 KiB  
Review
Advances in Semiconductor Lasers Based on Parity–Time Symmetry
by Hongbo Sha, Yue Song, Yongyi Chen, Jishun Liu, Mengjie Shi, Zibo Wu, Hao Zhang, Li Qin, Lei Liang, Peng Jia, Cheng Qiu, Yuxin Lei, Yubing Wang, Yongqiang Ning, Guoqing Miao, Jinlong Zhang and Lijun Wang
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(7), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14070571 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Semiconductor lasers, characterized by their high efficiency, small size, low weight, rich wavelength options, and direct electrical drive, have found widespread application in many fields, including military defense, medical aesthetics, industrial processing, and aerospace. The mode characteristics of lasers directly affect their output [...] Read more.
Semiconductor lasers, characterized by their high efficiency, small size, low weight, rich wavelength options, and direct electrical drive, have found widespread application in many fields, including military defense, medical aesthetics, industrial processing, and aerospace. The mode characteristics of lasers directly affect their output performance, including output power, beam quality, and spectral linewidth. Therefore, semiconductor lasers with high output power and beam quality are at the forefront of international research in semiconductor laser science. The novel parity–time (PT) symmetry mode-control method provides the ability to selectively modulate longitudinal modes to improve the spectral characteristics of lasers. Recently, it has gathered much attention for transverse modulation, enabling the output of fundamental transverse modes and improving the beam quality of lasers. This study begins with the basic principles of PT symmetry and provides a detailed introduction to the technical solutions and recent developments in single-mode semiconductor lasers based on PT symmetry. We categorize the different modulation methods, analyze their structures, and highlight their performance characteristics. Finally, this paper summarizes the research progress in PT-symmetric lasers and provides prospects for future development. Full article
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12 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
The Control of the Expansion or Compression of Colloidal Crystals Lattice with Salt Solution
by Hongwei Zhou, Wenze Ouyang, Shuangyang Zou and Shenghua Xu
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040355 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Tuning the lattice spacing or stop bands holds great significance in the design and application of materials with colloidal crystals. Typically, particle surface modifications or the application of external physical fields are needed. In this study, we demonstrated the ability to expand or [...] Read more.
Tuning the lattice spacing or stop bands holds great significance in the design and application of materials with colloidal crystals. Typically, particle surface modifications or the application of external physical fields are needed. In this study, we demonstrated the ability to expand or compress the lattice of colloidal crystals simply by utilizing a salt solution, without the need for any special treatments to the colloidal particles. We found that by only considering the diffusiophoresis effect we cannot explain the reversion of lattice expansion to lattice compression with the increase in the salt concentration and that the diffusioosmotic flow originating from the container wall must be taken into account. Further analysis revealed that variations in the salt concentration altered the relative amplitudes between diffusiophoresis and diffusioosmosis through changing the zeta potentials of the particles and the wall, and the competition between the particle diffusiophoresis and wall diffusioosmosis lay at the center of the underlying mechanism. Full article
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14 pages, 3731 KiB  
Article
Multi-Band Emission of Pr3+-Doped Ca3Al2O6 and the Effects of Charge Compensator Ions on Luminescence Properties
by Dejian Hou, Rui Huang, Yi Zhang, Hongliang Li, Wenxing Zhang, Zhisen Lin, Yanqing Guo, Zewen Lin, Jianhong Dong and Jin-Yan Li
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14010002 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Multi-band emission luminescence materials are of great significance owing to their extensive application in diverse fields. In this research, we successfully prepared a series of Pr3+-doped Ca3Al2O6 multi-band emission phosphors via a high-temperature solid-state method. The [...] Read more.
Multi-band emission luminescence materials are of great significance owing to their extensive application in diverse fields. In this research, we successfully prepared a series of Pr3+-doped Ca3Al2O6 multi-band emission phosphors via a high-temperature solid-state method. The phase structure, morphology, luminescence spectra and decay curves were investigated in detail. The Ca3Al2O6:Pr3+ phosphors can absorb blue lights and emit lights in the 450–750 nm region, and typical emission bands are located at 488 nm (blue), 525–550 nm (green), 611–614 nm (red), 648 nm (red) and 733 nm (deep red). The influence of the Pr3+ doping concentration was discussed, and the optimal Pr3+ doping concentration was determined. The impacts of charge compensator ions (Li+, Na+, and K+) on the luminescence of Pr3+ were also investigated, and it was found that all the charge compensator ions contributed positively to the emission intensity. More importantly, the emission intensity of the as-prepared phosphors at 423 K can still maintain 65–70% of that at room temperature, and the potential application for pc-LED was investigated. The interesting results indicate that the prepared phosphors may serve multifunctional and advanced applications. Full article
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16 pages, 3461 KiB  
Article
Transition Temperature of Color Change in Thermochromic Systems and Its Description Using Sigmoidal Models
by Martina Viková and Michal Vik
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237478 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Background: Symmetric sigmoidal models with four parameters based on an idealized S/Z-shaped curve are commonly used to analyze the optical parameters of thermochromic materials. However, our experimental findings show that this approach leads to systematic errors involving the incorrect estimation of the transition [...] Read more.
Background: Symmetric sigmoidal models with four parameters based on an idealized S/Z-shaped curve are commonly used to analyze the optical parameters of thermochromic materials. However, our experimental findings show that this approach leads to systematic errors involving the incorrect estimation of the transition temperature or the possibility of a virtual indication of the hysteresis nature of a reversible thermochromic change. For this reason, we sought to find a five-parameter model that would appropriately avoid this problem. Methods: Two commercial thermochromic pigments were used for the test and applied to a textile substrate at different concentrations. The optical properties were measured using reflectance spectrophotometry and then converted to Kubelka–Munk function values and colorimetric coordinates. The following statistics were used to assess the quality of the selected sigmoidal models: coefficient of determination, R2; adjusted coefficient of determination, AR2; root mean square error, RMSE; and Akaike Information Criterion, AIC. Results: The four-parameter models were compared with each other and with the five-parameter models using nested F-tests based on residual variance to obtain a statistical measure of superior performance. For all thermochromic color change data examined, the five-parameter models resulted in significantly better fitting. It could be shown that the five-parameter model showed significantly higher accuracy and precision in determining the transition temperature, like non-sigmoidal quantification methods. Conclusions: We concluded that the asymmetric five-parameter model is a valuable extension of the symmetric model in the investigation of thermochromic color changes, providing better parameter estimates and a new approach to investigating the mechanisms contributing to the asymmetry of the thermochromic curve. Full article
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16 pages, 18764 KiB  
Article
Intensive and Efficient Design of a Two-dimensional 8 × 8 Silicon-Based Optical Phased Array Transceiver
by Yaoyuan Zhang, Rui Wang, Haibo Liu, Guobin Zhao, Ming Wei, Ruitao Jiang and Kunyang Du
Sensors 2023, 23(23), 9396; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23239396 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 671
Abstract
In recent years, the silicon-based optical phased array has been widely used in the field of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) due to its great solid-state steering ability. At the same time, the optical phased array transceiver integration scheme provides a feasible solution [...] Read more.
In recent years, the silicon-based optical phased array has been widely used in the field of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) due to its great solid-state steering ability. At the same time, the optical phased array transceiver integration scheme provides a feasible solution for low-cost information exchange of small devices in the future. Based on this, this paper designs a two-dimensional optical phased array transceiver with high efficiency and a large field of view, which can realize a dense array with antenna spacing of 5.5 μm × 5.5 μm by using low crosstalk waveguide wiring. Additionally, it can realize the conversion between the receiving mode and the transmitting mode by using the optical switch. The simulation results show that the scanning range of 16.3° × 16.3° can be achieved in the transmitting mode, and the overall loss is lower than 10dB. In the receiving mode, we can achieve a collection efficiency of more than 27%, and the antenna array receiving loss is lower than 12.1 dB. Full article
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11 pages, 7031 KiB  
Article
Redirecting Incident Light with Mie Resonance-Based Coatings
by Alexander A. Shklyaev, Dmitrii E. Utkin, Zhu Zheng and Andrei V. Tsarev
Photonics 2023, 10(11), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10111286 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
The efficiency of thin film photoelectric devices can be improved by redirecting incident electromagnetic radiation along their surface layers. Redirection can be achieved using antireflection coatings made of subwavelength dielectric particle arrays. In this study, we fabricate such coatings, consisting of Ge particles [...] Read more.
The efficiency of thin film photoelectric devices can be improved by redirecting incident electromagnetic radiation along their surface layers. Redirection can be achieved using antireflection coatings made of subwavelength dielectric particle arrays. In this study, we fabricate such coatings, consisting of Ge particles on quartz glass substrates via solid-state dewetting, transforming thin Ge films into compact particles. Using optically transparent substrates, we measure reflection and transmission spectra and determine absorption spectra, showing that substrates coated with Ge particles absorb much more strongly than substrates coated with continuous Ge films. The spectra obtained using objective lenses with different aperture angles indicate that scattered radiation is predominantly directed at glancing angles to the substrate surface. The lateral propagation of scattered radiation is the result of destructive interference, which suppresses both reflected and transmitted radiation. Full article
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15 pages, 5491 KiB  
Article
An Investigation on the Use of Au@SiO2@Au Nanomatryoshkas as Gap-Enhanced Raman Tags
by Brinton King Eldridge, Saghar Gomrok, James W. Barr, Elise Anne Chaffin, Lauren Fielding, Christian Sachs, Katie Stickels, Paiton Williams and Yongmei Wang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(21), 2893; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13212893 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Gap-enhanced Raman tags are a new type of optical probe that have wide applications in sensing and detection. A gap-enhanced Raman tag is prepared by embedding Raman molecules inside a gap between two plasmonic metals such as an Au core and Au shell. [...] Read more.
Gap-enhanced Raman tags are a new type of optical probe that have wide applications in sensing and detection. A gap-enhanced Raman tag is prepared by embedding Raman molecules inside a gap between two plasmonic metals such as an Au core and Au shell. Even though placing Raman molecules beneath an Au shell seems counter-intuitive, it has been shown that such systems produce a stronger surface-enhanced Raman scattering response due to the strong electric field inside the gap. While the theoretical support of the stronger electric field inside the gap was provided in the literature, a comprehensive understanding of how the electric field inside the gap compares with that of the outer surface of the particle was not readily available. We investigated Au@SiO2@Au nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 35 nm to 70 nm with varying shell (2.5–10 nm) and gap (2.5–15 nm) thicknesses and obtained both far-field and near-field spectra. The extinction spectra from these particles always have two peaks. The low-energy peak redshifts with the decreasing shell thickness. However, when the gap thickness decreases, the low-energy peaks first blueshift and then redshift, producing a C-shape in the peak position. For every system we investigated, the near-field enhancement spectra were stronger inside the gap than on the outer surface of the nanoparticle. We find that a thin shell combined with a thin gap will produce the greatest near-field enhancement inside the gap. Our work fills the knowledge gap between the exciting potential applications of gap-enhanced Raman tags and the fundamental knowledge of enhancement provided by the gap. Full article
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13 pages, 3090 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cs+ Doping on the Carrier Dynamics of MAPbI3 Perovskite
by Menghan Duan, Yunpeng Wang, Pingli Zhang and Luchao Du
Materials 2023, 16(17), 6064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16176064 - 04 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Organic inorganic perovskite materials have received increasing attention in the optoelectronic field because of their unique properties. The ultrafast dynamics of photogenerated carriers determine photoelectric conversion efficiency, thus, it is feasible to influence the dynamics behavior of photogenerated carriers by regulating A-site cations. [...] Read more.
Organic inorganic perovskite materials have received increasing attention in the optoelectronic field because of their unique properties. The ultrafast dynamics of photogenerated carriers determine photoelectric conversion efficiency, thus, it is feasible to influence the dynamics behavior of photogenerated carriers by regulating A-site cations. This paper mainly used transient absorption spectra (TAS) technology to study the photogenerated carriers relaxation processes of organic–inorganic perovskite CsxMA1−xPbI3 materials at different x values. Three sets of time constants were obtained by global fitting at different values of x. The experimental results showed that the crystal structure of perovskite could be affected by adjusting the Cs+ doping amount, thereby regulating the carrier dynamics. The appropriate amount of A-cation doping not only maintained the organic–inorganic perovskite crystal phase, but also prolonged the photogenerated carrier’s lifetime. The 10% Cs+ doping CsxMA1−xPbI3 perovskite has potential for solar cell applications. We hope that our research can provide dynamics support for the development of organic–inorganic perovskite in solar cells. Full article
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10 pages, 2066 KiB  
Article
Cap Layer Effect on Key Features of Persistent Photoconductivity Spectra in HgTe/CdHgTe Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
by Mikhail K. Sotnichuk, Aleksei S. Kazakov, Ilya D. Nikolaev, Konstantin A. Drozdov, Roman V. Menshchikov, Sergey A. Dvoretsky, Nikolay N. Mikhailov, Dmitry R. Khokhlov and Anton V. Ikonnikov
Photonics 2023, 10(8), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10080877 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) spectra of HgTe/CdHgTe heterostructures with double quantum wells with different cap layers have been studied in the radiation excitation range 0.62–3.1 eV. We have shown that the material of the cap layer defines key features of the PPC spectra—local extrema—and [...] Read more.
Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) spectra of HgTe/CdHgTe heterostructures with double quantum wells with different cap layers have been studied in the radiation excitation range 0.62–3.1 eV. We have shown that the material of the cap layer defines key features of the PPC spectra—local extrema—and their origin. An unusual oscillatory behavior of the PPC spectra is demonstrated. Such a behavior is shown to be independent of both cap and barrier layers. Full article
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10 pages, 4061 KiB  
Communication
Polarized Luminescence of Bismuth Active Centers in Phosphosilicate Glasses
by Alexander V. Elopov, Konstantin E. Riumkin, Fedor V. Afanasiev, Sergey V. Alyshev, Alexander V. Kharakhordin, Aleksandr M. Khegai, Elena G. Firstova, Sergei V. Firstov, Konstantin N. Nishchev and Mikhail A. Melkumov
Photonics 2023, 10(8), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10080860 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 808
Abstract
The polarization properties of bismuth active centers (BACs) are important for many applications of bismuth-doped fibers, but they are still lacking in study. In this paper, we present the measurements of polarized luminescence (PL) of the BACs formed in a Bi-doped phosphosilicate glass [...] Read more.
The polarization properties of bismuth active centers (BACs) are important for many applications of bismuth-doped fibers, but they are still lacking in study. In this paper, we present the measurements of polarized luminescence (PL) of the BACs formed in a Bi-doped phosphosilicate glass matrix. This research was performed on phosphosilicate fiber preforms used for the drawing of active bismuth-doped fibers for efficient optical amplifiers and lasers. The degree of polarization (DOP) of luminescence of the BACs associated with phosphorus and silica (BAC-P and BAC-Si) is provided and discussed. The DOP of luminescence at the 1320 nm wavelength appeared to be around 19%, 0% and 7.5% for pumps at 1240 nm, 762 nm and 425 nm, respectively. The DOP of PL caused by resonant excitation may be described in terms of a model of a partially anisotropic oscillator with the parameters represented by the principal axes of an ellipsoid. For the resonant excitation at 1240 nm, the ratio of the major principal axis to the minor one turned out to be 5.1 and 3.0 for BAC-P and BAC-Si, respectively. Full article
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18 pages, 8000 KiB  
Article
Iridium-Based Nanohybrids: Synthesis, Characterization, Optical Limiting, and Nonlinear Optical Properties
by Nikolaos Chazapis, Michalis Stavrou, Georgia Papaparaskeva, Alexander Bunge, Rodica Turcu, Theodora Krasia-Christoforou and Stelios Couris
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(14), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13142131 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
The present work reports on the synthesis and characterization of iridium (Ir)-based nanohybrids with variable chemical compositions. More specifically, highly stable polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanohybrids of the PVP-IrO2 and PVP-Ir/IrO2 types, as well as non-coated Ir/IrO2 nanoparticles, are synthesized using different [...] Read more.
The present work reports on the synthesis and characterization of iridium (Ir)-based nanohybrids with variable chemical compositions. More specifically, highly stable polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanohybrids of the PVP-IrO2 and PVP-Ir/IrO2 types, as well as non-coated Ir/IrO2 nanoparticles, are synthesized using different synthetic protocols and characterized in terms of their chemical composition and morphology via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), respectively. Furthermore, their nonlinear optical (NLO) response and optical limiting (OL) efficiency are studied by means of the Z-scan technique, employing 4 ns laser pulses at 532 and 1064 nm. The results demonstrate that the PVP-Ir/IrO2 and Ir/IrO2 systems exhibit exceptional OL performance, while PVP-IrO2 presents very strong saturable absorption (SA) behavior, indicating that the present Ir-based nanohybrids could be strong competitors to other nanostructured materials for photonic and optoelectronic applications. In addition, the findings denote that the variation in the content of IrO2 nanoparticles by using different synthetic pathways significantly affects the NLO response of the studied Ir-based nanohybrids, suggesting that the choice of the appropriate synthetic method could lead to tailor-made NLO properties for specific applications in photonics and optoelectronics. Full article
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18 pages, 4866 KiB  
Article
Extinction and Independent Scattering Criterion for Clusters of Spherical Particles Embedded in Absorbing Host Media
by Jinan Zhai, Shangyu Zhang and Linhua Liu
Photonics 2023, 10(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10070782 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
In practical applications, the independent scattering approximation (ISA) is widely used to analyze light transfer in nanoparticle systems. However, the traditional independent scattering criterion is obtained under the assumption that the host medium surrounding particles is nonabsorbing, and thus may be invalid in [...] Read more.
In practical applications, the independent scattering approximation (ISA) is widely used to analyze light transfer in nanoparticle systems. However, the traditional independent scattering criterion is obtained under the assumption that the host medium surrounding particles is nonabsorbing, and thus may be invalid in certain circumstances. In this work, to explore the applicability of the ISA for small particles in absorbing host media, we calculate the extinction efficiency of particle clusters by direct solutions of macroscopic Maxwell equations. Using the far-field and distance-independent definitions of extinction, the computational efficiency multi-sphere method is applied for particle clusters in absorbing host, and its accuracy is verified with the discrete dipole approximation method. It is well known that for small particles, the dependent scattering in transparent host always enhances the extinction of the cluster and the criterion for the ISA is nearly independent of the particle refractive index and particle size. We show, however, that when the host medium is absorbing, the dependent scattering between particles can lead to a decreased or even negative extinction, and thus the ISA criterion depends on the particle refractive index, size, and host medium absorption index. In this result, the generalized criteria for absorbing host media may differ significantly from the conventional ones for transparent host media. The results can provide guidance in solving problems related to light transfer in nanoparticle systems, particularly in the presence of absorption in the host medium. Full article
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7 pages, 2424 KiB  
Communication
Correlation between the Surface Undulation and Luminescence Characteristics in Semi-Polar 112¯2 InGaN/GaN Multi-Quantum Wells
by Mi-Hyang Sheen, Yong-Hee Lee, Jongjin Jang, Jongwoo Baek, Okhyun Nam, Cheol-Woong Yang and Young-Woon Kim
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(13), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13131946 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Surface undulation was formed while growing InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells on a semi-polar m-plane (1–100) sapphire substrate. Two distinct facets, parallel to 112¯2 and 011¯1, were formed in the embedded multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The structural and luminescence [...] Read more.
Surface undulation was formed while growing InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells on a semi-polar m-plane (1–100) sapphire substrate. Two distinct facets, parallel to 112¯2 and 011¯1, were formed in the embedded multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The structural and luminescence characteristics of the two facets were investigated using transmission electron microscopy equipped with cathodoluminescence. Those well-defined quantum wells, parallel and slanted to the growth plane, showed distinct differences in indium incorporation from both the X-ray yield and the contrast difference in annular darkfield images. Quantitative measurements of concentration in 011¯1 MQWs show an approximately 4 at% higher indium incorporation compared to the corresponding 112¯2 when the MQWs were formed under the same growth condition. Full article
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11 pages, 6418 KiB  
Communication
Polarization Selective Broad/Triple Band Absorber Based on All-Dielectric Metamaterials in Long Infrared Regime
by Haotian Zou, Bo Ni, Hua Zhou, Haibin Ni, Guohuan Hua and Jianhua Chang
Photonics 2023, 10(5), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10050587 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
In this paper, a polarization selective broad/triple-band metamaterial absorber based on SiO2 all-dielectric is designed and studied. The absorber works in a long infrared band (8–14 μm). It is composed of cuboid and trapezoidal silica structures in the upper layer and metal [...] Read more.
In this paper, a polarization selective broad/triple-band metamaterial absorber based on SiO2 all-dielectric is designed and studied. The absorber works in a long infrared band (8–14 μm). It is composed of cuboid and trapezoidal silica structures in the upper layer and metal plates in the lower layer. We calculate the absorption results of the metamaterial absorber at different polarization angles as the polarization angle of incident light increases from 0° to 90°; that is, the light changes from Ex polarization to Ey polarization. The results show that the absorption rate of the structure is more than 90% in the range of 8.16 to 9.61 μm when the polarization angle is 0°. When the polarization angle of the incident light is less than 45°, the absorption result of the absorber does not change significantly. When the polarization angle of the incident light is greater than 45°, three absorption peaks appear in the long infrared band, realizing the selectivity of the polarization of the incident light. When the polarization angle increases to 90°, the absorptivity of the two absorption peaks at λ = 9.7 μm and 12.3 μm reaches more than 85%. In addition, the sensitivity analysis of the length, width, and thickness of the all-dielectric metamaterial absorber and the calculation of the electric field of this structure are also carried out. The designed all-dielectric metamaterial absorber has polarization selection and perfect absorption characteristics and has a broad application prospect. Full article
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12 pages, 5430 KiB  
Article
Efficient Second- and Third-Harmonic Generations in Er3+/Fe2+-Doped Lithium Niobate Single Crystal with Engineered Surficial Cylindrical Hole Arrays
by Caixia Xu, Hongli Wu, Yanwei He and Long Xu
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(10), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13101639 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Herein, significant enhancement of second- and third-harmonic generation efficiencies in a 1 mol% Er3+ and 0.07 mol% Fe2+-doped lithium niobate single-crystal plate were achieved after ablating periodic cylindrical pit arrays on the surface. Enhanced absorption and reduced transmittance of light [...] Read more.
Herein, significant enhancement of second- and third-harmonic generation efficiencies in a 1 mol% Er3+ and 0.07 mol% Fe2+-doped lithium niobate single-crystal plate were achieved after ablating periodic cylindrical pit arrays on the surface. Enhanced absorption and reduced transmittance of light were measured when the incident light signal passed through the patterned sample. Enhanced photoluminescence and two-photon-pumped upconversion emission spectra were also explored to obtain more details on the efficiency gains. The excitation-energy-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency was measured, and an enhancement as high as 20-fold was calculated. The conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation is 1 to 3 orders higher than that from other lithium niobite metasurfaces and nanoantennas. This work provides a convenient and effective method to improve the nonlinear conversion efficiency in a thin lithium niobite plate, which is desirable for applying to integrated optical devices. Full article
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20 pages, 2046 KiB  
Article
Extreme Refractive-, Diffractive- and Hybrid-Hyperchromats: Minimizing the Equivalent Abbe Number of a Two-Lens System
by Lukas Werner, Erik Förster, Matthias Kraus, Hartmut Hillmer and Robert Brunner
Photonics 2023, 10(5), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10050556 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the maximum chromatic axial split of two-element hyperchromats, with the distance between the two lenses being a key variable. Purely refractive and diffractive systems are considered, as well as hybrid layouts combining refractive and diffractive elements. [...] Read more.
This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the maximum chromatic axial split of two-element hyperchromats, with the distance between the two lenses being a key variable. Purely refractive and diffractive systems are considered, as well as hybrid layouts combining refractive and diffractive elements. In order to achieve extreme chromatic axial splitting and accordingly a minimum equivalent Abbe number for lens combinations, a three-step procedure was used. In the first paraxial step, purely optical quantities such as focal lengths of the lenses, inter-lens distances and dispersion properties of the lenses were investigated. In the second step, which also takes place in the paraxial domain, additional geometric boundary conditions such as the radii, diameters and thicknesses of the lenses are taken into account. The results of this step serve as an input for the final optimization using optical design software, which derives practical solutions for minimum equivalent Abbe numbers with diffraction-limited image quality. As a significant result, the comparison with directly cemented lens doublets shows that the introduction of a distance between the elements allows for a much stronger chromatic decomposition for refractive, diffractive and also hybrid combinations. Quantitatively, the minimum equivalent Abbe number for refractive systems is reduced from 2.5 (without spacing) to 1.79 (with spacing). For hybrid combinations, a corresponding reduction from 0.4 to 0.29 is achieved. Full article
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7 pages, 1022 KiB  
Communication
Two-Photon Absorption in Ca3(VO4)2 and Ca2.7Sr0.3(VO4)2 Crystals
by Igor O. Kinyaevskiy, Valery I. Kovalev, Nikita S. Semin, Pavel A. Danilov, Sergey I. Kudryashov, Andrey V. Koribut and Elizaveta E. Dunaeva
Photonics 2023, 10(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10040466 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 785
Abstract
Two-photon absorption has been systematically studied in Ca3(VO4)2 and Ca2.7Sr0.3(VO4)2 crystals, both of which are prospective nonlinear optical and laser host materials. A strong dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficients on [...] Read more.
Two-photon absorption has been systematically studied in Ca3(VO4)2 and Ca2.7Sr0.3(VO4)2 crystals, both of which are prospective nonlinear optical and laser host materials. A strong dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficients on the orientation of the laser beam polarization with respect to the optical c-axis of the crystals is revealed. The measured coefficients for perpendicular and parallel orientations were 50 ± 10 cm/TW and 19 ± 4 cm/TW in Ca3(VO4)2, and 18 ± 3 cm/TW and 10 ± 2 cm/TW in Ca2.7Sr0.3(VO4)2, respectively. Thus, to minimize optical losses caused by two-photon absorption, an orientation of Ca2.7Sr0.3(VO4)2 crystals with the laser beam polarization parallel to the crystal optical c-axis is preferred. Full article
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18 pages, 8477 KiB  
Article
Bifunctional Bicarbazole-Benzophenone-Based Twisted Donor–Acceptor–Donor Derivatives for Deep-Blue and Green OLEDs
by Prakalp Gautam, Shahnawaz, Iram Siddiqui, Dovydas Blazevicius, Gintare Krucaite, Daiva Tavgeniene, Jwo-Huei Jou and Saulius Grigalevicius
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(8), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13081408 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have played a vital role in showing tremendous technological advancements for a better lifestyle, due to their display and lighting technologies in smartphones, tablets, television, and automotive industries. Undoubtedly, OLED is a mainstream technology and, inspired by its advancements, [...] Read more.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have played a vital role in showing tremendous technological advancements for a better lifestyle, due to their display and lighting technologies in smartphones, tablets, television, and automotive industries. Undoubtedly, OLED is a mainstream technology and, inspired by its advancements, we have designed and synthesized the bicarbazole-benzophenone-based twisted donor–acceptor–donor (D-A-D) derivatives, namely DB13, DB24, DB34, and DB43, as bi-functional materials. These materials possess high decomposition temperatures (>360 °C) and glass transition temperatures (~125 °C), a high photoluminescence quantum yield (>60%), wide bandgap (>3.2 eV), and short decay time. Owing to their properties, the materials were utilized as blue emitters as well as host materials for deep-blue and green OLEDs, respectively. In terms of the blue OLEDs, the emitter DB13-based device outperformed others by showing a maximum EQE of 4.0%, which is close to the theoretical limit of fluorescent materials for a deep-blue emission (CIEy = 0.09). The same material also displayed a maximum power efficacy of 45 lm/W as a host material doped with a phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy)3. Furthermore, the materials were also utilized as hosts with a TADF green emitter (4CzIPN) and the device based on DB34 displayed a maximum EQE of 11%, which may be attributed to the high quantum yield (69%) of the host DB34. Therefore, the bi-functional materials that are easily synthesized, economical, and possess excellent characteristics are expected to be useful in various cost-effective and high-performance OLED applications, especially in displays. Full article
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16 pages, 4974 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Spatial Debris Material Classifying through a Hierarchical Clustering-Fuzzy C-Means Integration Approach
by Fengqi Guo, Jingping Zhu, Liqing Huang, Haoxiang Li, Jinxin Deng, Huilin Jiang and Xun Hou
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4754; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084754 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach for clustering spectral polarization data acquired from space debris using a fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm model based on hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using the Kosko subset measure formula. By [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel approach for clustering spectral polarization data acquired from space debris using a fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm model based on hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using the Kosko subset measure formula. By extracting characteristic parameters representing spectral polarization from laboratory test data of space debris samples, a characteristic matrix for clustering is determined. The clustering algorithm’s parameters are determined through a random selection of points in the external field. The resulting algorithm is applied to pixel-level clustering processing of spectral polarization images, with the clustering results rendered in color. The experimental results on field spectral polarization images demonstrate a classification accuracy of 96.92% for six types of samples, highlighting the effectiveness of the proposed approach for space debris detection and identification. The innovation of this study lies in the combination of HAC and FCM algorithms, using the former for preliminary clustering, and providing a more stable initial state for the latter, thereby improving the effectiveness, adaptability, accuracy, and robustness of the algorithm. Overall, this work provides a promising foundation for space debris classification and other related applications. Full article
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11 pages, 3563 KiB  
Article
Charge Injection and Energy Transfer of Surface-Engineered InP/ZnSe/ZnS Quantum Dots
by Jumi Park, Taehee Kim and Dongho Kim
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071159 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
Surface passivation is a critical aspect of preventing surface oxidation and improving the emission properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs). Recent studies have demonstrated the critical role of surface ligands in determining the performance of QD-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). Herein, the underlying mechanism [...] Read more.
Surface passivation is a critical aspect of preventing surface oxidation and improving the emission properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs). Recent studies have demonstrated the critical role of surface ligands in determining the performance of QD-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). Herein, the underlying mechanism by which the capping ligands of InP/ZnSe/ZnS QDs influence the brightness and lifetime of the QD-LEDs is investigated. The electrochemical results demonstrate that highly luminescent InP/ZnSe/ZnS QDs exhibit modulated charge injection depending on the length of the surface ligand chains: short alkyl chains on the ligands are favorable for charge transport to the QDs. In addition, the correlation between the spectroscopic and XRD analyses suggests that the length of the ligand chain tunes the ligand–ligand coupling strength, thereby controlling the inter-QD energy transfer dynamics. The present findings shed new light on the crucial role of surface ligands for InP/ZnSe/ZnS QD-LED applications. Full article
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11 pages, 2529 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Surface Nonlinearity Distribution on Second Harmonic Generation under Tightly Focused Beams
by Sergey Scherbak, Ilya Reshetov, Gennadiy Kan and Andrey Lipovskii
Photonics 2023, 10(4), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10040350 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
A thorough integral formulation describing the second harmonic generation under tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams for an arbitrary distribution of the nonlinear susceptibility over the surface of isotropic media was presented. We numerically simulated effects caused by the straight edge of [...] Read more.
A thorough integral formulation describing the second harmonic generation under tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams for an arbitrary distribution of the nonlinear susceptibility over the surface of isotropic media was presented. We numerically simulated effects caused by the straight edge of the nonlinear region. In particular, we demonstrated that the second harmonic radiation in the normal direction, which is forbidden in common cases of highly symmetrical nonlinear surfaces, is allowed in the presence of the edge. This is provided by χ(2)xzx-component of the second-order susceptibility. Full article
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15 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Facile Fabrication of Mixed–Cation FA1−XCsXPbI3 Perovskites Thin Films for Photodetector Applications
by Fenyun Wang, Pachaiyappan Murugan, Shunhong Dong, Xiaolu Zheng, Jiaxiu Man, Zhiyong Liu, Weibin Zhang, Ting Zhu and Hong-En Wang
Photonics 2023, 10(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10030312 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
Formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) perovskite has received great attention because of its distinct optoelectronic property, smaller band gap (~1.5 eV), and higher thermal stability than methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3). However, the efficient synthesis of such perovskite materials on a [...] Read more.
Formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) perovskite has received great attention because of its distinct optoelectronic property, smaller band gap (~1.5 eV), and higher thermal stability than methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3). However, the efficient synthesis of such perovskite materials on a large scale at a low cost remains a challenge. In this work, mixed-cation FA1−xCsxPbI3 thin films were directly prepared in an atmospheric environment with a high film formation rate, low material loss, low cost, and low requirements for experimental instruments and environment. The as-obtained FAPbI3 films exhibited excellent optoelectronic properties, showing promising applications in the photodetection field. Full article
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19 pages, 8706 KiB  
Article
Photophysical Properties of Bright Luminescent Polyethyleneimine@Carbon Nanodots and Their Application in White Light-Emitting Diodes
by Junming Zhang, Ailing Yang and Kang Zhang
Photonics 2023, 10(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10030262 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Highly fluorescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) have broad application prospects in optoelectronics, energy, biological imaging, and other fields because of their good solubility in water, adjustable photoluminescence (PL), low toxicity, good biocompatibility, and stable chemical properties. In this paper, polyethyleneimine@CNDs (PEI@CNDs) with unique excitation- [...] Read more.
Highly fluorescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) have broad application prospects in optoelectronics, energy, biological imaging, and other fields because of their good solubility in water, adjustable photoluminescence (PL), low toxicity, good biocompatibility, and stable chemical properties. In this paper, polyethyleneimine@CNDs (PEI@CNDs) with unique excitation- and concentration-dependent PL properties were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal approach. The morphology, structure, surface chemistry, photophysical properties, and stability of the PEI@CNDs were well probed. The PEI@CNDs solution at low concentration displayed blue PL with a quantum yield of 50.6%. As the concentrations of the PEI@CNDs increase, the PL colors changed from blue, cyan, and green, to greenish-yellow. At low concentration, the excitation-independent and excitation-dependent PL property is mainly caused by carbon core and surface state emission. However, at higher concentration, the quenched blue emission and enhanced green emission were found. This is mainly attributed to the aggregate-related inner filter effect, electron transfer, and surface states. Mixing 10.0 mg/mL of PEI@CNDs with polyvinyl alcohol can be used to construct composite films, which were combined with the blue light-emitting diode to construct white light-emitting diodes with white and warm white emissions. Full article
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9 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies on Solution-Processed OLED Devices: Optical Properties and Interfacial Layers
by Maria Gioti
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249077 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Τhe fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) from solution involves the major problem of stack integrity, setting the determination of the composition and the characteristics of the resulting interfaces prerequisite for the optimization of the growth processes and the achievement of high devices’ [...] Read more.
Τhe fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) from solution involves the major problem of stack integrity, setting the determination of the composition and the characteristics of the resulting interfaces prerequisite for the optimization of the growth processes and the achievement of high devices’ performance. In this work, a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) blend is used for the emissive layer (EML), poly-3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene; poly-styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used for a hole transport layer (HTL), and Poly(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethyl)-N-ethylammoinium-propyl-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluore-ne))dibromide (PFN-Br) for an electron transport layer (ETL) to produce the OLED device. All the layers are developed using the slot-die process, onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates, whereas Ag cathode was formed by ink-jet printing under ambient conditions. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed upon completion of the successive films’ growth, in sequential steps, for the multilayer OLED development. Ellipsometry analysis using different models demonstrate the degree of intermixing within the layers and provide information about the interfaces. These interfacial properties are correlated with the emission characteristics as well as the final performance of the OLED devices. Full article
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8 pages, 3997 KiB  
Communication
ZnCl2-Enhanced Intrinsic Luminescence of Tin Chlorophosphate Glasses
by Ting Wu, Yiting Tao, Panting Wang, Mingjun Zhao and Danping Chen
Photonics 2022, 9(12), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9120973 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
This communication reports the intrinsic luminescence of tin chlorophosphate glasses. The glass maintains the low melting point characteristics of tin fluorophosphate glasses, and exhibits a red-shifted and broadened excitation wavelength peak. Tin chlorophosphate glasses can exhibit a broadband luminescence of 400–700 nm under [...] Read more.
This communication reports the intrinsic luminescence of tin chlorophosphate glasses. The glass maintains the low melting point characteristics of tin fluorophosphate glasses, and exhibits a red-shifted and broadened excitation wavelength peak. Tin chlorophosphate glasses can exhibit a broadband luminescence of 400–700 nm under an excitation of 380–430 nm. Furthermore, the introduction of ZnCl2 into tin chlorophosphate glasses can considerably enhance the luminescence without affecting their low-melting characteristics. The luminescence intensity can be increased fourfold, with the enhancement attributed to the reduced visible absorption, improved dispersion of Sn2+ ions, and the energy exchange between Sn2+ and Zn2+ in the glasses owing to the addition of ZnCl2. Full article
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