Topic Editors

IMT Nord Europe, Institut Mines Télécom, University of Lille, Centre for Materials and Processes, F-59653 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France
Centre for Polymer and Material Technologies, Department of Materials, Textile and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark, 130, 9052 Ghent, Belgium

Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing

Abstract submission deadline
1 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
3023

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental and energy concerns and digitalization are currently profoundly reshaping the plastics and composites industry. Manufacturing processes and systems evolve accordingly in order to cost-effectively produce high-performance, high-quality, lightweight, and multifunctional parts with a reduced carbon footprint. All composites manufacturing and polymer processing technologies are concerned with this trend: liquid composite molding (e.g., resin transfer molding and resin infusion/vacuum infusion), automated lay-up (e.g., automated fiber placement and automated tape laying), filament winding, prepreg technology, pultrusion, autoclave, compression molding, film stacking, additive manufacturing/3D printing, injection molding, over-molding/back-molding, extrusion, blow molding, thermoforming, rotational molding, foaming, coating, preforming of textile reinforcement, joining/welding, and mold technologies (i.e. mold making and design).

This Topical Collection welcomes original research articles, state-of-the-art reviews, or short communications on the latest advances in composites manufacturing and plastics processing. Suggested contributions may address new process developments, modeling/simulation, monitoring/control, and performance or application issues, with either experimental or numerical approaches. All types of polymers (thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers) and fibers/fillers (glass, carbon, ceramic, mineral, and vegetal) are eligible, whether they come from recycled, bio-based, or fossil feedstocks. Multidisciplinarity is encouraged to cover emerging topics such as smart manufacturing, artificial intelligence applied to manufacturing, data-driven simulations, and digital twins.

Prof. Dr. Patricia Krawczak
Prof. Dr. Ludwig Cardon
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • polymer processing
  • composites manufacturing
  • joining and welding
  • additive manufacturing
  • process optimization, modelling, and simulation
  • manufacturing technology
  • smart manufacturing
  • digitalization and Industry 4.0
  • thermoplastic polymers and elastomers, thermosetting resins, and plastics
  • composite materials
  • nanocomposites
  • fibers, fillers, and textile reinforcement

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Fibers
fibers
3.9 7.0 2013 24.1 Days CHF 2000 Submit
Journal of Composites Science
jcs
3.3 4.5 2017 14.7 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
jmmp
3.2 5.5 2017 14.2 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Polymers
polymers
5.0 6.6 2009 13.7 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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15 pages, 5078 KiB  
Article
Machinability and Surface Properties of Cryogenic Poly(methyl methacrylate) Machined via Single-Point Diamond Turning
Materials 2024, 17(4), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040866 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), with a glass transition temperature (Tg) over 100 °C, shows good mechanical and optical properties and has broad applications after being machined with single-point diamond turning (SPDT) at room temperature. Because of the high Tg, current efforts mostly focus on [...] Read more.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), with a glass transition temperature (Tg) over 100 °C, shows good mechanical and optical properties and has broad applications after being machined with single-point diamond turning (SPDT) at room temperature. Because of the high Tg, current efforts mostly focus on optimizing machining parameters to improve workpiece precision without considering the modification of material properties. Cryogenic cooling has been proven to be an effective method in assisting ultra-precision machining for certain types of metals, alloys, and polymers, but has never been used for PMMA before. In this work, cryogenic cooling was attempted during the SPDT of PMMA workpieces to improve surface quality. The machinability and surface properties of cryogenically cooled PMMA were investigated based on the mechanical properties at corresponding temperatures. Nanoindentation tests show that, when temperature is changed from 25 °C to 0 °C, the hardness and Young’s modulus are increased by 37% and 22%, respectively. At these two temperature points, optimal parameters including spindle speed, feed rate and cut depth were obtained using Taguchi methods to obtain workpieces with high surface quality. The surface quality was evaluated based on the total height of the profile (Pt) and the arithmetic mean deviation (Ra). The measurement results show that the values of Pt and Ra of the workpiece machined at 0 °C are 124 nm and 6 nm, respectively, while the corresponding values of that machined at 25 °C are 291 nm and 11 nm. The test data show that cryogenic machining is useful for improving the form accuracy and reducing the surface roughness of PMMA. Moreover, the relationship between temperature, material properties and machinability weas established with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data and a theoretical model. This can explain the origin of the better surface quality of the cryogenic material. The basis of this is that temperature affects the viscoelasticity of the polymer and the corresponding mechanical properties due to relaxation. Then, the material property changes will affect surface profile formation during machining. The experimental results and theoretical analysis show that cryogenically cooled PMMA has good machinability and improved surface quality when using SPDT compared to that at ambient temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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23 pages, 10146 KiB  
Article
Experimental Characterization of Screw-Extruded Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polyamide: Design for Aeronautical Mould Preforms with Multiphysics Computational Guidance
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8010034 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
In this research work, the suitability of short carbon fibre-reinforced polyamide 6 in pellet form for printing an aeronautical mould preform with specific thermomechanical requirements is investigated. This research study is based on an extensive experimental characterization campaign, in which the principal mechanical [...] Read more.
In this research work, the suitability of short carbon fibre-reinforced polyamide 6 in pellet form for printing an aeronautical mould preform with specific thermomechanical requirements is investigated. This research study is based on an extensive experimental characterization campaign, in which the principal mechanical properties of the printed material are determined. Furthermore, the temperature dependency of the material properties is characterized by testing samples at different temperatures for bead printing and stacking directions. Additionally, the thermal properties of the material are characterized, including the coefficient of thermal expansion. Moreover, the influence of printing machine parameters is evaluated by comparing the obtained tensile moduli and strengths of several manufactured samples at room temperature. The results show that the moduli and strengths can vary from 78% to 112% and from 55% to 87%, respectively. Based on a real case study of its aeronautical use and on the experimental data from the characterization stage, a new mould design is iteratively developed with multiphysics computational guidance, considering 3D printing features and limitations. Specific design drivers are identified from the observed material’s thermomechanical performance. The designed mould, whose mass is reduced around 90% in comparison to that of the original invar design, is numerically proven to fulfil thermal and mechanical requirements with a high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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15 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Modeling of a Process Window for Tailored Reinforcements in Overmolding Processes
J. Compos. Sci. 2024, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs8020065 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
This study explores cost-effective and customized composite applications by strategically placing carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics in multi-material designs. The focus is on developing a model for the simultaneous processing of non-reinforced and reinforced thermoplastic layers, with the aim of identifying essential parameters to minimize [...] Read more.
This study explores cost-effective and customized composite applications by strategically placing carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics in multi-material designs. The focus is on developing a model for the simultaneous processing of non-reinforced and reinforced thermoplastic layers, with the aim of identifying essential parameters to minimize insert flow and ensure desired fiber orientation and positional integrity. The analysis involves an analytical solution for two layered power-law fluids in a squeeze flow setup, aiming to model the combined flow behavior of Newtonian and pseudo-plastic fluids, highlighting the impact of the non-Newtonian nature. The behavior reveals a non-linear trend in the radial flow ratio towards the logarithmic consistency index ratio compared to a linear trend for Newtonian fluids. While a plateau regime of consistency index ratios presents challenges in flow reduction for both layers, exceeding this ratio, depending on the height ratio of the layers, enables a viable overmolding process. Therefore, attention is required when selectively placing tailored composites with long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics or unidirectional reinforcements to avoid operating in the plateau region, which can be managed through appropriate cavity or tool designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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18 pages, 8299 KiB  
Article
Nanomaterial-Enhanced Sizings: Design and Optimisation of a Pilot-Scale Fibre Sizing Line
Fibers 2024, 12(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12020016 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 775
Abstract
This study focuses on the development of a pilot-scale sizing line, including its initial design and installation, operational phases, and optimization of key process parameters. The primary objective is the identification of critical parameters for achieving a uniform sizing onto the fibres and [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the development of a pilot-scale sizing line, including its initial design and installation, operational phases, and optimization of key process parameters. The primary objective is the identification of critical parameters for achieving a uniform sizing onto the fibres and the determination of optimal conditions for maximum production efficiency. This investigation focused on adjusting the furnace desizing temperature for the removal of commercial sizing, adjusting the drying temperature, as well as optimizing the corresponding residence time of carbon fibres passing through the furnaces. The highest production rate, reaching 1 m sized carbon fibres per minute, was achieved by employing a desizing temperature of 550 °C, a drying temperature of 250 °C, and a residence time of 1 min. Furthermore, a range of sizing solutions was investigated and formulated, exploring carbon-based nanomaterial types with different surface functionalizations and concentrations, to evaluate their impact on the surface morphology and mechanical properties of carbon fibres. In-depth analyses, including scanning electron microscopy and contact angle goniometry, revealed the achievement of a uniform coating on the carbon fibre surface, leading to an enhanced affinity between fibres and the polymeric epoxy matrix. The incorporation of nanomaterials, specifically N2-plasma-functionalized carbon nanotubes and few-layer graphene, demonstrated notable improvements in the interfacial shear properties (90% increase), verified by mechanical and push-out tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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20 pages, 15289 KiB  
Article
Processing and Analysis of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide Composite Structures Made by Fused Granular Fabrication and Automated Tape Laying
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8010025 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Fused granular fabrication (FGF) is a large format additive manufacturing (LFAM) technology and focuses on cost-effective granulate-based manufacturing by eliminating the need for semifinished filaments. This allows a faster production time and a broader range of usable materials for tailored composites. In this [...] Read more.
Fused granular fabrication (FGF) is a large format additive manufacturing (LFAM) technology and focuses on cost-effective granulate-based manufacturing by eliminating the need for semifinished filaments. This allows a faster production time and a broader range of usable materials for tailored composites. In this study, the mechanical and morphological properties of FGF test structures made of polyamid 6 reinforced with 40% of short carbon fibers were investigated. For this purpose, FGF test structures with three different parameter settings were produced. The FGF printed structures show generally significant anisotropic mechanical characteristics, caused by the layer-by-layer building process. To enhance the mechanical properties and reduce the anisotropic behavior of FGF structures, continuous unidirectional fiber-reinforced tapes (UD tapes), employing automated tape laying (ATL), were subsequently applied. Thus, a significant improvement in the flexural stiffness and strength of the manufactured FGF structures was observed by hybridization with 60% glass fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 UD tapes. Since the effectiveness of UD-tape reinforcement depends mainly on the quality of the bond between the UD tape and the FGF structure, the surface quality of the FGF structure, the interface morphology, and the tape-laying process parameters were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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