Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. En-Cheng Yang
Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National Ilan University, Yilan 260, Taiwan
Prof. Dr. Chi-Chung Peng
Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin, Taiwan
Department of Plant Medicine, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 600355, Taiwan
Dr. Ming-Cheng Wu
Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Maribor, Pivola 10, 2311 Hoče, Slovenia

Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Viewed by
40256

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is one of the most important pollinators for crop production. They also provide many high-value bee products around the world. Although the number of honeybee colonies has rapidly increased in the past few decades, honeybees continue to suffer as a result of serious environmental stress. This issue has brought to light a number of problems faced by apiculture:

1) The impacts of chemical residues or other environmental stresses on honeybees;

2) the pathogens and diseases of honeybees;

3) the decrease in pollinator populations and its impact on the quantity and diversity of the agriculture ecosystem in terms of impacts on humans;

and 4) the future of bee products and their benefit to humanity.

Fortunately, a wide range of studies have emerged aiming to further our understanding of the impact of environmental stress on apiculture. These studies have focused primarily on

1) the basic biology of honeybees;

2) the research of honeybee diseases and treatment strategies using surveillance and omics technologies;

3) the worldwide distribution and diversity of pollinators;

4) the development and functional assay of bee products

and 5) apitherapy.

As a team of honeybee researchers, we have organized the research topic “Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy”, which welcomes suitable research related to honeybee biology (basic research), bee products and their impacts on human health, pollinator diversity, and honeybee diseases.

Topics of interest could include, but are not limited to:

General topics:

  • Honeybee biology;
  • Bee products;
  • Apitherapy;
  • Pollinator diversity;
  • Honeybee diseases.

Specific Research Themes:

  • Production of new knowledge in bee biology, pathology, apiculture practices, disease diagnosis and control;
  • Biological response of individual honeybee and at the colony level;
  • Honeybee products, their characteristics, and their possible use;
  • New research approaches in the study of internal and external factors that distress honeybee biology, health, colonies management, and honeybee products’ quality and safety;
  • Studies of pathogens, pesticides, environmental and technological issues, and their interactions associated with applying epizootiology.

Prof. Dr. En-Cheng Yang
Prof. Dr. Yue-Wen Chen
Dr. Chi-Chung Peng
Dr. I-Hsin Sung
Dr. Ming-Cheng Wu
Dr. Yu-Shin Nai
Prof. Dr. Aleš Gregorc
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Animals
animals
3.0 4.2 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400
Antioxidants
antioxidants
7.0 8.8 2012 13.9 Days CHF 2900
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900
Insects
insects
3.0 4.2 2010 17 Days CHF 2600
Life
life
3.2 2.7 2011 17.5 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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17 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Parameters, Antioxidant Capacity, and Antimicrobial Activity of Honeys from Tropical Forests of Colombia: Apis mellifera and Melipona eburnea
by Isabel Cristina Zapata-Vahos, Juan Camilo Henao-Rojas, Diana Paola Yepes-Betancur, Daniela Marín-Henao, Carlos Eduardo Giraldo Sánchez, Samir Julián Calvo-Cardona, Dorely David and Mario Quijano-Abril
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051001 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Honey is a functional food used worldwide and recognized for its multiple health benefits. In the present study, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of honey produced by two species of bees (Melipona eburnea and Apis mellifera) in two seasons were evaluated. [...] Read more.
Honey is a functional food used worldwide and recognized for its multiple health benefits. In the present study, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of honey produced by two species of bees (Melipona eburnea and Apis mellifera) in two seasons were evaluated. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of honey against three bacterial strains was studied. The quality of honey analyzed by LDA (linear discriminant analysis) showed four clusters mediated by the interaction, the bee species, and the collection season resulting from a multivariate function of discrimination. The physicochemical properties of the honey produced by A. mellifera met the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius, while the M. eburnea honey had moisture values outside the established ranges of the Codex. Antioxidant activity was higher in the honey of A. mellifera, and both kinds of honey showed inhibitory activity against S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 9118. E. coli ATCC 25922 showed resistance to the analyzed honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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8 pages, 1127 KiB  
Communication
Linking Histone Methylation States and hsp Transcriptional Regulation in Thermo-Tolerant and Thermo-Susceptible A. mellifera L. Subspecies in Response to Heat Stress
by Yehya Z. Alattal and Ahmad A. Alghamdi
Insects 2023, 14(3), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030225 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Genetic and epigenetic responses to environmental cues of worker honeybees mediate hsp synthesis, a key mechanism to tolerate high ambient temperatures in Apis mellifera. In this study, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay followed by qPCR were used to determine alterations in histone methylation states [...] Read more.
Genetic and epigenetic responses to environmental cues of worker honeybees mediate hsp synthesis, a key mechanism to tolerate high ambient temperatures in Apis mellifera. In this study, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay followed by qPCR were used to determine alterations in histone methylation states (H3K27me2, H3K27me3, H3K4me2, and H3K4me3) associated with hsp/hsc/trx in A. m. jemenetica (thermo-tolerant subspecies) and A. m. carnica (thermo-susceptible subspecies) after heat treatment. The results revealed significant changes in enrichment folds of histone methylation states associated with hsp/hsc/trx. Indeed, the enrichment of H3K27me2 decreased strongly in response to heat stress. Changes in histone methylation states were significantly higher in A. m. carnica samples compared to A. m. jemenitica samples. Our study provides a new perception on linking histone post-translational methylation as an epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation with hsp/hsc/trx in A. mellifera subspecies exposed to heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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15 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Imidacloprid Pesticide Causes Unexpectedly Severe Bioelement Deficiencies and Imbalance in Honey Bees Even at Sublethal Doses
by Jerzy Paleolog, Jerzy Wilde, Marek Gancarz, Dariusz Wiącek, Agnieszka Nawrocka and Aneta Strachecka
Animals 2023, 13(4), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040615 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Pesticides impair honeybee health in many ways. Imidacloprid (IMD) is a pesticide used worldwide. No information exists on how IMD impact the bees’ body bioelement balance, which is essential for bee health. We hypothesized that IMD disturbs this balance and fed the bees [...] Read more.
Pesticides impair honeybee health in many ways. Imidacloprid (IMD) is a pesticide used worldwide. No information exists on how IMD impact the bees’ body bioelement balance, which is essential for bee health. We hypothesized that IMD disturbs this balance and fed the bees (in field conditions) with diets containing 0 ppb (control), 5 ppb (sublethal considered field-relevant), and 200 ppb (adverse) doses of IMD. IMD severely reduced the levels of K, Na, Ca, and Mg (electrolytic) and of Fe, Mo, Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, Se, and Zn, while those of Sn, V, and Cr (enzymatic) were increased. Levels of P, S, Ti, Al, Li, and Sr were also decreased, while only the B content (physiologically essential) was increased. The increase in Tl, Pb, and As levels (toxic) was alarming. Generally, IMD, even in sublethal doses, unexpectedly led to severe bioelement malnutrition in 69% of bioelements and to a stoichiometric mismatch in the remaining ones. This points to the IMD-dependent bioelement disturbance as another, yet unaccounted for, essential metabolic element which can interfere with apian health. Consequently, there is a need for developing methods of bioelement supplementation of the honey bee diet for better preventing bee colony decline and protecting apian health status when faced with pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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12 pages, 1686 KiB  
Article
A Novel Variant of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) from the Invasive Honeybee Apis florea (Apidae, Hymenoptera) and Its Ectoparasite Euvarroa sinhai (Acarina, Mesostigmata) in Taiwan
by Jin-Xuan Tian, Wen-Shi Tsai and I-Hsin Sung
Insects 2023, 14(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14020103 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2056
Abstract
The invasion of Apis florea in Taiwan was first recorded in 2017. The deformed wing virus (DWV) has been identified as a common bee virus in apiculture around the world. Ectoparasitic mites are the main DWV vector for horizontal transmission. However, there are [...] Read more.
The invasion of Apis florea in Taiwan was first recorded in 2017. The deformed wing virus (DWV) has been identified as a common bee virus in apiculture around the world. Ectoparasitic mites are the main DWV vector for horizontal transmission. However, there are few studies about the ectoparasitic mite of Euvarroa sinhai, which has been found in A. florea. In this study, the prevalence of DWV among four hosts, including A. florea, Apis mellifera, E. sinhai, and Varroa destructor, was determined. The results showed that a high DWV-A prevalence rate in A. florea, ranging from 69.2% to 94.4%, was detected. Additionally, the genome of DWV isolates was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on the complete polyprotein sequence. Furthermore, isolates from A. florea and E. sinhai both formed a monophyletic group for the DWV-A lineage, and the sequence identity was 88% between the isolates and DWV-A reference strains. As noted above, two isolates could be the novel DWV strain. It cannot be excluded that novel DWV strains could pose an indirect threat to sympatric species, such as A. mellifera and Apis cerana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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13 pages, 1368 KiB  
Article
Antitumor Effects of Poplar Propolis on DLBCL SU-DHL-2 Cells
by Xiaoqing Liu, Yuanyuan Tian, Ao Yang, Chuang Zhang, Xiaoqing Miao and Wenchao Yang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020283 - 7 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
Propolis is resinous natural product produced by Western honeybees using beeswax and plant and bud exudates, which has a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidation, antibacterial, anti-inflammation, immune regulation, antitumor, and so on. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer, [...] Read more.
Propolis is resinous natural product produced by Western honeybees using beeswax and plant and bud exudates, which has a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidation, antibacterial, anti-inflammation, immune regulation, antitumor, and so on. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer, and accounts for about 30% of all lymphomas. The effect of poplar propolis on DLBCL has not been reported. The IC50 of propolis on the proliferation of DLBCL SU-DHL-2 cell line and its proteins and gene expressions were detected by CCK-8 kit, label-free proteomic, and RT-PCR. The results showed that the IC50 of propolis at the 5 × l05/mL cell for 24 h was 5.729 μg/mL. Label-free-based proteomics analysis showed that there were 115 differentially expressed proteins (61 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated proteins) between IC50 dose-treated and solvent control groups. There were 32.47% differential proteins located in the nucleus, 20.78% in the cytoplasm, and 14.29% in mitochondria. The most significant different pathway (p = 0.0016) of protein enrichment was ferroptosis (including glutamate–cysteine ligase regulatory subunit, ferritin, and heme oxygenase). The relative expression trend of 17 of the total 22 genes selected according to proteomics results was in line with their encoded protein. The highest protein–protein interaction was serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK, which interacted with 16 differential proteins. In conclusion, poplar propolis inhibited SU-DHL-2 cells via ferroptosis pathway, accelerating cell death and down-regulated serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1, affecting apoptosis of cell. This result provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of DLBCL using propolis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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15 pages, 4307 KiB  
Article
First Identification and Investigation of piRNAs in the Larval Gut of the Asian Honeybee, Apis cerana
by Qi Long, Ming-Hui Sun, Xiao-Xue Fan, Zong-Bing Cai, Kai-Yao Zhang, Si-Yi Wang, Jia-Xin Zhang, Xiao-Yu Gu, Yu-Xuan Song, Da-Fu Chen, Zhong-Min Fu, Rui Guo and Qing-Sheng Niu
Insects 2023, 14(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14010016 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), play pivotal roles in maintaining the genomic stability and modulating biological processes such as growth and development via the regulation of gene expression. However, the piRNAs in the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana [...] Read more.
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), play pivotal roles in maintaining the genomic stability and modulating biological processes such as growth and development via the regulation of gene expression. However, the piRNAs in the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) are still largely unknown at present. In this current work, on the basis of previously gained high-quality small RNA-seq datasets, piRNAs in the larval gut of Apis cerana cerana, the nominated species of A. cerana, were identified for the first time, followed by an in-depth investigation of the regulatory roles of differentially expressed piRNAs (DEpiRNAs) in the developmental process of the A. c. cerana. Here, a total of 621 piRNAs were identified in A. c. cerana larval guts, among which 499 piRNAs were shared by 4-(Ac4 group), 5-(Ac5 group), and 6-day-old (Ac6 group) larval guts, while the numbers of unique ones equaled 79, 37, and 11, respectively. The piRNAs in each group ranged from 24 nucleotides (nt) to 33 nt in length, and the first base of the piRNAs had a cytosine (C) bias. Additionally, five up-regulated and five down-regulated piRNAs were identified in the Ac4 vs. Ac5 comparison group, nine of which could target 9011 mRNAs; these targets were involved in 41 GO terms and 137 pathways. Comparatively, 22 up-regulated piRNAs were detected in the Ac5 vs. Ac6 comparison group, 21 of which could target 28,969 mRNAs; these targets were engaged in 46 functional terms and 164 pathways. The results suggested an overall alteration of the expression pattern of piRNAs during the developmental process of A. c. cerana larvae. The regulatory network analysis showed that piR-ace-748815 and piR-ace-512574 in the Ac4 vs. Ac5 comparison group as well as piR-ace-716466 and piR-ace-828146 in the Ac5 vs. Ac6 comparison group were linked to the highest number of targets. Further investigation indicated that targets of DEpiRNAs in the abovementioned two comparison groups could be annotated to several growth and development-associated pathways, such as the Jak/STAT, TGF-β, and Wnt signaling pathways, indicating the involvement of DEpiRNAs in modulating larval gut development via these crucial pathways. Moreover, the expression trends of six randomly selected DEpiRNAs were verified using a combination of stem-loop RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. These results not only provide a novel insight into the development of the A. c. cerana larval gut, but also lay a foundation for uncovering the epigenetic mechanism underlying larval gut development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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8 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Genetic Structure of Apis cerana Populations from South Korea, Vietnam and the Russian Far East Based on Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism
by Milyausha Kaskinova, Luisa Gaifullina, Rustem Ilyasov, Arkady Lelej, Hyung Wook Kwon, Pham Hong Thai and Elena Saltykova
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121174 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
In this article, we present the results of the genetic analysis of Apis cerana samples from the Russian Far East, South Korea and Vietnam. An analysis of the polymorphism of seven microsatellite loci and an assessment of the haplotype diversity of the mtDNA [...] Read more.
In this article, we present the results of the genetic analysis of Apis cerana samples from the Russian Far East, South Korea and Vietnam. An analysis of the polymorphism of seven microsatellite loci and an assessment of the haplotype diversity of the mtDNA tRNAleu-COII locus were performed. A fragment of about 431 bp in tRNAleu-COII was sequenced. The analysis showed the presence of 14 haplotypes, while the predominant haplotype was Japan1. Microsatellite data revealed two differentiated clusters. The first cluster contained tropical climate A. cerana samples from Vietnam, and the second cluster combined temperate climate A. cerana samples from the Russian Far East and South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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12 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Cultivation of Vairimorpha (Nosema) ceranae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in Artificially Infected Worker Bees
by Anastasia N. Ignatieva, Sergey A. Timofeev, Yuri S. Tokarev and Viacheslav V. Dolgikh
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121092 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Nosemosis type C is a dangerous and widespread disease of the adult European honey bee Apis mellifera and is caused by the spore-forming intracellular parasite Vairimorpha (Nosema) ceranae. The search for new ways of therapy for this disease is complicated due to [...] Read more.
Nosemosis type C is a dangerous and widespread disease of the adult European honey bee Apis mellifera and is caused by the spore-forming intracellular parasite Vairimorpha (Nosema) ceranae. The search for new ways of therapy for this disease is complicated due to the seasonal availability of V. ceranae-infected insects as well as the lack of a developed system for the pathogen’s cultivation. By carrying out trials which used different infectious dosages of the parasite, spore storage protocols, host age, and incubation temperatures, we present a simple, safe, and efficient method of V. ceranae propagation in artificially infected worker bees in the laboratory. The method is based on feeding the groups of adult worker bees with microsporidian spores and insect maintenance in plastic bottles at 33 °C. The source of the spores originated from the cadavers of infected insects from the previous round of cultivation, in which the infective spores persist for up to six months. An analysis of five independent cultivation rounds involving more than 2500 bees showed that the proposed protocol exploiting the dosage of one million spores per bee yielded over 60 million V. ceranae spores per bee, and most of the spore samples can be isolated from living insects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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14 pages, 1014 KiB  
Article
Analysis of 18 Free Amino Acids in Honeybee and Bumblebee Honey from Eastern and Northern Europe and Central Asia Using HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS Approach Bypassing Derivatization Step
by Fredijs Dimins, Ingmars Cinkmanis, Vitalijs Radenkovs, Ingrida Augspole and Anda Valdovska
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182744 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
The profile of amino acids and mono- and disaccharides in conventional polyfloral honey originated from Latvia and Tajikistan and less found in nature bumblebee honey from Russia was investigated. The analysis of free amino acids (FAAs) accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using [...] Read more.
The profile of amino acids and mono- and disaccharides in conventional polyfloral honey originated from Latvia and Tajikistan and less found in nature bumblebee honey from Russia was investigated. The analysis of free amino acids (FAAs) accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using triple quadrupole mass selective detection (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) revealed the presence of 17 FAAs. The concentration of FAAs varied in the range of 0.02–44.41 mg 100 g−1 FW. Proline was the main representative of FAAs, contributing to the total amount of FAAs from 41.7% to 80.52%. The highest concentration of proline was found in bumblebee and buckwheat honey, corresponding to 44.41 and 41.02 mg 100 g−1, respectively. The concentration of essential amino acids (AAs), i.e., leucine, and isoleucine was found to be the highest in buckwheat honey contributing up to 12.5% to the total amount of FAAs. While, the concentration of branched-chain AAs fluctuated within the range of 1.08–31.13 mg 100 g−1 FW, with buckwheat honey having the highest content and polyfloral honey the lowest, respectively. The results of this study confirmed the abundance of FAAs both in honeybee and bumblebee honey. However, the concentration of individual FAAs, such as proline, aspartic acid, leucine, and isoleucine in bumblebee honey was many folds higher than observed in honeybee polyfloral honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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20 pages, 4703 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome of Nosema ceranae and Upregulated Microsporidia Genes during Its Infection of Western Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
by Yi-Hsuan Li, Zih-Ting Chang, Ming-Ren Yen, Yu-Feng Huang, Tzu-Han Chen, Ju-Chun Chang, Ming-Cheng Wu, Yu-Liang Yang, Yue-Wen Chen and Yu-Shin Nai
Insects 2022, 13(8), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080716 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
Nosema ceranae is one of the fungal parasites of Apis mellifera. It causes physical and behavioral effects in honey bees. However, only a few studies have reported on gene expression profiling during A. mellifera infection. In this study, the transcriptome profile of [...] Read more.
Nosema ceranae is one of the fungal parasites of Apis mellifera. It causes physical and behavioral effects in honey bees. However, only a few studies have reported on gene expression profiling during A. mellifera infection. In this study, the transcriptome profile of mature spores at each time point of infection (5, 10, and 20 days post-infection, d.p.i.) were investigated. Based on the transcriptome and expression profile analysis, a total of 878, 952, and 981 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ −2) were identified in N. ceranae spores (NcSp) at 5 d.p.i., 10 d.p.i., and 20 d.p.i., respectively. Moreover, 70 upregulated genes and 340 downregulated genes among common DEGs (so-called common DEGs) and 166 stage-specific genes at each stage of infection were identified. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the DEGs and corresponding common DEGs are involved in the functions of cytosol (GO:0005829), cytoplasm (GO:0005737), and ATP binding (GO:0005524). Furthermore, the pathway analysis found that the DEGs and common DEGs are involved in metabolism, environmental information processing, and organismal systems. Four upregulated common DEGs with higher fold-change values, highly associated with spore proteins and transcription factors, were selected for validation. In addition, the stage-specific genes are highly involved in the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing according to GO enrichment analysis; thus, three of them showed high expression at each d.p.i. and were also subjected to validation. The relative gene expression levels showed a similar tendency as the transcriptome predictions at different d.p.i., revealing that the gene expression of N. ceranae during infection may be related to the mechanism of gene transcription, protein synthesis, and structural proteins. Our data suggest that the gene expression profiling of N. ceranae at the transcriptomic level could be a reference for the monitoring of nosemosis at the genetic level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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10 pages, 1254 KiB  
Article
Expression of MRJP3 and HSP70 mRNA Levels in Apis mellifera L. Workers after Dietary Supplementation with Proteins, Prebiotics, and Probiotics
by Maria Carolina Paleari Varjão Oliveira, Eloisa Magalhaes Pereira, Maria Josiane Sereia, Érica Gomes Lima, Breno Gabriel Silva, Vagner Alencar Arnaut Toledo and Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki
Insects 2022, 13(7), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070571 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Royal jelly is an essential substance for the development of bees from larval to adult stages. Studies have identified a group of key proteins in royal jelly, denominated major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). The group currently consists of nine proteins (MRJP1–MRJP9), with MRJP1 [...] Read more.
Royal jelly is an essential substance for the development of bees from larval to adult stages. Studies have identified a group of key proteins in royal jelly, denominated major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). The group currently consists of nine proteins (MRJP1–MRJP9), with MRJP1 being the most abundant and MRJP3 being used as a microsatellite marker for the selection of queens with a greater production of royal jelly. The diet of bees is mostly composed of proteins, and supplementing this intake to encourage a higher production of their primary product is important for producers. It is estimated that, by adding probiotic and prebiotic organisms to their diets, the benefits to bees will be even greater, both for their immune systems and primary responses to stress. Circumstances that are adverse compared to those of the natural habitat of bees eventually substantially interfere with bee behavior. Stress situations are modulated by proteins termed heat shock proteins (HSPs). Among these, HSP70 has been shown to exhibit abundance changes whenever bees experience unusual situations of stress. Thus, we sought to supplement A. mellifera bee colony diets with proteins and prebiotic and probiotic components, and to evaluate the expression levels of MRJP3 and HSP70 mRNAs using qRT-PCR. The results revealed that differences in the expression of MRJP3 can be attributed to the different types of feed offered. Significant differences were evident when comparing the expression levels of MRJP3 and HSP70, suggesting that protein supplementation with pre/probiotics promotes positive results in royal jelly synthesis carried out by honey bee nurses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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9 pages, 666 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of the Fruit of Macaranga tanarius, the Plant Origin of Taiwanese Green Propolis
by Yi-Hsuan Chien, Yu-Hsiang Yu, Siou-Ru Ye and Yue-Wen Chen
Antioxidants 2022, 11(7), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11071242 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
Taiwanese green propolis (TGP) is widely used in traditional medicine and exerts a broad spectrum of biological activities, including those anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer in nature, resulting from an abundant level of functional propolins (prenylated flavanone) in the TGP. However, the plant origin of [...] Read more.
Taiwanese green propolis (TGP) is widely used in traditional medicine and exerts a broad spectrum of biological activities, including those anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer in nature, resulting from an abundant level of functional propolins (prenylated flavanone) in the TGP. However, the plant origin of TGP has not been clarified. In this study, we collected the surface material of Macaranga tanarius fruit and comparatively analyzed the chemical composition, antibacterial activity, and antioxidant activity with TGP. The results revealed that there was no difference between the chemical composition of the glandular trichome extract of M. tanarius and those in propolis. Moreover, M. tanarius fruit extract was enriched in propolins (C, D, F, and G) and effectively inhibited the growth of Gram-positive strains. Propolins, TGP, and M. tanarius fruit extract showed powerful free radical-scavenging and ferrous-reducing activity. Collectively, we have confirmed the plant source of TGP is M. tanarius, and this plant has the enormous potential to be developed as a pharmaceutical plant due to the potent biological activities and the high amount of functional propolins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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18 pages, 8561 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Characterization and Bioactivity of Different Honey Samples Collected in the Pre-Saharan Region in Algeria
by Safia Ben Amor, Scherazad Mekious, Leila Allal Benfekih, Magda H. Abdellattif, Walid Boussebaa, Faisal A. Almalki, Taibi Ben Hadda and Sarkar M. A. Kawsar
Life 2022, 12(7), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12070927 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3328
Abstract
Despite the challenging conditions in the pre-Saharan areas of Algeria, such as weak plant cover and a harsh climate, beekeeping is being developed and spread. In the present work, honey samples collected from ten locations in the El Oued region were examined during [...] Read more.
Despite the challenging conditions in the pre-Saharan areas of Algeria, such as weak plant cover and a harsh climate, beekeeping is being developed and spread. In the present work, honey samples collected from ten locations in the El Oued region were examined during the spring of 2021. A melissopalynological analysis was carried out, followed by a floristic investigation. The 10 honey samples were also investigated for their physicochemical properties and antioxidant and antibacterial activity against five strains: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilus, Listeria innocua, and Micrococcus luteus. The floristic analysis found 65 species belonging to 33 botanical families, with a dominance of the Asteraceae family accounting for 18.461% of the total. The melissopalynological study revealed only one monofloral honey (Ziziphus lotus), whereas the nine others were multi-floral. The honey’s color changed from light to dark amber, and most tested honey was of high quality, fulfilling international criteria. The total phenol and flavonoid contents varied considerably amongst the various honey samples. Furthermore, LC-MS-MS phenolic profile analysis identified the presence of 20 chemicals, of which only three phenols were found in all honey types. Antioxidant capacity analyzed with FRAP test and antiradical activities against DPPH differed from one honey sample to another. Moreover, a significant correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity, honey’s color, polyphenol, and flavonoid contents. The S. aureus strain was the most sensitive regarding honey antibacterial activity, while M. luteus and B. subtilis strains were only moderately sensitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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11 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
High-Quality Queens Produce High-Quality Offspring Queens
by Longtao Yu, Xinxin Shi, Xujiang He, Zhijiang Zeng, Weiyu Yan and Xiaobo Wu
Insects 2022, 13(5), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050486 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3038
Abstract
Honey bees, rather than rear queens with eggs and larvae from worker cells, prefer to rear new queens with eggs form queen cells, if available. This may be a result of long-term evolutionary process for honey bee colonies. However, the exact mechanism of [...] Read more.
Honey bees, rather than rear queens with eggs and larvae from worker cells, prefer to rear new queens with eggs form queen cells, if available. This may be a result of long-term evolutionary process for honey bee colonies. However, the exact mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. In this study, queens were reared with eggs from queen cells (F1-QE), eggs from worker cells (F1-WE), and two-day-old larvae from worker cells (F1-2L). Physiological indexes and the expression of the development-related genes ((Hexamerin (Hex110, Hex70b), Transferrin (Trf), and Vitellogenin (Vg)) of reared F1 generation queens were measured and compared. Furthermore, F2 generation queens were reared with one-day-old larvae from F1 queens, and the weight and ovariole count of reared F2 generation daughter queens were examined. Meanwhile, the expression of the development- and reproduction-related genes (Hex110, Hex70b, Trf, Vg, and Juvenile Hormone (Jh)) and immune detoxication-related genes (Hymenoptaecin, Abeacin, and CytP450) of reared F2 queens were further explored. We found that the F1-QE queens had the highest physiological indexes and higher Hex110 and Trf expression levels, while no significant difference was found in the expression of Hex70b and Vg among the three groups of F1 queens. In addition, the reared queens of F2-QE had the highest quality, with the highest development, reproduction, immune-detoxication genes’ expression levels. Our results revealed that the quality of reared offspring queens from high-quality mother queens was also high. These findings inform methods for rearing high-quality queens and highlight that a high-quality queen is essential for offspring colony growth and survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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9 pages, 2128 KiB  
Communication
Low-Level Fluvalinate Treatment in the Larval Stage Induces Impaired Olfactory Associative Behavior of Honey Bee Workers in the Field
by Chong-Yu Ko, Yu-Shin Nai, Wei Lo, Chun-Ting Chen and Yue-Wen Chen
Insects 2022, 13(3), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13030273 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
Fluvalinate is a widely used insecticide for varroa mite control in apiculture. While most beekeepers have ignored the effects of low levels of fluvalinate on bees, this study aims to demonstrate its effects at very low concentrations. We first used fluvalinate doses ranging [...] Read more.
Fluvalinate is a widely used insecticide for varroa mite control in apiculture. While most beekeepers have ignored the effects of low levels of fluvalinate on bees, this study aims to demonstrate its effects at very low concentrations. We first used fluvalinate doses ranging from 0.4 to 400 ng/larva to monitor the capping, pupation, and emergence rates of larval bees. Second, we used the honey bees’ proboscis extension reflex reaction to test the learning ability of adult bees that were exposed to fluvalinate doses from 0.004 to 4 ng/larva in the larval stage. The brood-capped rate of larvae decreased dramatically when the dose was increased to 40 ng/larva. Although no significant effect was observed on brood-capping, pupation, and eclosion rates with a dose of 4 ng/larva, we found that the olfactory associative behavior of adult bees was impaired when they were treated with sublethal doses from 0.004 to 4 ng/larva in the larval stage. These findings suggest that a sublethal dose of fluvalinate given to larvae affects the subsequent associative ability of adult honey bee workers. Thus, a very low dose may affect the survival conditions of the entire colony. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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12 pages, 375 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Emulsification Conditions on Ethanol Extract of Taiwanese Green Propolis Using Polysorbate and Its Immunomodulatory Effects in Broilers
by Felix Shih-Hsiang Hsiao, Clara Ajeng Artdita, Kuo-Feng Hua, Chia-Jung Tsai, Yi-Hsuan Chien, Yue-Wen Chen, Yeong-Hsiang Cheng and Yu-Hsiang Yu
Animals 2022, 12(4), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040446 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Beeswax and resin are the main components of propolis, both of which are hydrophobic. The use of emulsifiers helps to improve the extraction of active propolis compounds and makes them more widely used. In this study, we investigated the optimal parameters for the [...] Read more.
Beeswax and resin are the main components of propolis, both of which are hydrophobic. The use of emulsifiers helps to improve the extraction of active propolis compounds and makes them more widely used. In this study, we investigated the optimal parameters for the emulsification of Taiwanese green propolis (TGP) using different polysorbates (polysorbate-20, polysorbate-60, and polysorbate-80) and evaluated the effects on the immunomodulatory response in broilers. The results showed that 4 mg/mL of TGP in combination with 2% polysorbate-60 at 60 °C for 60 min significantly decreased the undissolved particle size of ethanol extract of TGP during the emulsification. The bioactive compounds of TGP, the propolins (C, D, F, G, and H), were also detected after emulsification. Supplementation of emulsified TGP (eTGP) in the drinking water of broilers before and after vaccination significantly enhanced the antibody titer response to infectious bronchitis virus at 28 days of age. In the lipopolysaccharide-challenged model, supplementation of eTGP in the drinking water of broilers decreased pro-inflammatory gene expression and increased anti-inflammatory gene expression. These results together suggested that the polysorbate-60 could effectively emulsify the ethanol extract of TGP. Moreover, eTGP could be used as a vaccine adjuvant and an immunomodulator to improve the immune response of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced in Honey Bee and Apitherapy)
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