Topic Editors

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Zoonosis Science Center, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
1. Freshwater and Fish Health Group, School of Veterinary and Life Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
2. Distinguished Professor in Aquatic Animal Health, Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran 79416-55665, Iran

Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 May 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 July 2022)
Viewed by
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animals play a significant role in human society, as well as in maintaining a balance in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Human beings not only depend on animals for their food (meat, milk, fur, etc.), but also for companionship.

In the agricultural production system, domestic animal diseases constitute major threats and cause considerable socioeconomic problems globally, among which are drug costs for the prevention of serious diseases, losses of animals, due to various infectious agents such as bacterial and viral pathogens, and the impact on food production of animal sources. Moreover, human health can be threatened by the zoonotic transmission of viruses (e.g., Lyssavirus, Avian influenza virus, ….) or bacteria (e.g., Brucella spp., Campylobacter spp.,…..), direct or indirect contact with infected animal/animal-products; in addition to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria of animal origin by consumption.

In addition, for aquatic animals, annual losses due to poor sanitation management and outbreaks of infectious diseases (some of which have zoonotic potential as well) have dramatically increased, especially during recent years, as the aquaculture sector has been rapidly expanding worldwide. Some diseases constitute major pressures on the industry, causing substantial socioeconomic problems worldwide. The impact of such as losses on food production with aquatic animal origin and threats on public health is highly significant globally.

This topic welcomes publications which focus on any aspect of animals’ (pigs, cattle, fish, shellfish, poultry, etc.) diseases in agricultural production systems, including endemic, exotic or zoonotic diseases, along with microbiological studies on their causative agents, and factors that affect animals’ susceptibility to infection including immunology or nutrition, which increases animals’ resistance to infection and enhances their growth and production performances.

Dr. Mahmoud M. Naguib
Prof. Dr. Mehdi Soltani
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • livestock
  • fish
  • animal diseases
  • diagnostic
  • prevention and control
  • zoonoses

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Animals
animals
3.0 4.2 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400
Veterinary Sciences
vetsci
2.4 2.3 2014 19.6 Days CHF 2600
Fishes
fishes
2.3 1.9 2016 15.7 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (45 papers)

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18 pages, 4198 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Transboundary Animal Diseases of Viral Origin in South Asia: What Needs to Be Done?
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(11), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9110586 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
Transboundary animal diseases (TADs) pose a serious threat to the sustainability and economic viability of the existing animal agriculture ecosystem in south Asia. The rapid spread of African swine fever and lumpy skin diseases in south Asia must be considered a wake-up call [...] Read more.
Transboundary animal diseases (TADs) pose a serious threat to the sustainability and economic viability of the existing animal agriculture ecosystem in south Asia. The rapid spread of African swine fever and lumpy skin diseases in south Asia must be considered a wake-up call to prevent the entry, spread, and establishment of new exotic TADs, as south Asia has the highest density of livestock populations, and it will have a huge socioeconomic impact. Regional cooperation for the prevention and control of TADs is necessary, but rational decisions should be made to initiate even sub-regional cooperation in the present geopolitical situation. Cross-border collaboration for surveillance, early warnings, and animal movement control should be encouraged on a bilateral or multilateral basis as many countries share a porous border. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and avian influenza (AI) have been identified as regional priority TADs, and many regional and country initiatives have been undertaken in the last two decades that need to be translated into action. The incursion of exotic TADs into south Asia has compelled us to rethink overall policies and strategies for prevention and control of TADs. This paper took into consideration six emerging and endemic TADs of viral origin to suggest a future course of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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15 pages, 2677 KiB  
Article
Genetic Analyses of Response of Local Ghanaian Tanzanian Chicken Ecotypes to a Natural Challenge with Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202755 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Newcastle disease is a devastating poultry disease that often causes significant economic losses in poultry in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, as well as South and Central America. Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks are associated with high mortalities, which can threaten [...] Read more.
Newcastle disease is a devastating poultry disease that often causes significant economic losses in poultry in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, as well as South and Central America. Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks are associated with high mortalities, which can threaten household livelihoods, especially in the rural areas, and lead to loss of high-quality proteins in the form of meat and eggs, as well as household purchasing power. In this study, we exposed unvaccinated Ghanaian and Tanzanian chickens of six local ecotypes to velogenic NDV strains, measured NDV response traits, sequenced their DNA on a genotyping-by-sequencing platform, and performed variance component analyses. The collected phenotypes included: growth rates (pre- and post-exposure); lesion scores (gross lesion severity) in the trachea, proventriculus, intestine, and cecal tonsils; natural antibody levels; anti-NDV antibody levels at 7 days post exposure (dpe); tear and cloacal viral load at 2, 4, and 6 dpe; and survival time. Heritability estimates were low to moderate, ranging from 0.11 for average lesion scores to 0.36 for pre-exposure growth rate. Heritability estimates for survival time were 0.23 and 0.27 for the Tanzanian and Ghanaian ecotypes, respectively. Similar heritability estimates were observed when data were analyzed either separately or combined for the two countries. Survival time was genetically negatively correlated with lesion scores and with viral load. Results suggested that response to mesogenic or velogenic NDV of these local chicken ecotypes could be improved by selective breeding. Chickens that are more resilient to velogenic NDV can improve household livelihoods in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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20 pages, 3278 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Rainbow Trout with Severe, Moderate and Asymptomatic Course of Vibrio anguillarum Infection
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192642 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
This article describes the clinical manifestation of natural Vibrio anguillarum infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an outbreak on a fish farm. (i) Using an integrated approach, we characterized the pathogenesis of vibriosis from the morphological, hematological, and biochemical points of view. [...] Read more.
This article describes the clinical manifestation of natural Vibrio anguillarum infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an outbreak on a fish farm. (i) Using an integrated approach, we characterized the pathogenesis of vibriosis from the morphological, hematological, and biochemical points of view. The molecular mechanisms associated with the host immune response were investigated using mass spectrometric analysis of trout plasma proteins. (ii) According to the severity of infection (the extent of tissue damage, the level of expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and changes in the leukocyte profile) three fish populations were identified among infected trout: fish with severe lesions (SL), fish with the moderate infectious process (IP) and asymptomatic fish (AS). (iii) Lymphopenia, granulocytosis, and splenomegaly were strong trends during the progression of infection and informative indicators of severe manifestation of disease, associated with hemorrhagic shock, metabolic acidosis, and massive tissue damage. (iv) As expected, pro-inflammatory interleukins, complement components, acute phase proteins, and antimicrobial peptides were implicated in the acute pathogenesis. Systemic coagulopathy was accompanied by increased antithrombotic reactions. (v) Reconstruction of metabolic pathways also revealed a high energy requirement for the immune response in severely affected fish. (vi) An unexpected result was a small difference between fish with moderate symptoms and fish with no or minor external signs of pathology (putatively resistant to infection). Increased production of antiproteases and enhanced blood coagulation cascade were observed in healthier fish, which may underlie the mechanisms of a controlled, non-self-damaging immune response to infection. (vii) Depending on the progression of the disease and the presence of the pathogen, a stepwise or linear change in the abundance of some plasma proteins was revealed. These proteins could be proposed as molecular markers for diagnosing the health and immune status of trout when cultured in fish farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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10 pages, 1860 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri S5 Intervention on Intestinal Microbiota Composition of Chickens Challenged with Salmonella enteritidis
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192528 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
To understand the mechanism of lactic acid bacteria against Salmonella enteritidis infection; we examined how lactic acid bacteria regulated the intestinal microbiota to resist infection by pathogenic bacteria. The probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri S5 was used to construct an animal model of S. [...] Read more.
To understand the mechanism of lactic acid bacteria against Salmonella enteritidis infection; we examined how lactic acid bacteria regulated the intestinal microbiota to resist infection by pathogenic bacteria. The probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri S5 was used to construct an animal model of S. enteritidis infected broilers. A high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the regulatory effects of L. reuteri S5 on the structure of the intestinal microbiota of broilers infected with S. enteritidis; and to examine the possible defense mechanism they used. Our results showed that the administration of L. reuteri S5 reduced colonization of S. enteritidis (p < 0.05), decreased intestinal permeability (p < 0.05), and reduced the bacterial displacement likely due by S. enteritidis colonization (p < 0.05), suggesting some enhancement of the intestinal barrier function. Furthermore, L. reuteri S5 increased the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the chicken cecal microflora and the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae and decreased the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. These results suggest that the lactic acid bacterium L. reuteri S5 protected the intestinal microbiota of chickens against S. enteritidis infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 3603 KiB  
Article
Identification of Five Serotypes of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from Diarrheic Calves and Healthy Cattle in Belgium and Comparative Genomics with Shigatoxigenic E. coli
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(9), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9090492 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching/effacing (AE) lesions and cause non-bloody diarrhea in mammals. A minority of bovine EPEC belong to one of the ten classical serotypes of human and bovine AE-STEC. The purpose of this study was to identify five non-classical O [...] Read more.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching/effacing (AE) lesions and cause non-bloody diarrhea in mammals. A minority of bovine EPEC belong to one of the ten classical serotypes of human and bovine AE-STEC. The purpose of this study was to identify five non-classical O serotypes (O123/186, O156, O177, O182, and O183) among bovine EPEC and to characterize their virulence repertoires by whole genome sequencing. Around 40% of the 307 EPEC from 307 diarrheic calves, 368 EPEC from 47 healthy cattle, and 131 EPEC from 36 healthy calves in dairy farms were analyzed. Serotype O177 was the most frequent among EPEC from diarrheic and healthy calves, while the O156 was the most frequent in healthy cattle. The genomic analysis identified different H serotypes, MLSTypes, and/or eae gene subtypes among the O156 and O177 EPEC, while the O182 was homogeneous. The virulence gene profiles of bovine EPEC were closely related to each other and to the profiles of ten bovine and human AE-STEC. These results emphasize the need for additional studies to identify more O:H serotypes of bovine EPEC and to elucidate their origin and evolution of EPEC with regard to AE-STEC belonging to the same O:H serotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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15 pages, 7781 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of ASFV and Differential Diagnosis of Erysipelothrix in ASFV-Infected Pigs in Pig Production Regions in Cameroon
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080440 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
African swine fever and swine erysipelas are two devastating diseases with similar manifestations ravaging the domestic pig industry. Only a single phylogenetic study has been carried out in Cameroon, and neither an extensive genotyping aimed at identifying the different serotypes nor has an [...] Read more.
African swine fever and swine erysipelas are two devastating diseases with similar manifestations ravaging the domestic pig industry. Only a single phylogenetic study has been carried out in Cameroon, and neither an extensive genotyping aimed at identifying the different serotypes nor has an appropriate differential diagnosis of different species of Erysipelothrix has been effected in ASF-infected animals. Of the 377 blood or tissue samples randomly collected from pig farms and slaughter slabs from January to August 2020, 120 were positive for ASFV (by PCR), giving a prevalence of 31.83%. Intragenomic resolution through sequencing divulged the presence of genotypes I, and Ia, two variants with 19 (ABNAAAACBNABTDBNAFA) and six (ABNAFA) tandem repeat sequences (TRS), serotype IV, and a single GGAATATATA repeat. The sole presence of E. tonsillarum (avirulent species) and not E. rhusiopathiae (virulent species) indicates that the severity observed during the 2020 ASF outbreak in the sampled regions was exclusively due to ASFV genotype I infection. Such characterisations are necessary for designing effective control measures and future potential vaccine candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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14 pages, 4853 KiB  
Article
Schizothorax prenanti Heat Shock Protein 27 Gene: Cloning, Expression, and Comparison with Other Heat Shock Protein Genes after Poly (I:C) Induction
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162034 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
We identified and cloned cDNA encoding the heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 gene from Schizothorax prenanti (SpHsp27), and compared its expression with that of SpHsp60, SpHsp70, and SpHsp90 in the liver, head kidney, hindgut, and spleen of S. prenanti [...] Read more.
We identified and cloned cDNA encoding the heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 gene from Schizothorax prenanti (SpHsp27), and compared its expression with that of SpHsp60, SpHsp70, and SpHsp90 in the liver, head kidney, hindgut, and spleen of S. prenanti that were injected with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)]. The SpHsp27 partial cDNA (sequence length, 653 bp; estimated molecular mass, 5.31 kDa; theoretical isoelectric point, 5.09) contained an open reading frame of 636 bp and a gene encoding 211 amino acids. The SpHsp27 amino acid sequence shared 61.0–92.89% identity with Hsp27 sequences from other vertebrates and SpHsp27 was expressed in seven S. prenanti tissues. Poly (I:C) significantly upregulated most SpHsps genes in the tissues at 12 or 24 h (p < 0.05) compared with control fish that were injected with phosphate-buffered saline. However, the intensity of responses of the four SpHsps was organ-specifically increased. The expression of SpHsp27 was increased 163-fold in the head kidney and 26.6-fold SpHsp27 in the liver at 24 h after Poly (I:C) injection. In contrast, SpHsp60 was increased 0.97–1.46-fold in four tissues and SpHsp90 was increased 1.21- and 1.16-fold in the liver and spleen at 12 h after Poly (I:C) injection. Our findings indicated that Poly (I:C) induced SpHsp27, SpHsp60, SpHsp70, and SpHsp90 expression and these organ-specific SpHsps are potentially involved in S. prenanti antiviral immunity or mediate pathological process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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24 pages, 1142 KiB  
Review
Predictive Models of Dairy Cow Thermal State: A Review from a Technological Perspective
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080416 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
Dairy cattle are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to the higher metabolic rate needed for milk production. In recent decades, global warming and the increase in dairy production in warmer countries have stimulated the development of a wide range of environmental control [...] Read more.
Dairy cattle are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to the higher metabolic rate needed for milk production. In recent decades, global warming and the increase in dairy production in warmer countries have stimulated the development of a wide range of environmental control systems for dairy farms. Despite their proven effectiveness, the associated energy and water consumption can compromise the viability of dairy farms in many regions, due to the cost and scarcity of these resources. To make these systems more efficient, they should be activated in time to prevent thermal stress and switched off when that risk no longer exists, which must consider environmental variables as well as the variables of the animals themselves. Nowadays, there is a wide range of sensors and equipment that support farm routine procedures, and it is possible to measure several variables that, with the aid of algorithms based on predictive models, would allow anticipating animals’ thermal states. This review summarizes three types of approaches as predictive models: bioclimatic indexes, machine learning, and mechanistic models. It also focuses on the application of the current knowledge as algorithms to be used in the management of diverse types of environmental control systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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21 pages, 5733 KiB  
Article
Genotype Shift of Malaysian Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) from PCV2b to PCV2d within a Decade
Animals 2022, 12(14), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141849 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
This paper aims to update the molecular status of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in Malaysia. Firstly, the molecular detection rate of PCV2 in farm and sampled pig population were reported to be 83.78% (31/37 farms) and 83.54% (66/79 pigs) positive for PCV2, respectively. [...] Read more.
This paper aims to update the molecular status of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in Malaysia. Firstly, the molecular detection rate of PCV2 in farm and sampled pig population were reported to be 83.78% (31/37 farms) and 83.54% (66/79 pigs) positive for PCV2, respectively. PCV2 was detected across all age groups, from fetuses, porkers to sows. Co-detection of PCV2 and PCV3 antigens was also reported at a rate of 28.77% (21/73). Secondly, PCV2 antigen was also detected in Malaysian abattoir lung samples: 18 out of 19 (94.74%) samples originating from clinically healthy finishers were tested positive. Further, this is the first study to confirm the circulation of PCV2 in the wild boar population roaming Peninsular Malaysia, where 28 out of 28 (100%) wild boar lung samples were found positive. One decade earlier, only genotype PCV2b was reported in Malaysia. This most recent update revealed that genotypes PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d were present, with PCV2d being the predominant circulating genotype. PCV2 cap gene nucleotide sequences in this study were found to be under negative selection pressure, with an estimated substitution rate of 1.102 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year (ssy). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Calves and Dairy Cows in Western Australia
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(7), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9070351 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) can cause a multitude of diseases in cattle, with detrimental effects on the farm economy and the welfare of both adult and young cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. bovis [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) can cause a multitude of diseases in cattle, with detrimental effects on the farm economy and the welfare of both adult and young cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. bovis in adult cows and calves in the south-west region of Western Australia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 29 dairy farms with 699 apparently healthy adult lactating cows and 495 young calves during 2019–2020. Nasal swabs and blood samples collected from the animals and bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were assessed for M. bovis-specific proteins and antibodies by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Mycoplasma immunogenic lipase A- Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (MilA ELISA). A seroprevalence of 42.5% (95% CI: 38.9–46.2) and 61% (95% CI: 56.6–65.2) was found in adult lactating cows and calves, respectively. The herd-level seroprevalence of M. bovis ranged from 4% (95% CI: 07–19.5) to 92% (95% CI: 75.0–97.8) in adult lactating cows and 25% (95% CI: 10.2–49.5) to 87% (95% CI: 67.9–95.5) for calves in these farms. None of the BTM and nasal swab samples were positive for M. bovis, indicating an absence of any current active infections on the farms. The female calves and pure Holstein–Friesian animals are twice as likely to be seropositive for M. bovis compared to male calves (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) and Holstein–Friesian crossbred calves (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5). The high seroprevalence in both adult and young cattle in the southwest dairy farms of Western Australia warrants more effective farm biosecurity measures and further evaluation of the current prevention and management measures practiced on the farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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10 pages, 637 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Natural Transmission of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Dairies from Southern Chile
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131734 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that affects cattle worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted with the aim to (a) estimate the incidence rate of the BLV infection of dairy farms in the regions of Los Ríos and Los Lagos (Chile), and [...] Read more.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that affects cattle worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted with the aim to (a) estimate the incidence rate of the BLV infection of dairy farms in the regions of Los Ríos and Los Lagos (Chile), and (b) describe the frequency and epidemiological association of risk management practices related to new cases in cattle on dairy farms in Southern Chile. Infection status was based on commercial blocking ELISA results, on serum and milk. Individual information on animals and management practices was extracted from farm records, and then the most likely date of infection for new cases was estimated. The number of new infections was used to calculate the within-herd incidence rate. Adult animals had an incidence rate of 1.16 (95% CI 0.96; 1.20) cases per 100 cow-months at risk, while for young animals it was 0.64 (95% CI 0.44; 1.00) cases per 100 animal-months at risk. Rectal palpation, artificial insemination, and injections were the most common practices related to infection. Further studies are needed to determine if these are the only practices that facilitate spreading or if there are other practices that can be handled better in order to reduce the spread of BLV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 9866 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Investigations of Virus-Associated Structures in the Nuclei with White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131730 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been reported to cause severe economic loss in the shrimp industry. With WSSV being a large virus still under investigation, the 3D structure of its assembly remains unclear. The current study was planned to clarify the 3D [...] Read more.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been reported to cause severe economic loss in the shrimp industry. With WSSV being a large virus still under investigation, the 3D structure of its assembly remains unclear. The current study was planned to clarify the 3D structures of WSSV infections in the cell nucleus of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). The samples from various tissues were prepared on the seventh day post-infection. The serial sections of the intestinal tissue were obtained for electron tomography after the ultrastructural screening. After 3D reconstruction, the WSSV-associated structures were further visualized, and the expressions of viral proteins were confirmed with immuno-gold labeling. While the pairs of sheet-like structures with unknown functions were observed in the nucleus, the immature virions could be recognized by the core units of nucleocapsids on a piece of the envelope. The maturation of the particle could include the elongation of core units and the filling of empty nucleocapsids with electron-dense materials. Our observations may bring to light a possible order of WSSV maturation in the cell nucleus of the crayfish, while more investigations remain necessary to visualize the detailed viral–host interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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16 pages, 2411 KiB  
Article
Uterine Inflammation Changes the Expression of Cholinergic Neurotransmitters and Decreases the Population of AChE-Positive, Uterus-Innervating Neurons in the Paracervical Ganglion of Sexually Mature Gilts
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131676 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
The focus of this study was based on examining the impact of endometritis on the chemical coding of the paracervical ganglion (PCG) perikaryal populations supplying pig uterus. Four weeks after the injection of Fast Blue retrograde tracer into uterine horns, either the Escherichia [...] Read more.
The focus of this study was based on examining the impact of endometritis on the chemical coding of the paracervical ganglion (PCG) perikaryal populations supplying pig uterus. Four weeks after the injection of Fast Blue retrograde tracer into uterine horns, either the Escherichia coli (E. coli) suspension or saline solution was applied to both horns. Laparotomy treatment was performed for the control group. Uterine cervices containing PCG were extracted on the eighth day after previous treatments. Subsequent macroscopic and histopathologic examinations acknowledged the severe form of acute endometritis in the E. coli-treated gilts, whereas double-labeling immunofluorescence procedures allowed changes to be analyzed in the PCG perikaryal populations coded with vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and/or somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), galanin (GAL). The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) detection method was used to check for the presence and changes in the expression of this enzyme and further confirm the presence of cholinergic perikarya in PCG. Treatment with E. coli resulted in an increase in VAChT+/VIP+, VAChT+/VIP−, VAChT+/SOM+, VAChT+/SOM−, VAChT+/GAL− and VAChT+/nNOS− PCG uterine perikarya. An additional increase was noted in the non-cholinergic VIP-, SOM- and nNOS-immunopositive populations, as well as a decrease in the number of cholinergic nNOS-positive perikarya. Moreover, the population of cholinergic GAL-expressing perikarya that appeared in the E. coli-injected gilts and E. coli injections lowered the number of AChE-positive perikarya. The neurochemical characteristics of the cholinergic uterine perikarya of the PCG were altered and influenced by the pathological state (inflammation of the uterus). These results may indicate the additional influence of such a state on the functioning of this organ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 1065 KiB  
Article
Influence of Elective Cesarean Calving (with and without Dexamethasone Induction) on the Erythrogram and Iron Serum Profiles in Nellore Calves
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121561 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2084
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the erythrogram and iron serum profiles of neonatal calves born spontaneously or born by elective cesarean section with or without dexamethasone induction. The research was performed on 38 newborn Nellore calves. Three groups of [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the erythrogram and iron serum profiles of neonatal calves born spontaneously or born by elective cesarean section with or without dexamethasone induction. The research was performed on 38 newborn Nellore calves. Three groups of calves were assigned according to the type of birth: calves born by spontaneous vaginal calving (n = 10), calves born by elective cesarean section without inducing labor (n = 14), and calves born by elective cesarean section with labor induction with dexamethasone (n = 14). Blood samples to assess red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC), serum iron (SFe), total capacity to bind iron to transferrin (TIBIC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) were performed at calving (0, 3, 6, and 12 h of life) and on 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 30 days of life. Regardless of the experimental group (calves born spontaneously, or born by elective cesarean section with or without dexamethasone induction), in the first day of life there was a decrease in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin rates, and values of the globular volume. In the period of the first 10 days of life, animals from spontaneous vaginal delivery quickly recovered values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, whereas animals born by elective C-section (induced and uninduced) did not recover as quickly in their rates of hemoglobin and packed cell volume values. In calves born by elective C-section (induced and uninduced), it was observed in their period between 10 and 30 days of life that the MCV and MCH were reduced by passing the presenting microcytic hypochromic when compared with calves obtained by spontaneous vaginal delivery. In the period between 10 and 30 days of life, the levels of SFe and TSI in animals born by elective C-section (induced and uninduced) are significantly lower. The differences in the erythrogram values between Nellore calves born spontaneously and those by elective C-section with or without induction must be considered consequent to the process of neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life. Iron supplementation in the first month of life in calves from cesarean could be recommended to prevent anemia of this iron deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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23 pages, 5025 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pasteurella multocida on Histopathology, miRNA and mRNA Expression Dynamics in Lung of Goats
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121529 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Pasteurella multocida (Pm) infection causes severe respiratory disease in goats. We investigated the effects of the Pm infection intratracheally on the histopathology, miRNA and mRNA expression dynamics in the lung of goats infected for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. Pm infection caused [...] Read more.
Pasteurella multocida (Pm) infection causes severe respiratory disease in goats. We investigated the effects of the Pm infection intratracheally on the histopathology, miRNA and mRNA expression dynamics in the lung of goats infected for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. Pm infection caused fever, which significantly (p < 0.05) increased the body temperature of the goats from day 1 to 5. Haemotoxylin–eosin staining of the infected lung tissue showed characteristics of suppurative pneumonia with inflammatory cells infiltration and the lung structure destruction. During the Pm infection of the goats, compared with the control group, there were 3080, 3508, 2716 and 2675 differentially expressed genes and 42, 69, 91 and 108 significantly expressed miRNAs (|log2Fold Change| > 1, p < 0.05) in the Pm_d1, Pm_d2, Pm_d5 and Pm_d7 groups, respectively. Five miRNAs and nine immune-related genes were selected for confirmation by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the expression patterns of the miRNAs and genes were consistent with those determined by next-generation sequencing. The differentially expressed genes were enriched in cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules, complement and coagulation cascades, tight junction and phagosome Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and cytokine production, leukocyte migration, myeloid leukocyte migration, cell periphery, plasma membrane, extracellular region part, extracellular region and other Gene Ontology terms. The differentially expressed genes were mapped to marker genes in human and mouse lung cells. The results showed the presence of some marker genes of the immune cells. Compared with the CK group, five miRNAs and 892 common genes were differentially expressed in the Pm_d1, Pm_d2, Pm_d5 and Pm_d7 groups. The target relationships between the common 5 miRNAs and 892 differentially expressed genes were explored and the miRNAs involved in the host immune reaction may act through the target genes. Our study characterized goats’ reaction in the lung from histopathological and molecular changes upon Pm infection, which will provide valuable information for understanding the responses in goats during Pm infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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14 pages, 4483 KiB  
Article
Molecular Cloning of Heat Shock Protein 60 (SpHSP60) from Schizothorax prenanti and the Gene Expressions of Four SpHSPs during Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Infection
Fishes 2022, 7(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030139 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role in anti-stress and immune processes and are associated with autoimmune diseases. In order to explore the immunological role of HSPs from Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), SpHSP60 was cloned for the first [...] Read more.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role in anti-stress and immune processes and are associated with autoimmune diseases. In order to explore the immunological role of HSPs from Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), SpHSP60 was cloned for the first time in this study, and the gene expressions of SpHSP27, SpHSP60, SpHSP70 and SpHSP90 in the hepatopancreas, head kidney, hindgut and spleen were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The open reading frame of the SpHSP60 gene (GenBank accession number ON245159) is 1728 bp. It encodes a protein of 575 amino acids. Its C-terminus is a highly conserved and repeated glycine sequence, which is an important cofactor in ATP binding. Compared with the control group, most of the SpHSPs were significantly upregulated in the tissues examined at 12 or 24 h after LPS challenge. The most abundant expression of SpHSP70 was found in the head kidney at 24 h after LPS injection, followed by SpHSP27 in the spleen at 24 h; both of these SpHSPs displayed strong expression under the LPS stresses, about 20–70 fold more than that of SpHSP60 and SpHSP90. The temporal expression patterns of the four SpHSP genes were different in the four tissues examined. Taken together, the results suggest that SpHSP27, SpHSP60, SpHSP70 and SpHSP90 participate in innate immunity stimulated by LPS, and the response intensity of the SpHSPs was organ-specific, indicating they could provide early warning information against bacterial infection. The findings in our study will contribute to better understanding the biological processes and important roles of SpHSPs involved in defending against pathogenic bacterial challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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10 pages, 1804 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic and Genotypic Screening of Colistin Resistance Associated with Emerging Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Poultry
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(6), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9060282 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2542
Abstract
Chickens continue to be an important reservoir of zoonotic multidrug-resistant illnesses. Antimicrobial resistance correlated with colistin has emerged as a critical concern worldwide in the veterinary field and the public health sector. The current study investigated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia [...] Read more.
Chickens continue to be an important reservoir of zoonotic multidrug-resistant illnesses. Antimicrobial resistance correlated with colistin has emerged as a critical concern worldwide in the veterinary field and the public health sector. The current study investigated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli among chicken farms in three Egyptian governorates, focusing on colistin resistance assessment. A total of 56 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered out of 120 pooled samples obtained from diseased chicken broilers (46.7%). The E. coli isolates were serotyped to nine different serotypes; the highest incidence was for O125 (n = 18). The E. coli isolates demonstrated multidrug-resistant patterns against 10 antibiotics, especially clindamycin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin, by 100, 100, 96.4 and 92.9%, respectively. On the other hand, colistin resistance was 41.1% using AST. All E. coli isolates displayed positive colistin resistance growth on chromogenic medium, but only 25% represented this positivity via MIC estimation and Sensititre kit. PCR results revealed that all isolates harbored mcr-1, but no isolates harbored the other 2–5 mcr genes. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the emergence of multidrug-resistant, especially colistin-resistant, E. coli among chicken broiler flocks, and mcr-1 is the master gene of the colistin resistance feature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 417 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Current Situation of Equine Headshaking Syndrome in France and Switzerland Based on an Online Survey
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111393 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Equine headshaking syndrome (EHS) is characterised as non-physical and involuntary movement of the horse’s head and neck. Although EHS is clinically simple to diagnose, its aetiopathogenesis often remains unclear. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of signalment and therapy [...] Read more.
Equine headshaking syndrome (EHS) is characterised as non-physical and involuntary movement of the horse’s head and neck. Although EHS is clinically simple to diagnose, its aetiopathogenesis often remains unclear. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of signalment and therapy possibilities used in France and Switzerland. To do this, an online survey was developed and distributed via newsletters. A total of 933 complete, answered surveys from France (n = 804) and Switzerland (n = 129) were evaluated. The median age in France was 12.4 years (CH = 14.3). Mostly geldings were affected (58.5%FRA, 57.4%CH). There was an association with Warmbloods in Switzerland (55.8%CH), but in France, in addition to Warmbloods (34.4%FRA), Thoroughbreds (27.2%FRA) were also affected. Moreover, horses affected by EHS often show stereotypical behaviour (15.7%FRA, 14.7%CH). A total of 38.4%FRA and 67.4%CH of horse owners utilised therapy measures, with nose covers being most commonly used (19.9%FRA, 30.2%CH). Horse owners resorted to alternative treatments that had not previously been studied in context with EHS (15%FRA, 20.9%CH). Conservative treatments, such as medication, were used by 5.4%CH and 1.9%FRA. This study provides an overview of the status of horses affected by EHS in France and Switzerland and thus offers a fundamental step to understanding the consequences of welfare issues associated with EHS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
14 pages, 2077 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Glycyrrhizic Acid Therapeutic Effect and Safety in Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HS Strain)-Infected Arbor Acres Broilers
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101285 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety of GA in MG-infected broilers. Our results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of GA was 31.25 μg/mL. Moreover, GA inhibited the expression of MG adhesion protein (pMGA1.2) in the broilers’ lungs. [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety of GA in MG-infected broilers. Our results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of GA was 31.25 μg/mL. Moreover, GA inhibited the expression of MG adhesion protein (pMGA1.2) in the broilers’ lungs. GA treatment clearly decreased the morbidity of CRD and mortality in the MG-infected broilers. Compared with the model group, GA treatment significantly decreased gross air sac lesion scores and increased average weight gain and feed conversion rate in the MG-infected broilers. Histopathological examination showed GA treatment attenuated MG-induced trachea, immune organ and liver damage in the broilers. Moreover, GA treatment alone did not induce abnormal morphological changes in these organs in the healthy broilers. Compared with the model group, serum biochemical results showed GA treatment significantly decreased the content of total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, and increased the content of albumin/globulin, alkaline phosphatase, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I. In conclusion, GA displayed a significant therapeutic efficacy regarding MG infection and had no adverse effects on the broilers (100 mg/kg/d). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 587 KiB  
Article
Vaccination of Calves with the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Strain Induces Protection against Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Herds under a Natural Transmission Setting
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091083 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis, which is associated with major economic losses for milk and meat producers. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of the BCG Russia strain in a cohort [...] Read more.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis, which is associated with major economic losses for milk and meat producers. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of the BCG Russia strain in a cohort study performed under field conditions, with the vaccination of calves in seven dairy farms from a high prevalence area in central Chile. The trial was performed with 501 animals, subcutaneously vaccinated with 2–8 × 105 colony-forming units of BCG, whilst 441 matched control animals received a saline placebo. Peripheral blood was collected at 6, 12 and 18 months post-vaccination, and infection status was determined using the IFNγ release assay in conjunction with the DIVA (Detecting Infected amongst Vaccinated Animals) antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10 and Rv3615c. The BCG vaccine showed a low but significant level of protection of 22.4% (95% CI 4.0 to 36.4) at the end of the trial. However, diverse levels of protection and a variable duration of immunity were observed between trial herds. This diverse outcome could be influenced by the general health condition of calves and their exposition to non-tuberculous mycobacteria. These results suggest that BCG vaccination of dairy calves in a natural transmission setting confers variable protection to animals against bTB in a high prevalence area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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9 pages, 1316 KiB  
Brief Report
Serum Amyloid A Concentrations of Healthy and Clinically Diseased Japanese Black Breeding Cattle—Preliminary Measurements for Determining the Cut-Off Concentrations
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9050198 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3269
Abstract
The present study aimed to compare serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations of Japanese Black (JB) breeding cows in both clinically normal and diseased cows diagnosed by veterinarians using modified latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay (LATIA) to determine the cut-off values for healthy and diseased [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to compare serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations of Japanese Black (JB) breeding cows in both clinically normal and diseased cows diagnosed by veterinarians using modified latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay (LATIA) to determine the cut-off values for healthy and diseased JB cows. For the comparison, a total of 289 serum samples of healthy cows without any clinical symptoms intended for the metabolic profile test and 66 serums from diseased cows clinically diagnosed by veterinarians were measured for the SAA concentrations. A significant difference (p-value = 6.68 × 10−29) was observed in the mean SAA concentrations between the healthy (2.8 ± 3.2 mg/L) and diseased (54.8 ± 76.8 mg/L) groups, and the median concentrations of the healthy and diseased groups were 1.5 mg/L and 31.2 mg/L, respectively. Finally, the cut-off SAA concentrations at each probability were 2.9 mg/L (p = 0.05), 5.7 mg/L (p = 0.1), 13.7 mg/L (p = 0.5), and 21.8 mg/L (p = 0.9), respectively, and 6.5 mg/L (p = 0.122) based on evaluation performed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The results indicated that, with the practical application of the obtained cut-off value, the measurement of SAA concentrations for JB breeding cows with LATIA could be potentially beneficial in the early evaluation of inflammatory diseases in JB breeding cows and possibly useful in the prevention of not only metabolic diseases but also non-nutritional diseases during the perinatal period of JB breeding cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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12 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Surveillance of Coxiella burnetii Shedding in Three Naturally Infected Dairy Goat Herds after Vaccination, Focusing on Bulk Tank Milk and Dust Swabs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030102 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Q fever outbreaks on three dairy goat farms (A–C) were monitored after the animals had been vaccinated with an inactivated Coxiella burnetii phase I vaccine. The antibody response was measured before vaccination by serum samples with two C. burnetii phase-specific ELISAs to characterize [...] Read more.
Q fever outbreaks on three dairy goat farms (A–C) were monitored after the animals had been vaccinated with an inactivated Coxiella burnetii phase I vaccine. The antibody response was measured before vaccination by serum samples with two C. burnetii phase-specific ELISAs to characterize the disease status. Shedding was determined by vaginal swabs during three kidding seasons and monthly bulk tank milk (BTM) samples. Dust swabs from one windowsill of each barn and from the milking parlors were collected monthly to evaluate the indoor exposure. These samples were analyzed by qPCR. The phase-specific serology revealed an acute Q fever infection in herd A, whereas herds B and C had an ongoing and past infection, respectively. In all three herds, vaginal shedders were present during three kidding seasons. In total, 50%, 69%, and 15% of all collected BTM samples were C. burnetii positive in herds A, B, and C, respectively. Barn dust contained C. burnetii DNA in 71%, 45%, and 50% of examined swabs collected from farms A, B, and C, respectively. The largest number of C. burnetii positive samples was obtained from the milking parlor (A: 91%, B: 72%, C: 73%), indicating a high risk for humans to acquire Q fever during milking activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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12 pages, 5444 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Analysis of TGF-β Signaling Modulation of Porcine Alveolar Macrophages in Porcine Circovirus Type 2b Infection
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030101 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3251
Abstract
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been recognized as an immunosuppressive pathogen. However, the crosstalk between this virus and its host cells in related signaling pathways remains poorly understood. In this study, the expression profiles of 84 genes involved in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been recognized as an immunosuppressive pathogen. However, the crosstalk between this virus and its host cells in related signaling pathways remains poorly understood. In this study, the expression profiles of 84 genes involved in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway were probed in PCV2b-infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by using an RT2 profiler PCR array system. The protein expression levels of cytokines involved in the TGF-β signaling pathway were determined with a RayBiotech fluorescent Quantibody® porcine cytokine array system. Results showed that 48, 30, and 42 genes were differentially expressed at 1, 24, and 48 h after infection, respectively. A large number of genes analyzed by a co-expression network and implicated in transcriptional regulation and apoptosis were differentially expressed in PCV2b-infected PAMs. Among these genes, TGF-β, interleukin-10, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPB), growth arrest, and DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta (GADD45B), and BCL2 were upregulated. By contrast, SMAD family member 1 (smad1) and smad3 were downregulated. These results suggested that the TGF-β signaling pathway was repressed in PAMs at the early onset of PCV2 infection. The inhibited apoptosis was indicated by the upregulated C/EBPB, GADD45B, and BCL2, and by the downregulated smad1 and smad3, which possibly increased the duration of PCV2 replication-permissive conditions and caused a persistent infection. Our study may provide insights into the underlying antiviral functional changes in the immune system of PCV2-infected pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 2021 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Production of Neutrophils Extracellular Traps Is Affected by the Lactational Stage of Dairy Cows
Animals 2022, 12(5), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050564 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2023
Abstract
We aimed to research the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation capacity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during different lactational stages of Holstein cows. We also aimed to validate a model which could mimic infection and inflammation in vitro by [...] Read more.
We aimed to research the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation capacity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during different lactational stages of Holstein cows. We also aimed to validate a model which could mimic infection and inflammation in vitro by adding increasing concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to PMN suspensions isolated from nulliparous heifers and evaluate their capacity to produce NETs and ROS. In 3 replicates, we collected blood from nulliparous heifers (n = 3), cows at the end of gestation (n = 3), early postpartum (n = 3) and in mid-lactation (n = 3) in which PMN were isolated. The production of ROS in PMN were assessed using the 2’,7’-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate method, while the SYTOX Orange and Quant-iT™ PicoGreen dsDNA ultra-sensitive nucleic fluorescent acid staining methods were applied in order to quantitatively analyze the formation of NETs. Statistical analyses were performed via linear regression models using the replicate as a random. ROS values of PMN harvested from peripartum cows were 1.3 times increased compared with those in nulliparous heifers (p < 0.01). Compared with nulliparous heifers, the production of NETs by PMN isolated from mid-lactation and postpartum cows was 2.1 and 2.5 times higher (p < 0.01), respectively. In 3 replicates, in vitro stimulation of PMN isolated from nulliparous heifers (n = 3) with LPS linearly increased the production of ROS and NETs (R2 = 0.96 and 0.86, respectively). Similarly, when PMN isolated from nulliparous heifers were stimulated with PMA, a linear increase in the production of ROS (R2 = 0.99) and NETs (R2 = 0.78) was observed. The basal NETs and ROS production is lower in nulliparous heifers. Thus, they are an excellent model to mimic inflammation and study fundamental aspects of the production of NETs and ROS in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
The Association between Blood Β-Hydroxybutyric Acid Concentration in the Second Week of Lactation and Reproduction Performance of Lithuanian Black and White Cows
Animals 2022, 12(4), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040481 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Hyperketonemia is a very common metabolic state in dairy cows, which result in lower milk production, impaired fertility, and increased frequency of other diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of season, parity, and milk yield of cows on beta-hydroxybutyrate [...] Read more.
Hyperketonemia is a very common metabolic state in dairy cows, which result in lower milk production, impaired fertility, and increased frequency of other diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of season, parity, and milk yield of cows on beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in the second week of lactation (WK 2) and establish the relationship between BHB concentration in WK 2 and reproduction performance traits such as insemination rate and first insemination day of Lithuanian Black and White dairy cows. The study included clinically healthy Lithuanian Black and White cows (n = 692). Blood BHB concentration was measured using capillary blood samples collected after morning milking when cows were 7–10 DIM. The impact of WK 2 blood BHB concentration on the insemination rate and first insemination day were investigated. The effect of BHB was evaluated according to the season, parity, and milk yield per lactation (305 DIM). Significant differences were observed in BHB concentration in WK 2 due to season and parity, but no statistically significant differences were observed for milk yields (305 d). Increased blood BHB concentration in WK 2 negatively affected insemination rate (p < 0.001) and first insemination day (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that BHB concentration in WK 2 depends on season and parity, while the milk yield is not associated with BHB concentration. High BHB concentration in WK 2 increases insemination rate and delays the first insemination day for high milk-yielding Lithuanian Black and White dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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11 pages, 9109 KiB  
Communication
First Study to Describe the Prevalence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 among the Farmed Pig Population in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9020080 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
Infection of pig farms with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes substantial economic losses globally. However, little epidemiological data of PRRSV and PCV2 in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) were available. This pilot [...] Read more.
Infection of pig farms with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes substantial economic losses globally. However, little epidemiological data of PRRSV and PCV2 in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) were available. This pilot study aimed to provide baseline information of the prevalences of PPRSV and PCV2 in the HKSAR. A complex survey was conducted from 3 February 2020 to 11 March 2021 on 29 of the 40 pig farms in the HKSAR, with five pigs each from seven age groups (representing key production stages) tested using a real-time PCR. Evidence of presence of PRRSV European strain (PRRSV-1), PRRSV North American strain (PRRSV-2) and PCV2 was confirmed on 48%, 86% and 79% of farms, with overall prevalences of 7.6% (95% CI: 4.8–10.3%), 12.2% (95% CI: 9.6–14.7%) and 20.3% (95% CI: 14.3–26.2%) in the HKSAR pig population based on pooling results from all pigs across all farms. PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 were more prevalent in younger pigs, with the highest prevalences of 32.1% (95% CI: 20.8–45.0%) and 51.5% (95% CI: 38.9–64.0%) for 8-week-old pigs. In contrast, the distribution of PCV2 prevalence across age groups appeared to be more symmetrical, with higher prevalences reported in pigs from 12 weeks old to 24 weeks old but lower prevalences in younger pigs and sows. The results of this study demonstrate that PRRSV-1, PRRSV-2 and PCV2 are widely spread across pig farms in the HKSAR, which indicates that the current farm management and control protocols should be improved. We recommend the implementation of on-farm intervention strategies combined with ongoing surveillance to reduce these viruses, and their consequences, in the HKSAR pig population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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14 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Applying Bipartite Network Analysis and Ordination Technique to Evaluate Long-Term Data from Veterinary–Sanitary Examination of Slaughtered Pigs
Animals 2022, 12(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040472 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Animal and meat inspections in abattoirs are important in the surveillance of zoonotic diseases. Veterinary inspections in abattoirs can provide useful data for the management of health and welfare issues of humans and animals. Using the network analysis and ordination technique, in this [...] Read more.
Animal and meat inspections in abattoirs are important in the surveillance of zoonotic diseases. Veterinary inspections in abattoirs can provide useful data for the management of health and welfare issues of humans and animals. Using the network analysis and ordination technique, in this study, we analyzed the data from 11 years of veterinary inspections in pig slaughterhouses from 16 regions in Poland. Based on the huge data set of 80,187,639 cases of diseases and welfare issues of pigs, the most frequent livestock diseases were identified to be abscesses, soiling, faecal or other contaminations, and congestions, which together accounted for 77.6% of the total condemnations. Spatial and temporal differences in swine diseases between the Polish regions were recognized using the above-mentioned statistical approaches. Moreover, with the use of a quite novel method, not used yet in preventive veterinary medicine, called a heatmap, the most problematic disease and welfare issues in each region in Poland were identified. The use of statistical approaches such as network analysis and ordination technique allow for identification of the health and welfare issues in slaughterhouses when dealing with long-term inspection data based on a very large number of cases, and then have to be adopted in current veterinary medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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18 pages, 3468 KiB  
Article
Bovine Natural Antibody Relationships to Specific Antibodies and Fasciola hepatica Burdens after Experimental Infection and Vaccination with Glutathione S-Transferase
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9020058 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a significant parasitic disease occurring worldwide. Despite ongoing efforts, there is still no vaccine to control liver fluke infections in livestock. Recently, it has been suggested that natural antibodies (NAbs) can amplify specific antibodies (SpAb) [...] Read more.
Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a significant parasitic disease occurring worldwide. Despite ongoing efforts, there is still no vaccine to control liver fluke infections in livestock. Recently, it has been suggested that natural antibodies (NAbs) can amplify specific antibodies (SpAb) and have a direct killing effect, but it is unknown if this phenomenon occurs during parasitic helminth infection or targeted vaccination. NAbs are antibodies produced by the innate immune system, capable of binding antigens without prior exposure. This study explores the role of bovine NAbs, using the exogenous glycoprotein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), in response to F. hepatica infection and SpAb production after infection and vaccination. The cattle’s NAbs were differently influenced by parasite infection and vaccination, with an increase in KLH-binding IgG and IgM levels after infection and reduced KLH-binding IgM levels following vaccination. Underlying NAbs reacting to KLH showed no correlations to the final fluke burdens after experimental infection or vaccination. However, NAbs reacting to whole-worm extract (WWE) prior to infection were positively correlated to increased fluke burdens within the infected bovine host. Furthermore, after infection, the specific IgG reacting to WWE was positively reflected by the underlying NAb IgG response. Following subcutaneous vaccination with F. hepatica native glutathione S-transferase (GST), there was a non-significant 33% reduction in fluke burden. Vaccinated animals with higher underlying NAbs had a higher induction of vaccine-induced SpAbs, with trends observed between KLH-binding IgM and anti-GST IgG and IgM. Our findings provide a platform to allow further investigation to determine if NAb levels could mirror fluke-SpAb production for exploitation in a combined selective breeding and vaccination program. Additionally, this work suggests that liver fluke could possibly evade the host’s immune system by utilising surface-bound IgM NAbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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17 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Scoping Review on Risk Factors and Methods for the Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Applicable to Cow–Calf Operations
Animals 2022, 12(3), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030334 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3161
Abstract
The presented scoping review summarizes the available research evidence and identifies gaps in knowledge for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention. Published literature on BRD from 1990 to April 2021 was searched in online databases, including Medline, CAB Abstracts, Scopus, Biosis, and Searchable Proceedings [...] Read more.
The presented scoping review summarizes the available research evidence and identifies gaps in knowledge for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention. Published literature on BRD from 1990 to April 2021 was searched in online databases, including Medline, CAB Abstracts, Scopus, Biosis, and Searchable Proceedings of Animal Conferences. Citations were systematically evaluated in a three-stage approach using commercial software and summarized in a scoping review format. A total of 265 publications were included in this review with herd/farm management (27.9%) as the most prevalent factors studied, followed by metaphylaxis (24.5%), vaccinations (24.1%), diet formulations, and nutritional supplementations (17.7%), animal characteristics (10.2%), and less common interventions and risk factors (6.4%). A high proportion of studies under herd/farm management (73%), metaphylaxis (86%), vaccinations (70%), animal characteristics (78%), and less common interventions and risk factors (59%) showed either significant effects on reducing BRD morbidity or significant differences of BRD between treatments. However, diet and nutritional supplementations reduced BRD only in 30% of research publications. Most studies on BRD were performed in feedlot populations, and more studies in cow–calf populations are needed. We further suggest meta-analyses on the use of yeast and trace mineral supplementation, and nitric oxide-releasing solution for BRD prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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10 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Effects of Continuous Light (LD24:0) Modulate the Expression of Lysozyme, Mucin and Peripheral Blood Cells in Rainbow Trout
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010028 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
Continuous photoperiod is extensively used in fish farming, to regulate the reproductive cycle, despite evidence suggesting that artificial photoperiods can act as a stressor and impair the immune system. We evaluated the potential effects of an artificial photoperiod on mucus components: lysozyme and [...] Read more.
Continuous photoperiod is extensively used in fish farming, to regulate the reproductive cycle, despite evidence suggesting that artificial photoperiods can act as a stressor and impair the immune system. We evaluated the potential effects of an artificial photoperiod on mucus components: lysozyme and mucin, in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure for one month to natural photoperiod (LD12:12) or constant light (LD24:0) artificial photoperiod. For each treatment, we assessed changes in peripheral blood cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and skin mucus component concentrations. Our results show a decrease in lysozyme concentration, while mucin levels are increased. Similarly, we find elevated monocytes and polymorphonuclears under constant light photoperiod. These findings suggest that LD24:0 regulates lysozyme, mucin, and leukocytes, implying that artificial photoperiods could be a stressful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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16 pages, 1327 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Rotavirus A Genotypes and Other Enteric Pathogens in Diarrheic Suckling Piglets from Spanish Swine Farms
Animals 2022, 12(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030251 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
Species A rotavirus (RVA) is a major viral pathogen causing diarrhea in suckling piglets. Studies on its genetic heterogeneity have implications for vaccine efficacy in the field. In this study, fecal samples (n = 866) from diarrheic piglets younger than 28 days [...] Read more.
Species A rotavirus (RVA) is a major viral pathogen causing diarrhea in suckling piglets. Studies on its genetic heterogeneity have implications for vaccine efficacy in the field. In this study, fecal samples (n = 866) from diarrheic piglets younger than 28 days were analyzed over a two-year period (2018–2019). Samples were submitted from 426 farms located in 36 provinces throughout Spain and were tested using real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) for five enteric pathogens. The individual prevalence was 89.4%, 64.4%, 44.9%, 33.7% and 4.4% for Clostridiumperfringens, Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile, species A rotavirus, species C rotavirus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, respectively. Most specimens (96.9%) were positive for at least one of the target pathogens, and more than 80% of samples harbored mixed infections. Nucleotide sequencing of 70 specimens positive for RVA revealed the presence of the VP7 genotypes G4, G9, G3, G5, G11 and the VP4 genotypes P7, P23, P6 and P13, with the combinations G4P7 and G9P23 being the most prevalent, and especially in the areas with the highest pig population. The study shows the extensive genetic diversity of RVA strains as well as discrepancies with the genotypes contained in the vaccine available in Spain, and multiple amino acid differences in antigenic epitopes of different G- and P- genotypes with the vaccine strains. Further investigations are needed to determine the efficacy of the vaccine to confer clinical protection against heterologous strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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15 pages, 2892 KiB  
Article
Laboratory and Field Assessments of Oral Vibrio Vaccine Indicate the Potential for Protection against Vibriosis in Cultured Marine Fishes
Animals 2022, 12(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12020133 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Vibriosis is one of the most common threats to farmed grouper; thus, substantial efforts are underway to control the disease. This study presents an oral vaccination against multiple Vibrio spp. in a marine fish with double booster immunisation. The Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 [...] Read more.
Vibriosis is one of the most common threats to farmed grouper; thus, substantial efforts are underway to control the disease. This study presents an oral vaccination against multiple Vibrio spp. in a marine fish with double booster immunisation. The Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate was selected from infected groupers Epinephelus sp. in a local farm and was formalin inactivated and combined with commercial feed at a 10% ratio (v/w). A laboratory vaccination trial was conducted for seventy days. The induction of IgM antibody responses in the serum of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer immunised with the oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 was significantly (p < 0.05) increased as early as week one post-primary vaccination. Subsequent administration of the first and second booster for 5 consecutive days, starting on days 14 and 42, respectively, improved the specific antibody level and reached a highly significant (p < 0.05) value at days 35 and 49 before slightly decreasing from day 56 onwards. Antibody titres of the control unvaccinated group remained relatively stable and low throughout the experimental period. At the end of the 70-day vaccination trial, 23 days post final boost, an intraperitoneal challenge with a field strain of Vibrio harveyi, V. alginolyticus, and V. parahaemolyticus was carried out. Our challenge study showed that oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate could induce significant protection, with an RPS of 70–80% against different Vibrio species. Thereafter, a field trial was conducted in a mariculture farm to study the effect of field vaccination using the oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate. A total of 3000 hybrid grouper juveniles were divided into two groups in triplicate. Fish of Group 1 were not vaccinated, while Group 2 were vaccinated with the feed-based vaccine. Vaccinations were carried out on days 0, 14, and 42 via feeding the fish with the vaccine at 4% body weight for 5 consecutive days. At the end of the study period, the fish survival rate was 80% for the vaccinated group, significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 65% seen in the control unvaccinated group. Furthermore, the vaccinated fish showed significantly (p < 0.05) better growth performances. Therefore, the oral Vibrio vaccine from the inactivated Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 is a potential versatile vaccine candidate that could stimulate good immune responses and confer high protection in both Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, and farm hybrid grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × Epinephelus lanceolatus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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14 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Virulence Gene Profile, Antimicrobial Resistance and Multilocus Sequence Typing of Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Chickens and Chicken Products
Animals 2022, 12(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12010097 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine the virulence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular subtypes of Salmonella in the Central Region of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 45 Salmonella Enteritidis were detected from live chicken (cloacal swab), and chicken products (fresh and ready-to-eat meat) samples [...] Read more.
This study was undertaken to determine the virulence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular subtypes of Salmonella in the Central Region of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 45 Salmonella Enteritidis were detected from live chicken (cloacal swab), and chicken products (fresh and ready-to-eat meat) samples upon cultural isolation and serotyping. Similarly, an antimicrobial susceptibility test based on the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method as well as antimicrobial resistance AMR genes, virulence determinants and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) typing were conducted after the Whole Genome Sequencing and analysis of the isolates. The results indicate that sequence types ST1925 (63.7%), and ST11 (26.5%) were the predominant out of the seven sequence types identified (ST292, ST329, ST365, ST423 and ST2132). The phenotypic antimicrobial profile corresponds to the genotypic characterization in that the majority of the isolates that exhibited tetracycline, gentamycin and aminoglycoside resistance; they also possessed the tetC and blaTEM β-Lactam resistance genes. However, isolates from cloacal swabs showed the highest number of resistance genes compared to the chicken products (fresh and ready-to-eat meat) samples. Furthermore, most of the virulence genes were found to cluster in the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI). In this study, all the isolates were found to possess SPI-1, which codes for the type III secretion system, which functions as actin-binding proteins (SptP and SopE). The virulence plasmid (VP) genes (spvB, spvC) were present in all genotypes except ST365. The findings of this study, particularly with regard to the molecular subtypes and AMR profiles of the Salmonella Enteritidis serotype shows multidrug-resistance features as well as genetic characteristics indicative of high pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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12 pages, 2798 KiB  
Article
Association of Aberrant DNA Methylation Level in the CD4 and JAK-STAT-Pathway-Related Genes with Mastitis Indicator Traits in Chinese Holstein Dairy Cattle
Animals 2022, 12(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12010065 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The present study was designed to evaluate the gene expression and DNA methylation level in the promoter region of the CD4 and the JAK-STAT-pathway-related genes. A total of 24 samples were deployed in the gene expression and 118 samples were used in the [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to evaluate the gene expression and DNA methylation level in the promoter region of the CD4 and the JAK-STAT-pathway-related genes. A total of 24 samples were deployed in the gene expression and 118 samples were used in the DNA methylation study. Student’s t-tests were used to analyze the gene expression and DNA methylation. The evaluation of DNA methylation in promoter regions of JAK2 and STAT5A revealed hypo-methylation levels of CpG sites and higher gene expression in cows diagnosed with mastitis as compared to the healthy control, and vice versa in those with CD4. DNA methylation was negatively correlated with gene expression in JAK2, STAT5A, and CD4 genes. Six, two, and four active transcription factors were identified on the CpG sites in the promoter regions of JAK2, STAT5A, and CD4 genes, respectively. Regarding correlation analysis, the DNA methylation levels of CD4 showed significantly higher positive correlations with somatic cell counts (p < 0.05). Findings of the current study inferred that aberrant DNA methylation in the CpG sites at the 1 kb promoter region in JAK2, STAT5A, and CD4 genes due to mastitis in cows can be used as potential epigenetic markers to estimate bovine mastitis susceptibility in dairy cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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15 pages, 2346 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Lung Disease in Finishing Pigs at Slaughter: Pulmonary Lesions and Implications on Productivity Parameters
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123604 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6555
Abstract
Swine respiratory disease is associated with productive losses. We evaluated the prevalence of lung lesions with an emphasis on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), as well as the impact on productive parameters [...] Read more.
Swine respiratory disease is associated with productive losses. We evaluated the prevalence of lung lesions with an emphasis on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), as well as the impact on productive parameters in 108 finishing pigs at slaughter. Pathologic, immunohistochemical (IHC) and serologic analyses were performed. Pneumonic processes were observed in 73.1% of the animals. They mainly consisted of cranioventral bronchopneumonia (CBP) (46.3%) and pleuritis (17.6%). Microscopically, bronchointerstitial pneumonia (67.4%) was common and was occasionally combined (27.9%) with interstitial pneumonia (IP). Mh and PCV2-antigens were detected in bronchointerstitial pneumonia (70.7%) and IP cases (33.3%). There were low titers against Mh (18%) and high titers against PRRSV (100%) and PCV2 (65%). Animals with CBP remained at the farm longer; those with >10% of lung parenchyma involvement were sent later (208.8 days old) and had a lower average carcass weight (74.1 kg) and a lower daily weight gain (500.8 gr/day) compared with animals without lesions (567.2 gr/day, 77.7 kg, 200.8 days old). We suggest that animals that do not reach the weight at slaughter should be sent to slaughter regardless to avoid further negative impacts of respiratory disease in productive parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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16 pages, 4729 KiB  
Article
NF-κB–Dependent Snail Expression Promotes Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Mastitis
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123422 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Mastitis is a common and important clinical disease in ruminants. This may be associated with inflammatory fibrosis if not treated promptly. Inflammation-derived fibrosis is usually accompanied by epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying mastitis-induced fibrosis remains unclear. [...] Read more.
Mastitis is a common and important clinical disease in ruminants. This may be associated with inflammatory fibrosis if not treated promptly. Inflammation-derived fibrosis is usually accompanied by epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying mastitis-induced fibrosis remains unclear. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and Snail are key regulators of EMT. In this study, primary goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) were treated with 10 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 14 d to mimic the in vivo mastitis environment. After LPS treatment, the GMECs underwent mesenchymal morphological transformation and expressed mesenchymal cell markers. Snail expression was induced by LPS and was inhibited by suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Snail knockdown alleviated LPS-induced EMT and altered the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Finally, we found that the expression of key molecules of the TLR4/NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway was increased in mastitis tissues. These results suggest that Snail plays a vital role in LPS-induced EMT in GMECs and that the mechanism is dependent on the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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23 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Herd Routines and Veterinary Advice Related to Dry-Cow Therapy and Treatment with Internal Teat Sealants in Dairy Cows
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123411 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Dry-cow therapy with antibiotics (DCT) and treatment with internal teat sealants (ITS) are often used to control mastitis in dairy cows. However, the knowledge on farmer and veterinary compliance with recommendations for DCT and ITS is scarce. Thus, the main aim was to [...] Read more.
Dry-cow therapy with antibiotics (DCT) and treatment with internal teat sealants (ITS) are often used to control mastitis in dairy cows. However, the knowledge on farmer and veterinary compliance with recommendations for DCT and ITS is scarce. Thus, the main aim was to collect information on farmer routines and veterinary advice for such treatments. Associations with herd and veterinary variables were also studied. Web-based questionnaires including questions on demographics and the use of DCT and ITS were sent to 2472 farmers and 517 veterinarians in Sweden. The answers were summarized descriptively, and associations with demographics were evaluated using univariable regression models. The response rate was 14% for farmers and 25% for veterinarians. Among the farmers, 81% used selective DCT (SDCT), 3% used blanket DCT (BDCT), and 16% did not use DCT. Almost all (93%) veterinarians prescribed DCT and among those most recommended SDCT while 8% recommended BDCT. Eighty-two percent of the farmers did not use ITS and 45% of the veterinarians never prescribed ITS. Milking system and milk production, and post-graduate training and number of mastitis cases per month were associated with the largest numbers of farmer and veterinary answers, respectively. In conclusion, many farmer routines and veterinary advice complied with the recommendations available at the time, but a clear need for more education was also identified. The results also indicated that an up-date of the national recommendations was warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
8 pages, 2533 KiB  
Brief Report
First Report of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei Infection in Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Cultured in Korea
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113150 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
The consumption of cultured crustaceans has been steadily increasing, and Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) are major cultivated invertebrates worldwide. However, shrimp productivity faces a variety of challenges, mainly related to outbreaks of lethal or growth retardation-related diseases. In particular, hepatopancreatic [...] Read more.
The consumption of cultured crustaceans has been steadily increasing, and Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) are major cultivated invertebrates worldwide. However, shrimp productivity faces a variety of challenges, mainly related to outbreaks of lethal or growth retardation-related diseases. In particular, hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease associated with growth retardation in shrimp. Here, we report the detection of EHP through histopathological, molecular and electron microscopy methods in the hepatopancreas of Pacific whiteleg shrimp with growth disorder in a South Korean farm. Phylogenetic analysis showed a clade distinct from the previously reported EHP strains isolated in Thailand, India, China and Vietnam. An EHP infection was not associated with inflammatory responses such as hemocyte infiltration. Although EHP infection has been reported worldwide, this is the first report in the shrimp aquaculture in Korea. Therefore, an EHP infection should be managed and monitored regularly for effective disease control and prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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14 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Pathogenic Leptospira spp. Seroprevalence and Herd-Level Risk Factors Associated with Chilean Dairy Cattle
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113148 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a ubiquitous distributed zoonotic infectious disease present in wild and domestic animals. This study aimed to estimate within-herd and herd-level seroprevalence against pathogenic Leptospira spp. in dairy cows from southern Chile and identify risk factors associated with the herd-level status. We [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a ubiquitous distributed zoonotic infectious disease present in wild and domestic animals. This study aimed to estimate within-herd and herd-level seroprevalence against pathogenic Leptospira spp. in dairy cows from southern Chile and identify risk factors associated with the herd-level status. We used a multi-stage strategy combined with a stratified sample strategy for randomly sampling 147 herds and 4876 lactating cows. We considered as infected a herd with at least one positive reactor to MAT. In addition, an epidemiological survey was applied to the herd’s owners and a logistic regression (LR) model was constructed to analyze it. The overall within-herd prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.9–6.8), the overall herd-level prevalence was 42.2% (95% CI 9.2–47.9), and there was variation in both between different herd sizes. L. borgpetersenii serovars Hardjo and Tarassovi and L. interrogans serovar Pomona were the more frequent serovars in non-vaccinated herds. A factor that decreases the risk of a farm being infected was Leptospira vaccine usage (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.02–0.11), and variables that increase risk were using bulls for mating (OR = 3.43; 95% CI = 1.1–10.1) and continuous calving distribution (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.3–8.8). The study’s results will contribute to unravelling the infection burden in the main dairy area of the country and designing control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
12 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic PIA-Dependent Biofilm Production by Clinical Non-Typeable Staphylococcus aureus Is Not Associated with the Intensity of Inflammation in Mammary Gland: A Pilot Study Using Mouse Mastitis Model
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113047 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Non-typeable (NT) Staphylococcus aureus strains are associated with chronic bovine mastitis. This study investigates the impact of biofilm formation by clinical NT S. aureus on cytokine production and mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Mice infected with two different NT [...] Read more.
Non-typeable (NT) Staphylococcus aureus strains are associated with chronic bovine mastitis. This study investigates the impact of biofilm formation by clinical NT S. aureus on cytokine production and mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Mice infected with two different NT S. aureus strains with strong and weak biofilm forming potential demonstrated identical clinical symptoms (moderate), minimal inflammatory infiltrates, and tissue damage (level 1 histopathological changes) in the mammary glands. However, the S. aureus load in the mammary glands of mice and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ) in serum were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in those infected with the strong biofilm forming NT S. aureus strain. The level of IL-6 in sera samples of these mice was extremely high (15,479.9 ± 532 Pg/mL). Furthermore, these mice died in 24h of post infection compared to 30 h in the weak biofilm forming NT S. aureus infected group. The study demonstrates no association between the strength of PIA (polysaccharide intercellular adhesion)-dependent biofilm production by clinical NT S. aureus and mammary gland pathology in a mouse mastitis model. However, the role of biofilm in the virulence of S. aureus advancing the time of mortality in mice warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
10 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
Bayesian Estimation of Diagnostic Accuracy of Three Diagnostic Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Egyptian Dairy Cattle Using Latent Class Models
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110246 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to calculate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), rapid lateral flow test (RLFT), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to calculate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT), rapid lateral flow test (RLFT), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in Egyptian dairy cattle herds within a Bayesian framework. The true M. bovis infection within-herd prevalence was assessed as a secondary objective. Data on the test results of SCT, RLFT, and RT-PCR for the detection of M. bovis were available from 245 cows in eleven herds in six major governorates in Egypt. A Bayesian latent class model was built for the estimation of the characteristics of the three tests. Our findings showed that Se of SCT (0.93 (95% Posterior credible interval (PCI): 0.89–0.93)) was higher than that of RT-PCR (0.83 (95% PCI: 0.28–0.93)) but was similar to the Se of RLFT (0.93 (95% PCI: 0.31–0.99)). On the contrary, SCT showed the lowest Sp estimate (0.60 (95% PCI: 0.59–0.65)), whereas Sp estimates of RT-PCR (0.99 (95% PCI: 0.95–1.00)) and RLFT (0.99 (95% PCI: 0.95–1.00)) were comparable. The true prevalence of M. bovis ranged between 0.07 and 0.71. In conclusion, overall, RT-PCR and RLFT registered superior performance to SCT, making them good candidates for routine use in the Egyptian bovine tuberculosis control program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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20 pages, 624 KiB  
Article
Application of Methods to Assess Animal Welfare and Suffering Caused by Infectious Diseases in Cattle and Swine Populations
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113017 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
Control of infectious diseases in livestock has often been motivated by food safety concerns and the economic impact on livestock production. However, diseases may also affect animal welfare. We present an approach to quantify the effect of five infectious diseases on animal welfare [...] Read more.
Control of infectious diseases in livestock has often been motivated by food safety concerns and the economic impact on livestock production. However, diseases may also affect animal welfare. We present an approach to quantify the effect of five infectious diseases on animal welfare in cattle (three diseases) and pigs (two diseases). We grouped clinical manifestations that often occur together into lists of clinical entities for each disease based on literature reviews, and subsequently estimated “suffering scores” based on an aggregation of duration, frequency, and severity. The duration and severity were based on literature reviews and expert knowledge elicitation, while frequency was based mainly on estimates from the literature. The resulting suffering scores were compared to scores from common welfare hazards found under Danish conditions. Most notably, the suffering scores for cattle diseases were ranked as: bovine viral diarrhoea and infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis > infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and for pigs as: porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome > Aujeszky’s disease. The approach has limitations due to the limited data available in literature and uncertainties associated with expert knowledge, but it can provide decision makers with a tool to quantify the impact of infections on animal welfare given these uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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17 pages, 5914 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics Analysis Reveals the Immune Response Mechanism of Rabbits with Diarrhea Fed an Antibiotic-Free Diet
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102994 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
China officially promulgated the announcement of banning the use of antibiotics in the animal industry in 2020. However, the prohibition of antibiotics in the animal industry would reduce the feed conversion rate and increase the mortality of animals. In order to obtain information [...] Read more.
China officially promulgated the announcement of banning the use of antibiotics in the animal industry in 2020. However, the prohibition of antibiotics in the animal industry would reduce the feed conversion rate and increase the mortality of animals. In order to obtain information about the pathogenesis and host immune response of rabbits with diarrhea after being fed an antibiotic-free diet, we first analyzed the intestinal tissue sections of rabbits. Secondly, the gene expression differences of rabbit intestinal segments were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Our analysis identified 168, 593, 2069, 334, 321, and 1423 DEGs in the comparison groups S_Z (the duodenum of healthy rabbits) vs. S_B (diarrhea in the duodenum of rabbits), K_Z (healthy rabbit jejunum) vs. K_B (rabbits with diarrhea in the jejunum), H_Z (healthy rabbit ileum) vs. H_B (rabbits with diarrhea in the ileum), M_Z (healthy cecum of rabbits) vs. M_B (rabbits with diarrhea in the cecum), J_Z (healthy rabbit colon) vs. J_B (colon of rabbits with diarrhea), and Z_Z (healthy rabbit rectum) vs. Z_B (rectum of rabbits with diarrhea), respectively. The reproducibility and repeatability of the results were validated by RT-qPCR. Enrichment analyses of GO annotations and KEGG pathways revealed the host DEGs that are potentially related to acute inflammation, stress response, tissue dehydration, adaptive immune response, protein binding, activation of related enzymes, migration of immune cells, and so on. In this descriptive study, our findings revealed the changes in the host transcriptome expression profile after feeding an antibiotic-free diet and suggested that feeding an antibiotic-free diet alters the host’s metabolic network and the expression of antiviral proteins, which provides a theoretical basis for further study on the immune response of animals fed an antibiotic-free diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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16 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Fusion Expression and Immune Effect of PCV2 Cap Protein Tandem Multiantigen Epitopes with CD154/GM-CSF
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100211 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
Porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) is a contagious disease of swine caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The capsid protein (Cap) is the sole structural protein and the main antigen of PCV2. Cap is the principal immunogenic protein and induces humoral and [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) is a contagious disease of swine caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The capsid protein (Cap) is the sole structural protein and the main antigen of PCV2. Cap is the principal immunogenic protein and induces humoral and cellular immunity. CD154 and GM-CSF are immune adjuvants that enhance responses to vaccines. However, whether these two cellular molecules could produce an enhanced effect in PCV2 vaccines still needs to be further studied. The results of PCR and restriction enzyme showed that the recombinant lentiviral plasmids pCDH-TB-Cap, pCDH-TB-Cap-CD154 and pCDH-TB-Cap were successfully constructed. Western blot and IFA showed that the three fusion proteins TB-Cap, TB-Cap-CD154 and TB-Cap-GM-CSF were stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Indirect ELISA assay showed that mice immunized with TB-Cap-CD154 and TB-Cap-GM-CSF fusion proteins produced higher PCV2-specific antibodies than mice immunized with the TB-Cap and a commercial vaccine (p < 0.0001). Moreover, lymphocyte proliferation and flow cytometry showed that the cellular immune response of each immune group was significantly enhanced (p < 0.0001). After PCV2 challenge, the results revealed that the viral loads in serum, lung and kidney of all vaccinated groups were significantly lower than the PBS group (p < 0.0001). The transcription levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines in the TB-Cap, TB-Cap-CD154 and TB-Cap-GM-CSF groups were significantly higher than those in the PBS and recombinant vaccine groups (p < 0.0001). These results indicated that CD154 and GM-CSF could enhance the ability of TB-Cap protein to induce the body to produce PCV2 specific antibodies and increase the transcription level of cytokines. Thus, CD154 and GM-CSF molecules were a powerful immunoadjuvant for PCV2 subunit vaccines. The novel TB-Cap-CD154 and TB-Cap-GM-CSF subunit vaccine has the potential to be used for the prevention and control of PCVAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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13 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Molecular Detection and Characterization of Blastocystis sp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Cattle in Northern Spain
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(9), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8090191 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Some enteric parasites causing zoonotic diseases in livestock have been poorly studied or even neglected. This is the case in stramenopile Blastocystis sp. and the microsporidia Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Spain. This transversal molecular epidemiological survey aims to estimate the prevalence and molecular diversity [...] Read more.
Some enteric parasites causing zoonotic diseases in livestock have been poorly studied or even neglected. This is the case in stramenopile Blastocystis sp. and the microsporidia Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Spain. This transversal molecular epidemiological survey aims to estimate the prevalence and molecular diversity of Blastocystis sp. and E. bieneusi in cattle faecal samples (n = 336) in the province of Álava, Northern Spain. Initial detection of Blastocystis and E. bieneusi was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing of the small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, respectively. Intra-host Blastocystis subtype diversity was further investigated by next generation amplicon sequencing (NGS) of the ssu rRNA gene in those samples that tested positive by conventional PCR. Amplicons compatible with Blastocystis sp. and E. bieneusi were observed in 32.1% (108/336, 95% CI: 27.2–37.4%) and 0.6% (2/336, 95% CI: 0.0–1.4%) of the cattle faecal samples examined, respectively. Sanger sequencing produced ambiguous/unreadable sequence data for most of the Blastocystis isolates sequenced. NGS allowed the identification of 10 Blastocystis subtypes including ST1, ST3, ST5, ST10, ST14, ST21, ST23, ST24, ST25, and ST26. All Blastocystis-positive isolates involved mixed infections of 2–8 STs in a total of 31 different combinations. The two E. bieneusi sequences were confirmed as potentially zoonotic genotype BEB4. Our data demonstrate that Blastocystis mixed subtype infections are extremely frequent in cattle in the study area. NGS was particularly suited to discern underrepresented subtypes or mixed subtype infections that were undetectable or unreadable by Sanger sequencing. The presence of zoonotic Blastocystis ST1, ST3, and ST5, and E. bieneusi BEB4 suggest cross-species transmission and a potential risk of human infection/colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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