Viruses for Novel Biomaterials

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 13644

Special Issue Editor

1. Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medical Biological Agency, 119435 Moscow, Russia
2. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, N.F. Gamaleya of the Russian Ministry of Health, 123098 Moscow, Russia
Interests: bionanotechnology; virology; immunology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, investigating viruses is of great importance due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as well as simultaneous and consecutive co-infections with viruses and bacteria, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral infections in previously infected or vaccinated hosts, and bionanotechnological platforms for novel biomaterials with target delivery, high penetration into certain types of cells, natural ways of intracellular distribution, and biodegradation. Therefore, an enormous diversity of viruses, approximately~1030, is at the forefront of basic and applied interdisciplinary research, epidemiology, vaccinology, and clinical diagnostics.

Further research of molecular evolution and rearrangements of quasispecies of RNA- and DNA-containing viruses, the possible integration of viral genomic DNA into cellular chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA, innate and adaptive immune responses during natural infection and after vaccination, the interaction of viral factors with the host immune system and cellular proteins, and the evaluation of currently available vaccines against new viral threats are necessary for the possible implementation in bionanotechnology, vaccinology, drug design, and the development of diagnostic systems for acute and chronic infections.

This Special Issue, “Viruses for Novel Biomaterials”, will include selected research and review articles describing mechanisms of virus adaptation to their hosts, factors of innate and adaptive immunity, and the possible implementation of attenuated viruses in nanotechnology.

Dr. Olga V. Morozova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • molecular evolution of virus quasispecies
  • innate resistance and virus-specific immune response
  • new approaches for vaccine design
  • detection of novel and re-emerging viral infections
  • biosafety of implementation of viruses in bionanotechnology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Silver Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Non-Neurological and Neurological Distemper in Dogs: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Viruses 2022, 14(11), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14112329 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 10056
Abstract
Canine distemper is caused by canine distemper virus (CDV), a multisystemic infectious disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate in dogs. Nanotechnology represents a development opportunity for new molecules with antiviral effects that may become effective treatments in veterinary medicine. This study [...] Read more.
Canine distemper is caused by canine distemper virus (CDV), a multisystemic infectious disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate in dogs. Nanotechnology represents a development opportunity for new molecules with antiviral effects that may become effective treatments in veterinary medicine. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in 207 CDV, naturally infected, mixed-breed dogs exhibiting clinical signs of the non-neurological and neurological phases of the disease. Group 1a included 52 dogs (experimental group) diagnosed with non-neurologic distemper treated with 3% oral and nasal AgNPs in addition to supportive therapy. Group 1b included 46 dogs (control group) diagnosed with non-neurological distemper treated with supportive therapy only. Group 2a included 58 dogs with clinical signs of neurological distemper treated with 3% oral and nasal AgNPs in addition to supportive therapy. Group 2b included 51 dogs (control group) diagnosed with clinical signs of neurological distemper treated with supportive therapy only. Efficacy was measured by the difference in survival rates: in Group 1a, the survival rate was 44/52 (84.6%), versus 7/46 in Group 1b (15.2%), while both showed clinical signs of non-neurological distemper. The survival rate of dogs with clinical signs of neurological distemper in Group 2a (38/58; 65.6%) was significantly higher than those in Control Group 2b (0/51; 0%). No adverse reactions were detected in experimental groups treated with AgNPs. AgNPs significantly improved survival in dogs with clinical signs of neurological and non-neurological distemper. The use of AgNPs in the treatment of neurological distemper led to a drastic increase in the proportion of dogs recovered without sequels compared to dogs treated without AgNPs. The evidence demonstrates that AgNP therapy can be considered as a targeted treatment in dogs severely affected by canine distemper virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses for Novel Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 1609 KiB  
Article
Targeting of Silver Cations, Silver-Cystine Complexes, Ag Nanoclusters, and Nanoparticles towards SARS-CoV-2 RNA and Recombinant Virion Proteins
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050902 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Background: Nanosilver possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, antiplatelet, and anticancer properties. The development of disinfectants, inactivated vaccines, and combined etiotropic and immunomodulation therapy against respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19, remains urgent. Aim: Our goal was to determine the SARS-CoV-2 molecular targets (genomic [...] Read more.
Background: Nanosilver possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, antiplatelet, and anticancer properties. The development of disinfectants, inactivated vaccines, and combined etiotropic and immunomodulation therapy against respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19, remains urgent. Aim: Our goal was to determine the SARS-CoV-2 molecular targets (genomic RNA and the structural virion proteins S and N) for silver-containing nanomaterials. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 gene cloning, purification of S2 and N recombinant proteins, viral RNA isolation from patients’ blood samples, reverse transcription with quantitative real-time PCR ((RT)2-PCR), ELISA, and multiplex immunofluorescent analysis with magnetic beads (xMAP) for detection of 17 inflammation markers. Results: Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (NCs) less than 2 nm with a few recovered silver atoms, citrate coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 20–120 nm, and nanoconjugates of 50–150 nm consisting of Ag NPs with different protein envelopes were constructed from AgNO3 and analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible light absorption, and fluorescent spectroscopy. SARS-CoV-2 RNA isolated from COVID-19 patients’ blood samples was completely cleaved with the artificial RNase complex compound Li+[Ag+2Cys2(OH)2(NH3)2] (Ag-2S), whereas other Ag-containing materials provided partial RNA degradation only. Treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 S2 and N recombinant antigens with AgNO3 and Ag NPs inhibited their binding with specific polyclonal antibodies, as shown by ELISA. Fluorescent Ag NCs with albumin or immunoglobulins, Ag-2S complex, and nanoconjugates of Ag NPs with protein shells had no effect on the interaction between coronavirus recombinant antigens and antibodies. Reduced production of a majority of the 17 inflammation biomarkers after treatment of three human cell lines with nanosilver was demonstrated by xMAP. Conclusion: The antiviral properties of the silver nanomaterials against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus differed. The small-molecular-weight artificial RNase Ag-2S provided exhaustive RNA destruction but could not bind with the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant antigens. On the contrary, Ag+ ions and Ag NPs interacted with the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant antigens N and S but were less efficient at performing viral RNA cleavage. One should note that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was more stable than MS2 phage RNA. The isolated RNA of both the MS2 phage and SARS-CoV-2 were more degradable than the MS2 phage and coronavirus particles in patients’ blood, due to the protection with structural proteins. To reduce the risk of the virus resistance, a combined treatment with Ag-2S and Ag NPs could be used. To prevent cytokine storm during the early stages of respiratory infections with RNA-containing viruses, nanoconjugates of Ag NPs with surface proteins could be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses for Novel Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 3301 KiB  
Brief Report
Silver Nanoparticles Proved to Be Efficient Antivirals In Vitro against Three Highly Pathogenic Fish Viruses
Viruses 2023, 15(8), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15081689 - 03 Aug 2023
Viewed by 724
Abstract
The efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was tested in vitro against three different fish viruses, causing significant economic damage in aquaculture. These viruses were the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), European catfish virus (ECV), and Ictalurid herpesvirus 2 (IcHV-2). The safe concentration [...] Read more.
The efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was tested in vitro against three different fish viruses, causing significant economic damage in aquaculture. These viruses were the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), European catfish virus (ECV), and Ictalurid herpesvirus 2 (IcHV-2). The safe concentration of AgNPs that did not cause cytotoxic effects in EPC cells proved to be 25 ng/mL. This dose of AgNPs decreased significantly (5–330×) the viral load of all three viruses in three different types of treatments (virus pre-treatment, cell pre-treatment, and cell post-treatment with the AgNPs). In a higher concentration, the AgNPs proved to be efficient against ECV and IcHV-2 even in a delayed post-cell-treatment experiment (AgNP treatment was applied 24 h after the virus inoculation). These first in vitro results against three devastating fish viruses are encouraging to continue the study of the applicability of AgNPs in aquaculture in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses for Novel Biomaterials)
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