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Polymeric Material for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 6312

Special Issue Editor

Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of Federal Medical Biological Agency, 119435 Moscow, Russia
Interests: molecular virology; bionanotechnology; molecular biology; immunology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymeric materials are of great importance because of their relatively low cost synthesis; developed methods of fabrication; and wide range of physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. The great diversity of natural (proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids), bio-based, and synthetic polymers as well as their copolymers is at the cutting edge of multi- and inter-disciplinary research. The fabrication of nanostructures, including nanofibers, nanofilms, and nanoparticles, from polymers is necessary for tissue engineering and bionanotechnology.

Further elucidation and evaluation of the currently available synthetic and natural polymers, their hybrids, and novel materials are required for a comprehensive analysis of their stability, cellular uptake, acute and chronic toxicity, induction of innate and adaptive immunity and allergic complications for their possible implementation in bionanotechnology, vaccinology, drug design, and tissue engineering.

This Special Issue, “Polymeric Material for Biomedical Applications”, will include selected research and review articles describing both the advantages and disadvantages of already known and novel polymers for biomedical applications.

Prof. Dr. Olga V. Morozova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • synthetic and natural polymers
  • hybrid copolymers
  • bio-based polymer
  • bionanotechnology for fabrication and implementation of polymeric materials
  • 3D tissue engineering
  • cytotoxicity, intracellular delivery and biodegradation of polymeric materials
  • immunomodulation potential of synthetic and natural polymers with possible allergic sequelae

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 3446 KiB  
Article
Self-Assembled Nanoparticles Based on Block-Copolymers of Poly(2-Deoxy-2-methacrylamido-d-glucose)/Poly(N-Vinyl Succinamic Acid) with Poly(O-Cholesteryl Methacrylate) for Delivery of Hydrophobic Drugs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111457 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
The self-assembly of amphiphilic block-copolymers is a convenient way to obtain soft nanomaterials of different morphology and scale. In turn, the use of a biomimetic approach makes it possible to synthesize polymers with fragments similar to natural macromolecules but more resistant to biodegradation. [...] Read more.
The self-assembly of amphiphilic block-copolymers is a convenient way to obtain soft nanomaterials of different morphology and scale. In turn, the use of a biomimetic approach makes it possible to synthesize polymers with fragments similar to natural macromolecules but more resistant to biodegradation. In this study, we synthesized the novel bio-inspired amphiphilic block-copolymers consisting of poly(N-methacrylamido-d-glucose) or poly(N-vinyl succinamic acid) as a hydrophilic fragment and poly(O-cholesteryl methacrylate) as a hydrophobic fragment. Block-copolymers were synthesized by radical addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization using dithiobenzoate or trithiocarbonate chain-transfer agent depending on the first monomer, further forming the hydrophilic block. Both homopolymers and copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, as well as thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained copolymers had low dispersity (1.05–1.37) and molecular weights in the range of ~13,000–32,000. The amphiphilic copolymers demonstrated enhanced thermal stability in comparison with hydrophilic precursors. According to dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, the obtained amphiphilic copolymers were able to self-assemble in aqueous media into nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 200 nm. An investigation of nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy revealed their spherical shape. The obtained nanoparticles did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells, and they were characterized by a low uptake by macrophages in vitro. Paclitaxel loaded into the developed polymer nanoparticles retained biological activity against lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Material for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 3422 KiB  
Article
Sequential Application of Calcium Phosphate and ε-Polylysine Show Antibacterial and Dentin Tubule Occluding Effects In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910681 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
In this study, ε-polylysine and calcium phosphate precipitation (CPP) methods were employed to induce antibacterial effects and dentin tubule occlusion. Antibacterial effects of ε-polylysine were evaluated with broth dilution assay against P. gingivalis. CPP solution from MCPM, DCPD, and TTCP was prepared. Four [...] Read more.
In this study, ε-polylysine and calcium phosphate precipitation (CPP) methods were employed to induce antibacterial effects and dentin tubule occlusion. Antibacterial effects of ε-polylysine were evaluated with broth dilution assay against P. gingivalis. CPP solution from MCPM, DCPD, and TTCP was prepared. Four concentrations of ε-polylysine(ε-PL) solutions (0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%) were prepared. Dentin discs were prepared from recently extracted human third molars. Dentin discs were incubated with P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277) bacterial suspension (ca. 105 bacteria) containing Brain Heart Infusion medium supplemented with 0.1 g/mL Vitamin K, 0.5 mg/mL hemin, 0.4 g/mL L-cysteine in anaerobic jars (37 °C) for 7 days to allow for biofilm formation. P. g–infected dentin specimens were randomly divided into four groups: CPP + 0.125% ε-PL, CPP + 0.25% ε-PL, CPP + 0.5% ε-PL, CPP + 1% ε-PL. On each dentin specimen, CPP solution was applied followed by polylysine solution with microbrush and immersed in artificial saliva. Precipitate formation, antibacterial effects, and occlusion of dentinal tubules were characterized in vitro over up to 72 h using scanning electron microscopy. ε-PL showed 34.97% to 61.19% growth inhibition levels against P. gingivalis (P. g) after 24 h of incubation. On P. g-infected dentin specimens, DCPD + 0.25% ε-PL, and DCPD + 0.5% ε-PL groups showed complete bacterial inhibition and 78.6% and 98.1% dentin tubule occlusion, respectively (p < 0.001). The longitudinal analysis on fractured dentin samples in DCPD and TTCP groups revealed deeply penetrated hydroxyapatite-like crystal formations in dentinal tubules after 72 h of incubation in artificial saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Material for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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13 pages, 421 KiB  
Review
Silver Nanostructures: Limited Sensitivity of Detection, Toxicity and Anti-Inflammation Effects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189928 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Nanosilver with sizes 1–100 nm at least in one dimension is widely used due to physicochemical, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, antiplatelet, antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. Three modes of the nanosilver action were suggested: “Trojan horse”, inductive, and quantum mechanical. The Ag+ cations [...] Read more.
Nanosilver with sizes 1–100 nm at least in one dimension is widely used due to physicochemical, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, antiplatelet, antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. Three modes of the nanosilver action were suggested: “Trojan horse”, inductive, and quantum mechanical. The Ag+ cations have an affinity to thiol, amino, phosphate, and carboxyl groups. Multiple mechanisms of action towards proteins, DNA, and membranes reduce a risk of pathogen resistance but inevitably cause toxicity for cells and organisms. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to generate two reactive oxygen species (ROS)-superoxide (•O2) and hydroxyl (•OH) radicals, which inhibit the cellular antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and cause mechanical damage of membranes. Ag+ release and replacement by electrolyte ions with potential formation of insoluble AgCl result in NP instability and interactions of heavy metals with nucleic acids and proteins. Protein shells protect AgNP core from oxidation, dissolution, and aggregation, and provide specific interactions with ligands. These nanoconjugates can be used for immunoassays and diagnostics, but the sensitivity is limited at 10 pg and specificity is restricted by binding with protective proteins (immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, albumin, and others). Thus, broad implementation of Ag nanostructures revealed limitations such as instability; binding with major blood proteins; damage of proteins, nucleic acids, and membranes; and immunosuppression of the majority of cytokines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Material for Biomedical Applications)
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