Polyomaviruses

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020) | Viewed by 59506

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, 600 Moye Blvd, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
Interests: polyomaviruses; cellular DNA synthesis regulation; DNA damage response; antiviral agents; flow and image cytometry of viral infection; response of stem cells/differentiated cells to polyomaviruses; cytogenetics; oncogenesis in vitro and in vivo

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Guest Editor
Department of Immunology & Microbial Diseases, Albany Medical College, 43 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
Interests: polyomaviruses; cell cycle regulation; DNA damage response; antiviral agents; cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Murine polyomavirus was originally detected by Gross in 1953 as a filterable agent in leukemic extracts that could produce parotid tumors in mice. Stewart and Eddy isolated and characterized this agent, which was named “SE polyoma” due to the many types of tumors induced. In 1960, Sweet and Hilleman identified simian virus 40 in rhesus monkey cells and polio vaccines. As a eukaryotic virus, SV40 was utilized as a model for DNA replication, transcription, and oncogenesis, which eventually led to understanding of the initiation of tumors and the process of transformation by a virus. There are now over 100 species in the Polyomaviridae family. Of these, 14 species are known to infect humans, and several are clearly associated with disease in immunocompromised patients. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is responsible for most cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, which develops in the sun-exposed skin of older adults. BKPyV infection can result in nephropathy in renal transplant recipients and hemorrhagic cystitis following bone marrow transplantation. JCPyV is the causative agent of the potentially fatal demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, which is a major concern for multiple sclerosis patients receiving immunotherapy. Evidence is also accumulating for involvement of BKPyV and JCPyV in human cancers.

In this Special Issue, we wish to explore areas of investigation that address current priorities in polyomavirus research which include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Development of pharmacological, genetic, and immunological therapeutics for pathogenic PyV infections;
  • Definition of oncogenic mechanisms responsible for tumor formation in PyV-infected tissues;
  • Identification of human and veterinary diseases associated with newly identified PyVs;
  • Elucidation of the molecular and cellular biology of human and animal PyV infections to better understand unique and shared mechanisms.

Dr. John M. Lehman
Dr. Thomas D. Friedrich
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • polyomaviruses—animal & human
  • treatment options
  • mechanisms of oncogenesis
  • mechanisms of viral pathogenesis

Published Papers (19 papers)

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24 pages, 4787 KiB  
Article
Chk1 and the Host Cell DNA Damage Response as a Potential Antiviral Target in BK Polyomavirus Infection
by Lydia E. Hainley, Martina S. Hughson, Amithi Narendran, Ralph Smith, Justin Arthur, Alida Hayner-Buchan, David J. Conti, John M. Lehman and Thomas D. Friedrich
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071353 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3158
Abstract
The human BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is latent in the kidneys of most adults, but can be reactivated in immunosuppressed states, such as following renal transplantation. If left unchecked, BK polyomavirus nephropathy (PyVAN) and possible graft loss may result from viral destruction of tubular [...] Read more.
The human BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is latent in the kidneys of most adults, but can be reactivated in immunosuppressed states, such as following renal transplantation. If left unchecked, BK polyomavirus nephropathy (PyVAN) and possible graft loss may result from viral destruction of tubular epithelial cells and interstitial fibrosis. When coupled with regular post-transplant screening, immunosuppression reduction has been effective in limiting BKPyV viremia and the development of PyVAN. Antiviral drugs that are safe and effective in combating BKPyV have not been identified but would be a benefit in complementing or replacing immunosuppression reduction. The present study explores inhibition of the host DNA damage response (DDR) as an antiviral strategy. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses of PyVAN biopsies provide evidence for stimulation of a DDR in vivo. DDR pathways were also stimulated in vitro following BKPyV infection of low-passage human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. The role of Chk1, a protein kinase known to be involved in the replication stress-induced DDR, was examined by inhibition with the small molecule LY2603618 and by siRNA-mediated knockdown. Inhibition of Chk1 resulted in decreased replication of BKPyV DNA and viral spread. Activation of mitotic pathways was associated with the reduction in BKPyV replication. Chk1 inhibitors that are found to be safe and effective in clinical trials for cancer should also be evaluated for antiviral activity against BKPyV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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18 pages, 9130 KiB  
Article
Induction of Brain Tumors by the Archetype Strain of Human Neurotropic JCPyV in a Transgenic Mouse Model
by Luis Del Valle and Kamel Khalili
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020162 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
JC Virus (JCPyV), a member of the Polyomaviridiæ family, is a human neurotropic virus with world-wide distribution. JCPyV is the established opportunistic infectious agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a fatal demyelinating disease, which results from the cytolytic infection of oligodendrocytes. Mutations in the [...] Read more.
JC Virus (JCPyV), a member of the Polyomaviridiæ family, is a human neurotropic virus with world-wide distribution. JCPyV is the established opportunistic infectious agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a fatal demyelinating disease, which results from the cytolytic infection of oligodendrocytes. Mutations in the regulatory region of JCPyV determine the different viral strains. Mad-1 the strain associated with PML contains two 98 base pair repeats, whereas the archetype strain (CY), which is the transmissible form of JCPyV, contains only one 98 tandem with two insertions of 62 and 23 base pairs respectively. The oncogenicity of JCPyV has been suspected since direct inoculation into the brain of rodents and primates resulted in the development of brain tumors and has been attributed to the viral protein, T-Antigen. To further understand the oncogenicity of JCPyV, a transgenic mouse colony containing the early region of the archetype strain (CY), under the regulation of its own promoter was generated. These transgenic animals developed tumors of neural crest origin, including: primitive neuroectodermal tumors, medulloblastomas, adrenal neuroblastomas, pituitary tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and glioblastomas. Neoplastic cells from all different phenotypes express T-Antigen. The close parallels between the tumors developed by these transgenic animals and human CNS tumors make this animal model an excellent tool for the study of viral oncogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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19 pages, 4111 KiB  
Article
The Urinary Polyomavirus-Haufen Test: A Highly Predictive Non-Invasive Biomarker to Distinguish “Presumptive” from “Definitive” Polyomavirus Nephropathy: How to Use It—When to Use It—How Does It Compare to PCR Based Assays?
by Volker Nickeleit, Vicki G. Davis, Bawana Thompson and Harsharan K. Singh
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010135 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2849
Abstract
“Definitive” biopsy proven polyomavirus nephropathy (PyVN), usually caused by BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), remains a significant infection of kidney transplants. Diagnosis depends upon an allograft biopsy and outcome depends upon early intervention. Here, we report data on a non-invasive biomarker for PyVN, the urinary [...] Read more.
“Definitive” biopsy proven polyomavirus nephropathy (PyVN), usually caused by BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), remains a significant infection of kidney transplants. Diagnosis depends upon an allograft biopsy and outcome depends upon early intervention. Here, we report data on a non-invasive biomarker for PyVN, the urinary PyV-Haufen test. Test results were compared to those of conventional laboratory assays targeting PyV replication, i.e., BKPy-viremia, -viruria and urinary decoy cell shedding. Of 809 kidney transplant recipients, 228 (28%) showed PyV replication with decoy cell shedding and/or BKPy-viremia by quantitative PCR; only a subset of 81/228 (36%) showed “definitive” PyVN. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with PyVN was: 100% and 98%, respectively, urinary PyV-Haufen test; 50% and 54%, respectively, urinary decoy cell shedding; 97% and 32%, respectively, BKPy-viremia with cut-off of ≥250 viral copies/mL; 66% and 80%, respectively, for BKPy-viremia ≥104 viral copies/mL. The PyV-Haufen test showed a very strong correlation with the severity of PyVN (Spearman’s ρ = 0.84) and the Banff PyVN disease classes (p < 0.001). In comparison, BKPy-viremia and -viruria levels by PCR displayed modest correlations with PyVN severity (Spearman’s ρ = 0.35 and 0.36, respectively) and were not significantly associated with disease classes. No association was found between decoy cell shedding and PyVN severity or disease classes. Pilot data demonstrated that PyVN resolution with decreasing Banff pvl-scores was reflected by a gradual decrease in PyV-Haufen shedding; such a tight association was not noted for BKPy-viremia. In conclusion, urinary PyV-Haufen testing is a highly specific, non-invasive method to accurately diagnose patients with “definitive” PyVN and to optimize patient management. Assay specifics are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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8 pages, 1229 KiB  
Communication
Evaluation of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA in Tissue Samples from Italian Patients with Diagnosis of MCC
by Carla Prezioso, Raffaella Carletti, Francisco Obregon, Francesca Piacentini, Anna Maria Manicone, Giuseppe Soda, Ugo Moens, Cira Di Gioia and Valeria Pietropaolo
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010061 - 5 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2368
Abstract
Because the incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) has increased significantly during the last 10 years and it is recognized that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation represent two different etiological inputs sharing clinical, histopathological, and prognostic similar features, although with [...] Read more.
Because the incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) has increased significantly during the last 10 years and it is recognized that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation represent two different etiological inputs sharing clinical, histopathological, and prognostic similar features, although with different prognosis, this study investigated the detection of MCPyV in skin and lymph nodes with histological diagnosis of MCC. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) were retrieved from archived specimens and MCPyV non-coding control region (NCCR) and viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) sequences were amplified and sequenced. Results provide an interesting observation concerning the discrepancy between the MCPyV DNA status in primary and metastatic sites: in fact, in all cases in which primary and metastatic lesions were investigated, MCPyV DNA was detected only in the primary lesions. Our data further support the “hit-and-run” theory, also proposed by other authors, and may lead to speculation that in some MCCs the virus is only necessary for the process of tumor initiation and that further mutations may render the tumor independent from the virus. Few point mutations were detected in the NCCR and only silent mutations were observed in the VP1 sequence compared to the MCPyV MCC350 isolate. To unequivocally establish a role of MCPyV in malignancies, additional well-controlled investigations are required, and larger cohorts should be examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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15 pages, 4053 KiB  
Article
Variations in BK Polyomavirus Immunodominant Large Tumor Antigen-Specific 9mer CD8 T-Cell Epitopes Predict Altered HLA-Presentation and Immune Failure
by Karoline Leuzinger, Amandeep Kaur, Maud Wilhelm and Hans H. Hirsch
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121476 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
Failing BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-specific immune control is underlying onset and duration of BKPyV-replication and disease. We focused on BKPyV-specific CD8 T-cells as key effectors and characterized immunodominant 9mer epitopes in the viral large tumor-antigen (LTag). We investigated the variation of LTag-epitopes and their [...] Read more.
Failing BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-specific immune control is underlying onset and duration of BKPyV-replication and disease. We focused on BKPyV-specific CD8 T-cells as key effectors and characterized immunodominant 9mer epitopes in the viral large tumor-antigen (LTag). We investigated the variation of LTag-epitopes and their predicted effects on HLA-class 1 binding and T-cell activation. Available BKPyV sequences in the NCBI-nucleotide (N = 3263), and the NCBI protein database (N = 4189) were extracted (1368 sequences) and analyzed for non-synonymous aa-exchanges in LTag. Variant 9mer-epitopes were assessed for predicted changes in HLA-A and HLA-B-binding compared to immunodominant 9mer reference. We identified 159 non-synonymous aa-exchanges in immunodominant LTag-9mer T-cell epitopes reflecting different BKPyV-genotypes as well as genotype-independent variants altering HLA-A/HLA-B-binding scores. Decreased binding scores for HLA-A/HLA-B were found in 27/159 (17%). This included the immunodominant LPLMRKAYL affecting HLA-B*07:02-, HLA-B*08:01- and HLA-B*51:01-presentation. In two healthy BKPyV-seropositive HLA-B*07:02 blood donors, variant LSLMRKAYL showed reduced CD8 T-cell responses compared to LPLMRKAYL. Thus, despite LTag being highly conserved, aa-exchanges occur in immunodominant CD8 T-cell epitopes of BKPyV-genotypes as well as of genotypes -independent variants, which may contribute to genotype-dependent and genotype-independent failure of cellular immune control over BKPyV-replication. The data warrant epidemiological and immunological investigations in carefully designed clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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9 pages, 859 KiB  
Communication
Inadequate Immune Humoral Response against JC Virus in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Non-Survivors
by Morgane Solis, Aurélien Guffroy, François Lersy, Eric Soulier, Floriane Gallais, Mathilde Renaud, Nawal Douiri, Xavier Argemi, Yves Hansmann, Jérôme De Sèze, Stéphane Kremer and Samira Fafi-Kremer
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121380 - 2 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
JC virus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed patients. There is currently no effective specific antiviral treatment and PML management relies on immune restoration. Prognosis markers are crucially needed in this disease because of its high mortality rate. In this work, [...] Read more.
JC virus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed patients. There is currently no effective specific antiviral treatment and PML management relies on immune restoration. Prognosis markers are crucially needed in this disease because of its high mortality rate. In this work, we investigated the compartmentalization of JCV strains as well as the humoral neutralizing response in various matrices to further understand the pathophysiology of PML and define markers of survival. Four patients were included, of which three died in the few months following PML onset. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral loads were the highest, with plasma samples having lower viral loads and urine samples being mostly negative. Whether at PML onset or during follow-up, neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers directed against the same autologous strain (genotype or mutant) were the highest in plasma, with CSF titers being on average 430-fold lower and urine titers 500-fold lower at the same timepoint. Plasma NAb titers against autologous genotype or mutant were lower in non-survivor patients, though no neutralization “blind spot” was observed. The surviving patient was followed up until nine months after PML onset and presented, at that time, an increase in neutralizing titers, from 38-fold against the autologous genotype to around 200-fold against PML mutants. Our results suggest that patients’ humoral neutralizing response against their autologous strain may play a role in PML outcome, with survivors developing high NAb titers in both plasma and CSF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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19 pages, 2365 KiB  
Article
JCPyV T-Antigen Activation of the Anti-Apoptotic Survivin Promoter—Its Role in the Development of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
by Luis Del Valle, Thersa Sweet, Amanda Parker-Struckhoff, Georgina Perez-Liz and Sergio Piña-Oviedo
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111253 - 3 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS, resulting from the lytic infection of oligodendrocytes by the human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCPyV), typically associated with severe immunocompromised states and, in recent years, with the use of immunotherapies. Apoptosis is [...] Read more.
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS, resulting from the lytic infection of oligodendrocytes by the human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCPyV), typically associated with severe immunocompromised states and, in recent years, with the use of immunotherapies. Apoptosis is a homeostatic mechanism to dispose of senescent or damaged cells, including virally infected cells, triggered in the vast majority of viral infections of the brain. Previously, we showed upregulation of the normally dormant anti-apoptotic protein Survivin in cases of PML, which—in vitro—resulted in protection from apoptosis in JCPyV-infected primary cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In the present study, we first demonstrate the absence of apoptotic DNA fragmentation and the lack of caspase activity in 16 cases of PML. We also identified the viral protein large T-Antigen as being responsible for the activation of the Survivin promoter. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay shows a direct binding between T-Antigen and the Survivin promoter DNA. Finally, we have identified the specific region of T-Antigen, spanning from amino acids 266 and 688, which binds to Survivin and translocates it to the nucleus, providing evidence of a mechanism that results in the efficient replication of JCPyV and a potential target for novel therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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33 pages, 4178 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of the JC Virus (JCV) Large and Small Tumor Antigen Interacting Proteins: Large T Primarily Targets the Host Protein Complexes with V-ATPase and Ubiquitin Ligase Activities While Small t Mostly Associates with Those Having Phosphatase and Chromatin-Remodeling Functions
by Sami Saribas and Mahmut Safak
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101192 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3119
Abstract
The oncogenic potential of both the polyomavirus large (LT-Ag) and small (Sm t-Ag) tumor antigens has been previously demonstrated in both tissue culture and animal models. Even the contribution of the MCPyV tumor antigens to the development of an aggressive human skin cancer, [...] Read more.
The oncogenic potential of both the polyomavirus large (LT-Ag) and small (Sm t-Ag) tumor antigens has been previously demonstrated in both tissue culture and animal models. Even the contribution of the MCPyV tumor antigens to the development of an aggressive human skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, has been recently established. To date, the known primary targets of these tumor antigens include several tumor suppressors such as pRb, p53, and PP2A. However, a comprehensive list of the host proteins targeted by these proteins remains largely unknown. Here, we report the first interactome of JCV LT-Ag and Sm t-Ag by employing two independent “affinity purification/mass spectroscopy” (AP/MS) assays. The proteomics data identified novel targets for both tumor antigens while confirming some of the previously reported interactions. LT-Ag was found to primarily target the protein complexes with ATPase (v-ATPase and Smc5/6 complex), phosphatase (PP4 and PP1), and ligase (E3-ubiquitin) activities. In contrast, the major targets of Sm t-Ag were identified as Smarca1/6, AIFM1, SdhA/B, PP2A, and p53. The interactions between “LT-Ag and SdhB”, “Sm t-Ag and Smarca5”, and “Sm t-Ag and SDH” were further validated by biochemical assays. Interestingly, perturbations in some of the LT-Ag and Sm t-Ag targets identified in this study were previously shown to be associated with oncogenesis, suggesting new roles for both tumor antigens in novel oncogenic pathways. This comprehensive data establishes new foundations to further unravel the new roles for JCV tumor antigens in oncogenesis and the viral life cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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16 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Phosphoinositide 3′-Kinase γ Facilitates Polyomavirus Infection
by Paul Clark, Gretchen V. Gee, Brandon S. Albright, Benedetta Assetta, Ying Han, Walter J. Atwood and Daniel DiMaio
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101190 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2895
Abstract
Polyomaviruses are small, non-enveloped DNA tumor viruses that cause serious disease in immunosuppressed people, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients infected with JC polyomavirus, but the molecular events mediating polyomavirus entry are poorly understood. Through genetic knockdown approaches, we identified phosphoinositide 3′-kinase [...] Read more.
Polyomaviruses are small, non-enveloped DNA tumor viruses that cause serious disease in immunosuppressed people, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients infected with JC polyomavirus, but the molecular events mediating polyomavirus entry are poorly understood. Through genetic knockdown approaches, we identified phosphoinositide 3′-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and its regulatory subunit PIK3R5 as cellular proteins that facilitate infection of human SVG-A glial cells by JCPyV. PI3Kα appears less important for polyomavirus infection than PI3Kγ. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of PIK3R5 or PI3Kγ inhibited infection by authentic JCPyV and by JC pseudovirus. PI3Kγ knockout also inhibited infection by BK and Merkel Cell pseudoviruses, other pathogenic human polyomaviruses, and SV40, an important model polyomavirus. Reintroduction of the wild-type PI3Kγ gene into the PI3Kγ knock-out SVG-A cells rescued the JCPyV infection defect. Disruption of the PI3Kγ pathway did not block binding of JCPyV to cells or virus internalization, implying that PI3Kγ facilitates some intracellular step(s) of infection. These results imply that agents that inhibit PI3Kγ signaling may have a role in managing polyomavirus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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8 pages, 1941 KiB  
Communication
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T Antigen is Dispensable in G2 and M-Phase to Promote Proliferation of Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cells
by Roland Houben, Marlies Ebert, Sonja Hesbacher, Thibault Kervarrec and David Schrama
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101162 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer frequently caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), and proliferation of MCPyV-positive MCC tumor cells depends on the expression of a virus-encoded truncated Large T antigen (LT) oncoprotein. Here, we asked in which phases [...] Read more.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer frequently caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), and proliferation of MCPyV-positive MCC tumor cells depends on the expression of a virus-encoded truncated Large T antigen (LT) oncoprotein. Here, we asked in which phases of the cell cycle LT activity is required for MCC cell proliferation. Hence, we generated fusion-proteins of MCPyV-LT and parts of geminin (GMMN) or chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor1 (CDT1). This allowed us to ectopically express an LT, which is degraded either in the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle, respectively, in MCC cells with inducible T antigen knockdown. We demonstrate that LT expressed only in G1 is capable of rescuing LT knockdown-induced growth suppression while LT expressed in S and G2/M phases fails to support proliferation of MCC cells. These results suggest that the crucial function of LT, which has been demonstrated to be inactivation of the cellular Retinoblastoma protein 1 (RB1) is only required to initiate S phase entry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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17 pages, 5107 KiB  
Article
SV40 Polyomavirus Activates the Ras-MAPK Signaling Pathway for Vacuolization, Cell Death, and Virus Release
by Nasim Motamedi, Xaver Sewald, Yong Luo, Walther Mothes and Daniel DiMaio
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101128 - 5 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
Polyomaviruses are a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that can cause severe disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Studies with SV40, a well-studied model polyomavirus, have revealed the role of host proteins in polyomavirus entry and trafficking to the nucleus, in viral transcription and [...] Read more.
Polyomaviruses are a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that can cause severe disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Studies with SV40, a well-studied model polyomavirus, have revealed the role of host proteins in polyomavirus entry and trafficking to the nucleus, in viral transcription and DNA replication, and in cell transformation. In contrast, little is known about host factors or cellular signaling pathways involved in the late steps of productive infection leading to release of progeny polyomaviruses. We previously showed that cytoplasmic vacuolization, a characteristic late cytopathic effect of SV40 infection, depends on the specific interaction between the major viral capsid protein VP1 and its cell surface ganglioside receptor GM1. Here, we show that, late during infection, SV40 activates a signaling cascade in permissive monkey CV-1 cells involving Ras, Rac1, MKK4, and JNK to stimulate SV40-specific cytoplasmic vacuolization and subsequent cell lysis and virus release. Inhibition of individual components of this signaling pathway inhibits vacuolization, lysis, and virus release, even though high-level intracellular virus replication occurs. Identification of this pathway for SV40-induced vacuolization and virus release provides new insights into the late steps of non-enveloped virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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18 pages, 5160 KiB  
Article
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T Antigen Unique Domain Regulates Its Own Protein Stability and Cell Growth
by Nnenna Nwogu, Luz E. Ortiz and Hyun Jin Kwun
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091043 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3631
Abstract
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is the only known human oncogenic virus in the polyomaviridae family and the etiological agent of most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). MCC is an aggressive and highly metastatic skin cancer with a propensity for recurrence and poor prognosis. Large [...] Read more.
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is the only known human oncogenic virus in the polyomaviridae family and the etiological agent of most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). MCC is an aggressive and highly metastatic skin cancer with a propensity for recurrence and poor prognosis. Large tumor antigen (LT), is an essential oncoprotein for MCV transcription, viral replication, and cancer cell proliferation. MCV LT is a short-lived protein that encodes a unique domain: MCV LT unique regions (MURs). These domains consist of phosphorylation sites that interact with multiple E3 ligases, thus limiting LT expression and consequently, viral replication. In this study, we show that MURs are necessary for regulating LT stability via multiple E3 ligase interactions, resulting in cell growth arrest. While expression of wild-type MCV LT induced a decrease in cellular proliferation, deletion of the MUR domains resulted in increased LT stability and cell proliferation. Conversely, addition of MURs to SV40 LT propagated E3 ligase interactions, which in turn, reduced SV40 LT stability and decreased cell growth activity. Our results demonstrate that compared to other human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), MCV LT has evolved to acquire the MUR domains that are essential for MCV LT autoregulation, potentially leading to viral latency and MCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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15 pages, 6588 KiB  
Article
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the Context of Immunosuppression: Genetic Analysis of Noncoding Control Region (NCCR) Variability among a HIV-1-Positive Population
by Carla Prezioso, Francisco Obregon, Donatella Ambroselli, Sara Petrolo, Paola Checconi, Donatella Maria Rodio, Luigi Coppola, Angelo Nardi, Corrado de Vito, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni, Anna Teresa Palamara, Marco Ciotti and Valeria Pietropaolo
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050507 - 4 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2888
Abstract
Background: Since limited data are available about the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and the genetic variability of its noncoding control region (NCCR) in the context of immunosuppression, this study aimed to investigate the distribution of MCPyV in anatomical sites other than [...] Read more.
Background: Since limited data are available about the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and the genetic variability of its noncoding control region (NCCR) in the context of immunosuppression, this study aimed to investigate the distribution of MCPyV in anatomical sites other than the skin and the behavior of NCCR among an HIV-1-positive population. Methods: Urine, plasma, and rectal swabs specimens from a cohort of 66 HIV-1-positive patients were collected and subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for MCPyV DNA detection. MCPyV-positive samples were amplified by nested PCR targeting the NCCR, and NCCRs alignment was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of mutations and to identify putative binding sites for cellular factors. Results: MCPyV DNA was detected in 10/66 urine, in 7/66 plasma, and in 23/66 rectal samples, with a median value of 5 × 102 copies/mL, 1.5 × 102 copies/mL, and 2.3 × 103 copies/mL, respectively. NCCR sequence analysis revealed a high degree of homology with the MCC350 reference strain in urine, whereas transitions, transversions, and single or double deletions were observed in plasma and rectal swabs. In these latter samples, representative GTT and GTTGA insertions were also observed. Search for putative binding sites of cellular transcription factors showed that in several strains, deletions, insertions, or single base substitutions altered the NCCR canonical configuration. Conclusions: Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of numerous mutations in the NCCR, including insertions and deletions. Whether these mutations may have an impact on the pathogenic features of the virus remains to be determined. qPCR measured on average a low viral load in the specimens analyzed, with the exception of those with the GTTGA insertion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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Review

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30 pages, 2656 KiB  
Review
Genetic Diversity of the Noncoding Control Region of the Novel Human Polyomaviruses
by Ugo Moens, Carla Prezioso and Valeria Pietropaolo
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121406 - 7 Dec 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
The genomes of polyomaviruses are characterized by their tripartite organization with an early region, a late region and a noncoding control region (NCCR). The early region encodes proteins involved in replication and transcription of the viral genome, while expression of the late region [...] Read more.
The genomes of polyomaviruses are characterized by their tripartite organization with an early region, a late region and a noncoding control region (NCCR). The early region encodes proteins involved in replication and transcription of the viral genome, while expression of the late region generates the capsid proteins. Transcription regulatory sequences for expression of the early and late genes, as well as the origin of replication are encompassed in the NCCR. Cell tropism of polyomaviruses not only depends on the appropriate receptors on the host cell, but cell-specific expression of the viral genes is also governed by the NCCR. Thus far, 15 polyomaviruses have been isolated from humans, though it remains to be established whether all of them are genuine human polyomaviruses (HPyVs). The sequences of the NCCR of these HPyVs show high genetic variability and have been best studied in the human polyomaviruses BK and JC. Rearranged NCCRs in BKPyV and JCPyV, the first HPyVs to be discovered approximately 30 years ago, have been associated with the pathogenic properties of these viruses in nephropathy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, respectively. Since 2007, thirteen novel PyVs have been isolated from humans: KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, HPyV10, STLPyV, HPyV12, NJPyV, LIPyV and QPyV. This review describes all NCCR variants of the new HPyVs that have been reported in the literature and discusses the possible consequences of NCCR diversity in terms of promoter strength, putative transcription factor binding sites and possible association with diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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24 pages, 1644 KiB  
Review
Taking the Scenic Route: Polyomaviruses Utilize Multiple Pathways to Reach the Same Destination
by Colleen L. Mayberry and Melissa S. Maginnis
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101168 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3631
Abstract
Members of the Polyomaviridae family differ in their host range, pathogenesis, and disease severity. To date, some of the most studied polyomaviruses include human JC, BK, and Merkel cell polyomavirus and non-human subspecies murine and simian virus 40 (SV40) polyomavirus. Although dichotomies in [...] Read more.
Members of the Polyomaviridae family differ in their host range, pathogenesis, and disease severity. To date, some of the most studied polyomaviruses include human JC, BK, and Merkel cell polyomavirus and non-human subspecies murine and simian virus 40 (SV40) polyomavirus. Although dichotomies in host range and pathogenesis exist, overlapping features of the infectious cycle illuminate the similarities within this virus family. Of particular interest to human health, JC, BK, and Merkel cell polyomavirus have all been linked to critical, often fatal, illnesses, emphasizing the importance of understanding the underlying viral infections that result in the onset of these diseases. As there are significant overlaps in the capacity of polyomaviruses to cause disease in their respective hosts, recent advancements in characterizing the infectious life cycle of non-human murine and SV40 polyomaviruses are key to understanding diseases caused by their human counterparts. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which different polyomaviruses hijack cellular processes to attach to host cells, internalize, traffic within the cytoplasm, and disassemble within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), prior to delivery to the nucleus for viral replication. Unraveling the fundamental processes that facilitate polyomavirus infection provides deeper insight into the conserved mechanisms of the infectious process shared within this virus family, while also highlighting critical unique viral features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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19 pages, 1382 KiB  
Review
JCPyV VP1 Mutations in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Altering Tropism or Mediating Immune Evasion?
by Matthew D. Lauver and Aron E. Lukacher
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101156 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Polyomaviruses are ubiquitous human pathogens that cause lifelong, asymptomatic infections in healthy individuals. Although these viruses are restrained by an intact immune system, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for developing severe diseases driven by resurgent viral replication. In particular, loss of immune control [...] Read more.
Polyomaviruses are ubiquitous human pathogens that cause lifelong, asymptomatic infections in healthy individuals. Although these viruses are restrained by an intact immune system, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for developing severe diseases driven by resurgent viral replication. In particular, loss of immune control over JC polyomavirus can lead to the development of the demyelinating brain disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Viral isolates from PML patients frequently carry point mutations in the major capsid protein, VP1, which mediates virion binding to cellular glycan receptors. Because polyomaviruses are non-enveloped, VP1 is also the target of the host’s neutralizing antibody response. Thus, VP1 mutations could affect tropism and/or recognition by polyomavirus-specific antibodies. How these mutations predispose susceptible individuals to PML and other JCPyV-associated CNS diseases remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we review the current understanding of polyomavirus capsid mutations and their effects on viral tropism, immune evasion, and virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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10 pages, 1227 KiB  
Review
Intercellular Transmission of Naked Viruses through Extracellular Vesicles: Focus on Polyomaviruses
by Francois Helle, Lynda Handala, Marine Bentz, Gilles Duverlie and Etienne Brochot
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101086 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a novel mode of viral transmission exploited by naked viruses to exit host cells through a nonlytic pathway. Extracellular vesicles can allow multiple viral particles to collectively traffic in and out of cells, thus enhancing the viral [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a novel mode of viral transmission exploited by naked viruses to exit host cells through a nonlytic pathway. Extracellular vesicles can allow multiple viral particles to collectively traffic in and out of cells, thus enhancing the viral fitness and diversifying the transmission routes while evading the immune system. This has been shown for several RNA viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae, Hepeviridae, Reoviridae, and Caliciviridae families; however, recent studies also demonstrated that the BK and JC viruses, two DNA viruses that belong to the Polyomaviridae family, use a similar strategy. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances in understanding the mechanisms used by naked viruses to hijack extracellular vesicles, and we discuss the implications for the biology of polyomaviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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18 pages, 993 KiB  
Review
Regulation of Polyomavirus Transcription by Viral and Cellular Factors
by June F. Yang and Jianxin You
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101072 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4348
Abstract
Polyomavirus infection is widespread in the human population. This family of viruses normally maintains latent infection within the host cell but can cause a range of human pathologies, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Among several known pathogenic human polyomaviruses, JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) has the [...] Read more.
Polyomavirus infection is widespread in the human population. This family of viruses normally maintains latent infection within the host cell but can cause a range of human pathologies, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Among several known pathogenic human polyomaviruses, JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) has the potential to cause the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) can cause nephropathy in kidney transplant recipients, and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). While the mechanisms by which these viruses give rise to the relevant diseases are not well understood, it is clear that the control of gene expression in each polyomavirus plays an important role in determining the infectious tropism of the virus as well as their potential to promote disease progression. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation of these pathogenic human polyomaviruses in addition to the best-studied simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). We highlight the roles of viral cis-acting DNA elements, encoded proteins and miRNAs that control the viral gene expression. We will also underline the cellular transcription factors and epigenetic modifications that regulate the gene expression of these viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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21 pages, 1655 KiB  
Review
Fifty Years of JC Polyomavirus: A Brief Overview and Remaining Questions
by Abigail L. Atkinson and Walter J. Atwood
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090969 - 1 Sep 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5515
Abstract
In the fifty years since the discovery of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), the body of research representing our collective knowledge on this virus has grown substantially. As the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often fatal central nervous system disease, JCPyV remains [...] Read more.
In the fifty years since the discovery of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), the body of research representing our collective knowledge on this virus has grown substantially. As the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often fatal central nervous system disease, JCPyV remains enigmatic in its ability to live a dual lifestyle. In most individuals, JCPyV reproduces benignly in renal tissues, but in a subset of immunocompromised individuals, JCPyV undergoes rearrangement and begins lytic infection of the central nervous system, subsequently becoming highly debilitating—and in many cases, deadly. Understanding the mechanisms allowing this process to occur is vital to the development of new and more effective diagnosis and treatment options for those at risk of developing PML. Here, we discuss the current state of affairs with regards to JCPyV and PML; first summarizing the history of PML as a disease and then discussing current treatment options and the viral biology of JCPyV as we understand it. We highlight the foundational research published in recent years on PML and JCPyV and attempt to outline which next steps are most necessary to reduce the disease burden of PML in populations at risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyomaviruses)
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