Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing

A special issue of Technologies (ISSN 2227-7080). This special issue belongs to the section "Innovations in Materials Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 82762

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Materials Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Interests: metal additive manufacturing; processing; characterization; lightweight materials; nanocomposites
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Materials processing is the first, and a key, step in proper utilization of the composition of a given material and to realize the microstructural features that are intended to attain desired property levels for a given application. Both primary and secondary processing methods are equally important in tailoring the end properties of materials. In view of the crucial importance of the processing of materials, this Special Issue is intending to cover all innovative aspects of primary processing (solid phase, liquid phase, two phase, 3D printing, rapid solidification, etc.) and secondary processing (such as variations in extrusion, forging, rolling, equichannel angular extrusion, etc.) of materials (polymers/ metal/ceramic-based, including their composites). Desirable attributes expected for submission will be processing–microstructure–property interrelations.

Prof. Dr. Manoj Gupta
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • primary processing
  • secondary processing
  • metals
  • polymers
  • ceramics
  • composites

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing”
by Manoj Gupta
Technologies 2022, 10(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies10040077 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1486
Abstract
In the area of Materials Science and Engineering, the tetrahedron comprising of processing, microstructure, properties and performance as four vertex corners is always key to develop new materials and to convert them to a useful shape for end application with the best properties [...] Read more.
In the area of Materials Science and Engineering, the tetrahedron comprising of processing, microstructure, properties and performance as four vertex corners is always key to develop new materials and to convert them to a useful shape for end application with the best properties possible [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)

Research

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30 pages, 9548 KiB  
Article
Wire Tool Electrode Behavior and Wear under Discharge Pulses
by Sergey N. Grigoriev, Marina A. Volosova, Anna A. Okunkova, Sergey V. Fedorov, Khaled Hamdy, Pavel A. Podrabinnik, Petr M. Pivkin, Mikhail P. Kozochkin and Artur N. Porvatov
Technologies 2020, 8(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies8030049 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3487
Abstract
This work is devoted to researching the tool electrode behavior and wear under discharge pulses at electrical discharge machining. The experiments were conducted on the workpieces of 12Kh18N10T (AISI 321) chrome-nickel anti-corrosion steel and D16 (AA 2024) duralumin by a 0.25-mm-diameter CuZn35 brass [...] Read more.
This work is devoted to researching the tool electrode behavior and wear under discharge pulses at electrical discharge machining. The experiments were conducted on the workpieces of 12Kh18N10T (AISI 321) chrome-nickel anti-corrosion steel and D16 (AA 2024) duralumin by a 0.25-mm-diameter CuZn35 brass tool in a deionized water medium. The developed diagnostic and monitoring mean based on acoustic emission registered the oscillations accompanying machining at 4–8 kHz. The obtained workpiece and non-profiled tool surfaces were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Calculated volumetric and mass removal rates showed the difference in the character of wear at roughing and finishing. It was shown that interaction between material components in anti-corrosion steel machining had an explosive character between Zn of brass and Ni of steel at a micron level and formed multiple craters of 30–100 µm. The secondary structure and topology of worn tool surfaces were caused by material sublimation, chemical interaction between material components at high heat (10,000 °C), explosive deposition of the secondary structure. Acoustic diagnostics adequately registered the character of interaction. The observed phenomena at the submicron level and microstructure of the obtained surfaces provide grounding on the nature of material interactions and electrical erosion wear fundamentals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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20 pages, 24478 KiB  
Article
Influence of WC-Based Pin Tool Profile on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA1100 FSW Welds
by Abbas Tamadon, Arvand Baghestani and Mohammad Ebrahim Bajgholi
Technologies 2020, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies8020034 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4483 | Correction
Abstract
The effect of various tungsten carbide (WC) pin tools and operating parameters on the material structure and properties of an AA1100 friction stir welding (FSW) weld were evaluated. Three different pin shapes were employed (conical, square and threaded). For each tool shape, welds [...] Read more.
The effect of various tungsten carbide (WC) pin tools and operating parameters on the material structure and properties of an AA1100 friction stir welding (FSW) weld were evaluated. Three different pin shapes were employed (conical, square and threaded). For each tool shape, welds were generated for a set of tool (revolutions per minute, RPM) (710, 1120 and 1400) and advancing speeds (150, 250 and 400 mm/min). Weld samples were tested for mechanical strength by tensile testing. Morphology was examined using optical microscopy, and weld composition with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). No weld contamination from the tools was observed. However, a number of structural defects, inherent to the FSW process, were observed (including tunnel voids, kissing bonds and swirling lines). These defects, associated with the stirring action, could not be eliminated. The results show how the operating parameters may be optimized to produce stronger welds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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16 pages, 2146 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Hydrotalcite Solid Adsorbents on Adsorptive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel Oil
by Mozammel Mazumder, Rajib Das, Md Symon Jahan Sajib, Andrew Jewel Gomes, Mohammad Islam, Thinesh Selvaratnam and Ashiqur Rahman
Technologies 2020, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies8020022 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4279
Abstract
With increasingly stringent environmental regulations, desulfurization for gasoline oil production has become an important issue. Nowadays, desulfurization technologies have become an integral part of environmental catalysis studies. It is also important for processing of fuel for fuel-cells, which has a strict requirement for [...] Read more.
With increasingly stringent environmental regulations, desulfurization for gasoline oil production has become an important issue. Nowadays, desulfurization technologies have become an integral part of environmental catalysis studies. It is also important for processing of fuel for fuel-cells, which has a strict requirement for sulfur content for internal combustion engines. In this study, we focused on the preparation and characterization of magnesium hydroxide/aluminum supported NiO, ZnO, ZrO2, NiO-ZnO, NiO-ZrO2, adsorbents for the adsorptive desulfurization of liquid fuels. These hydrotalcite adsorbents were prepared by co-precipitation method and used for adsorption of thiophene (in n-pentane, as model fuel) and dibenzothiophene at ambient temperature and pressure. The physicochemical behaviors of the fresh adsorbents such as structure, composition, and bonding modes were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The sulfur concentration in the mixture (thiophene and n-pentane) was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The percentages of thiophene removal and the adsorption capacity (mg of sulfur per g of adsorbent) of the five adsorbents were compared. The adsorption performance confirmed that NiO-ZrO2 and NiO-ZnO adsorbents are more efficient in removing thiophene/dibenzothiophene than that of three other adsorbents. The qualitative studies using XPS confirmed the efficient adsorption nature of modified hydrotalcite adsorbents on dibenzothiophene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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13 pages, 2729 KiB  
Article
Compensation for Geometrical Deviations in Additive Manufacturing
by Christoph Hartmann, Philipp Lechner, Benjamin Himmel, Yannick Krieger, Tim C. Lueth and Wolfram Volk
Technologies 2019, 7(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7040083 - 2 Dec 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6324
Abstract
The design of additive manufacturing processes, especially for batch production in industrial practice, is of high importance for the propagation of new additive manufacturing technology. Manual redesign procedures of the additive manufactured parts based on discrete measurement data or numerical meshes are error [...] Read more.
The design of additive manufacturing processes, especially for batch production in industrial practice, is of high importance for the propagation of new additive manufacturing technology. Manual redesign procedures of the additive manufactured parts based on discrete measurement data or numerical meshes are error prone and hardly automatable. To achieve the required final accuracy of the parts, often, various iterations are necessary. To address these issues, a data-driven geometrical compensation approach is proposed that adapts concepts from forming technology. The measurement information of a first calibration cycle of manufactured parts is the basis of the approach. Through non-rigid transformations of the part geometry, a new shape for the subsequent additive manufacturing process was derived in a systematic way. Based on a purely geometrical approach, the systematic portion of part deviations can be compensated. The proposed concept is presented first and was applied to a sample fin-shaped part. The deviation data of three manufacturing cycles was utilised for validation and verification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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12 pages, 4248 KiB  
Communication
AFM Characterization of Stir-Induced Micro-Flow Features within the AA6082-T6 BFSW Welds
by Abbas Tamadon, Dirk J. Pons and Don Clucas
Technologies 2019, 7(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7040080 - 7 Nov 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4860
Abstract
Bobbin Friction Stir Welding (BFSW) is a thermomechanical process containing severe plastic deformation by mechanical stirring and Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) during recooling. Here we report the three-dimensional characteristics of the micro-flow patterns within the aluminium weld structure. The Surface topography observations by Atomic [...] Read more.
Bobbin Friction Stir Welding (BFSW) is a thermomechanical process containing severe plastic deformation by mechanical stirring and Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) during recooling. Here we report the three-dimensional characteristics of the micro-flow patterns within the aluminium weld structure. The Surface topography observations by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) show the stirred-induced microstructural evolution where the rearrangement of dislocations at the sub-grain scale, and the subsequent High- and Low-Angle Grain Boundaries (HAGBs, LAGBs) exhibit specific alterations in grain size and morphology of the weld texture. The dislocations interaction in different regions of the weld structure also was observed in correlation to the thermomechanical behaviour of the BFSW process. These micro-flow observations within the weld breadth give a new insight into the thermomechanical characteristics of the FSW process during the stirring action where the plastic flow has a key role in the formation of the weld region distinct from the base metal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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11 pages, 3275 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Infill Density on the Mechanical Properties of Nylon Specimens Made by Filament Fused Fabrication
by Svetlana Terekhina, Innokentiy Skornyakov, Tatiana Tarasova and Sergei Egorov
Technologies 2019, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7030057 - 16 Aug 2019
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 7014
Abstract
Additive manufacturing of polymer products over the past decade has become widespread in various areas of industry. Using the fused filament fabrication (FFF) method, one of the most technologically simple methods of additive manufacturing, it is possible to produce parts from a large [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing of polymer products over the past decade has become widespread in various areas of industry. Using the fused filament fabrication (FFF) method, one of the most technologically simple methods of additive manufacturing, it is possible to produce parts from a large number of different materials, including wear-resistant nylon. The novelty of the work is properties investigation of ±45° filling configuration with different filling degree for nylon, as well as calculating the effect of infill on the strength characteristics, excluding the shell. This article reflects the process of manufacturing samples from nylon using FFF technology with various internal topologies, as well as tensile tests. The analysis of the obtained results is performed and the relationship between the structure of the sample and the limit of its strength is established. To calculate real filling degree and the effect of internal filling on the strength characteristics of the specimen, it is proposed to use a method based on the geometric and mass parameters. The FFF method is promising for developing methods for producing a composite material. The results of this article can be useful in choosing the necessary manufacturing parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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18 pages, 14437 KiB  
Article
Analysis, Optimization, and Characterization of Magnetic Photonic Crystal Structures and Thin-Film Material Layers
by Mikhail Vasiliev, Kamal Alameh and Mohammad Nur-E-Alam
Technologies 2019, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7030049 - 5 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6726
Abstract
The development of magnetic photonic crystals (MPC) has been a rapidly evolving research area since the late 1990s. Magneto-optic (MO) materials and the techniques for their characterization have also continually undergone functional and property-related improvements. MPC optimization is a feature-rich Windows software application [...] Read more.
The development of magnetic photonic crystals (MPC) has been a rapidly evolving research area since the late 1990s. Magneto-optic (MO) materials and the techniques for their characterization have also continually undergone functional and property-related improvements. MPC optimization is a feature-rich Windows software application designed to enable researchers to analyze the optical and magneto-optical spectral properties of multilayers containing gyrotropic constituents. We report on a set of computational algorithms which aim to optimize the design and the optical or magneto-optical spectral analysis of 1D MPC, together with a Windows software implementation. Relevant material property datasets (e.g., the spectral dispersion data for the refractive index, absorption, and gyration) of several important optical and MO materials are included, enabling easy reproduction of the previously published results from the field of MPC-based Faraday rotator development, and an effective demonstration-quality introduction of future users to the multiple features of this package. We also report on the methods and algorithms used to obtain the absorption coefficient spectral dispersion datasets for new materials, where the film thickness, transmission spectrum, and refractive index dispersion function are known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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10 pages, 5197 KiB  
Article
Process Development of CO2-Assisted Polymer Compression for High Productivity: Improving Equipment and the Challenge of Numbering-Up
by Takafumi Aizawa
Technologies 2019, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7020039 - 8 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5647
Abstract
The CO2-assisted polymer compression method is used herein to prepare porous polymer materials by bonding laminated polymer fiber sheets using a piston in the presence of CO2. In this work, the CO2 flow line connections were moved from [...] Read more.
The CO2-assisted polymer compression method is used herein to prepare porous polymer materials by bonding laminated polymer fiber sheets using a piston in the presence of CO2. In this work, the CO2 flow line connections were moved from the pressure vessel to the piston to increase productivity, which makes the pressure vessel free-moving and the processing time of sample introduction and removal seemingly zero. In addition, a numbering-up method suitable for CO2-assisted polymer compression is proposed and verified based on the variability of the products. The variability of the product was evaluated using porosity, which is one of the most important properties of a porous material. It is found that the CO2 exhaust process, specific to this method, that uses high-pressure CO2, causes product variation, which can be successfully suppressed by optimizing the CO2 exhaust process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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9 pages, 5286 KiB  
Article
Microwave Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Mulberry Leaves Extract and Silver Nitrate Solution
by Le Ngoc Liem, Nguyen Phuoc The and Dieu Nguyen
Technologies 2019, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010007 - 5 Jan 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7300
Abstract
In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized quickly and in an eco-friendly manner using the extract of Mulberry leaves and aqueous solution of silver nitrate without any toxic chemicals (Yuet et al. Int. J. Nanomed. 2012, 7, 4263–4267; Krishnakuma and [...] Read more.
In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized quickly and in an eco-friendly manner using the extract of Mulberry leaves and aqueous solution of silver nitrate without any toxic chemicals (Yuet et al. Int. J. Nanomed. 2012, 7, 4263–4267; Krishnakuma and Adavallan. Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 025018). The Mulberry leaves extract functions as both a stabilizing and reducing agent. The UV-Vis spectroscopy shows a peak maximum at 430 nm. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image illustrated of synthesized AgNPs were nearly spherical-shaped particles whose sizes range from 15 to 20 nm. The TEM image of Nano Silver solution sample synthesized by the microwave assisted method shows nearly spherical particles, with an average particle size estimated at 10 nm. The absorption UV-vis spectrum of silver nanoparticles synthesized by the microwave assisted method (AgNPsmw) shows a sharp absorption band around 415 nm. The UV-Vis spectrum of AgNPsmw after two months of storage shows negligible peak changes of silver nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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18 pages, 4124 KiB  
Article
On Adaptive Control for Electrical Discharge Machining Using Vibroacoustic Emission
by Yury A. Melnik, Mikhail P. Kozochkin, Artur N. Porvatov and Anna A. Okunkova
Technologies 2018, 6(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6040096 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5469
Abstract
The article is related to the research of the parameters of vibroacoustic emission for development of the monitoring and adaptive control system for electrical discharge machining. The classical control system based on a response of electrical parameters does not give an adequate data [...] Read more.
The article is related to the research of the parameters of vibroacoustic emission for development of the monitoring and adaptive control system for electrical discharge machining. The classical control system based on a response of electrical parameters does not give an adequate data in the cases of a new class of materials processing as conductive ceramics reinforced by conductive nano additives and carbon nanotubes and whiskers. The idle pulses, which are working on the destruction of the erosion products in the gap, count as working pulses. The application of the monitoring and control tools based on vibroacoustic emission gives adequate data about conditions in the working zone. The developed system is available to count only impulses involved in working on the destruction of the workpiece. The experiments were conducted on the samples of materials with a low melting point as austenitic steel and aluminum alloy, and hard alloys. The records of vibroacoustic signals were analyzed for detection of the monitoring and adaptive control criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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Review

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26 pages, 3694 KiB  
Review
Electrical Discharge Machining Non-Conductive Ceramics: Combination of Materials
by Marina A. Volosova, Anna A. Okunkova, Sergey V. Fedorov, Khaled Hamdy and Mariya A. Mikhailova
Technologies 2020, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies8020032 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 6439
Abstract
One of the promising processing methods for non-conductive structural and functional ceramics based on ZrO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4 systems is electrical discharge machining with the assistance of an auxiliary electrode that can be presented [...] Read more.
One of the promising processing methods for non-conductive structural and functional ceramics based on ZrO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4 systems is electrical discharge machining with the assistance of an auxiliary electrode that can be presented in the form of conductive films with a thickness up to 4–10 µm or nanoparticles - granules, tubes, platelets, multidimensional particles added in the working zone as a free poured powder the proper concentration of which can be provided by ultrasound emission or by dielectric flows or as conductive additives in the structure of nanocomposites. However, the described experimental approaches did not reach the production market and industry. It is related mostly to the chaotic development of the knowledge and non-systematized data in the field when researchers often cannot ground their choice of the material for auxiliary electrodes, assisting powders, or nano additives or they cannot explain the nature of processes that were observed in the working tank during experiments when their results are not correlated to the measured specific electrical conductivity of the electrodes, particles, ceramic workpieces or nanocomposites but depends on something else. The proposed review includes data on the main electrophysical and chemical properties of the components in the presence of heat when the temperature in the interelectrode gap reaches 10,000 °C, and the systematization of data on ceramic pressing methods, including spark plasma sintering, the chemical reactions that occur in the interelectrode gap during sublimation of primary (brass and copper) and auxiliary electrodes made of transition metals Ti, Cr, Co, and carbon, auxiliary electrodes made of metals with low melting point Zn, Ag, Au, Al, assisting powder of oxide ceramics TiO2, CeO2, SnO2, ITO, conductive additives Cu, W, TiC, WC, and components of Al2O3 and Zr2O workpieces in interaction with the dielectric fluid - water and oil/kerosene medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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10 pages, 645 KiB  
Review
Roles of Cryogenic Cooling in Turning of Superalloys, Ferrous Metals, and Viscoelastic Polymers
by Tze Chuen Yap
Technologies 2019, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7030063 - 5 Sep 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6187
Abstract
Cryogenic machining is a relatively new technique in machining. This concept was applied on various machining processes such as turning, milling, drilling etc. Cryogenic turning technique is generally applied on three major groups of workpiece materials—superalloys, ferrous metals, and viscoelastic polymers/elastomers. The roles [...] Read more.
Cryogenic machining is a relatively new technique in machining. This concept was applied on various machining processes such as turning, milling, drilling etc. Cryogenic turning technique is generally applied on three major groups of workpiece materials—superalloys, ferrous metals, and viscoelastic polymers/elastomers. The roles of cryogen in machining different materials are unique and are summarised in this review article. Finally, the challenges in using cryogenic machining in industries are also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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16 pages, 3228 KiB  
Review
On Electrical Discharge Machining of Non-Conductive Ceramics: A Review
by Marina Volosova, Anna Okunkova, Pavel Peretyagin, Yury A. Melnik and Natalya Kapustina
Technologies 2019, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7030055 - 8 Aug 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7387
Abstract
The inability of ceramic and nanoceramic processing without expensive diamond tools and with a high-material-removal rate hampers the scope of its potential applications and does not allow humanity to make a full shift to the sixth technological paradigm associated with Kuhn scientific revolutions [...] Read more.
The inability of ceramic and nanoceramic processing without expensive diamond tools and with a high-material-removal rate hampers the scope of its potential applications and does not allow humanity to make a full shift to the sixth technological paradigm associated with Kuhn scientific revolutions and Kondratieff’s waves and restrains the growth of the economy. The authors completed a review on the research state of ceramic and nanoceramic processing by electrical discharge machining, which is possibly solved by two principal approaches associated with the usage of standard commercially available machine tools. The first approach is related to the introduction of expensive secondary phase; the second approach proposes initiate processing by adding auxiliary electrodes in the form of coating, suspension, aerosol, or 3D-printed layer based on the components of silver, copper, or graphite in combination with an improved dielectric oil environment by introducing graphite or carbon nanoparticles, which is hugely relevant today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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Other

6 pages, 1938 KiB  
Letter
Facile Fabrication of Macroscopic Self-Standing Ni or Co-doped MnO2 Architectures as Catalysts for Propane Oxidation
by Long Chen and Xiping Song
Technologies 2019, 7(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7040081 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4262
Abstract
The fabrication of macroscopic self-standing architectures plays a key role in the practical applications of nanomaterials. A facile strategy to assemble MnO2 nanowires into macroscopic self-standing architectures via hydrothermal reaction followed by ambient pressure drying was developed. The obtained sample was robust [...] Read more.
The fabrication of macroscopic self-standing architectures plays a key role in the practical applications of nanomaterials. A facile strategy to assemble MnO2 nanowires into macroscopic self-standing architectures via hydrothermal reaction followed by ambient pressure drying was developed. The obtained sample was robust and showed excellent mechanical strength with a Young’s modulus of 127 MPa, which had the possibility for practical applications. In order to promote the catalytic activity for propane oxidation, Ni or Co doping into MnO2 was studied. The results showed that the obtained macroscopic self-standing Ni-MnO2 and Co-MnO2 architectures exhibited enhanced catalytic activities for propane oxidation. Specifically, the conversions of propane over Co-MnO2 and Ni-MnO2 samples at 400 °C were 27.3% and 25.7% higher than that over pristine MnO2 sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Advances in Materials Processing)
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