Topic Editors

Materials Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3903, USA
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA

Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 November 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal-based composites provide a unique dimension in tailoring the properties of metals through the selection of type, size, and amount of reinforcement. The properties of metallic matrices, therefore, can be tailored depending on the end applications. In view of the dynamic capabilities that can be exhibited, this Topic will cover all aspects of “Metal Matrix Composites”, including synthesis (solid, liquid, 2-phase, and 3D printing), secondary processing, properties (tensile, compressive, fatigue, impact, creep, tribological, etc.), corrosion behavior, and joining techniques. The main objective, thus, will be to present the latest results in the area of metal matrix composites to the research community worldwide.

Prof. Dr. Manoj Gupta
Prof. Dr. Tirumalai S. Srivatsan
Prof. Dr. Pradeep K. Rohatgi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • processing
  • new formulations
  • properties
  • joining
  • corrosion
  • machining
  • tribology
  • applications

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Crystals
crystals
2.7 3.6 2011 10.6 Days CHF 2600
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Metals
metals
2.9 4.4 2011 15 Days CHF 2600
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (30 papers)

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16 pages, 8936 KiB  
Article
Dental Metal Matrix Composites: The Effects of the Addition of Titanium Nanoparticle Particles on Dental Amalgam
by Ryan Moxon, Zhigang Xu, Felix Tettey, Ikenna Chris-Okoro and Dhananjay Kumar
Materials 2024, 17(7), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071662 - 04 Apr 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Dental amalgams have been used by dentists for the restoration of posterior human teeth. However, there have been concerns about the release of mercury from amalgams into the oral cavity. The objective of the present research is to study the effect of titanium [...] Read more.
Dental amalgams have been used by dentists for the restoration of posterior human teeth. However, there have been concerns about the release of mercury from amalgams into the oral cavity. The objective of the present research is to study the effect of titanium (Ti) nanoparticles on the microstructural mechanism of the release of mercury vapor in two commonly used brands of dental amalgam (the Dispersalloy: 11.8% Cu; the Sybralloy: 33% Cu). Ti powder was added to both the Dispersalloy and the Sybralloy in increments of 10 mg up to 80 mg. The addition of Ti powder to both brands of dental amalgam has been found to result in a considerable decrease in Hg vapor release. The decrease in the Hg vapor release due to Ti addition has been explained by the formation of strong Hg–Ti covalent bonds, which reduce the availability of Hg atoms for evaporation. The Ti atoms in excess of the solubility limit of Ti in Hg reside in the grain boundaries, which also reduces the evaporation of Hg from the amalgam. The binding of Hg with Ti via a strong covalent bond also results in a significant improvement in mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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14 pages, 10644 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis of Tribological Properties of Mg(AM50)/GNF-Al2O3sf Hybrid Composites
by Min-Sik Lee, Chung-Gil Kang and J. S. S. Babu
Metals 2023, 13(8), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13081418 - 08 Aug 2023
Viewed by 684
Abstract
The present article describes the tribological properties of Mg-based hybrid composites reinforced with graphite nanofiber (GNF) and alumina short fiber (Al2O3sf) that were investigated. The Mg/GNF/Al2O3sf hybrid composites with varying volume fraction of fiber (10 vol.%, [...] Read more.
The present article describes the tribological properties of Mg-based hybrid composites reinforced with graphite nanofiber (GNF) and alumina short fiber (Al2O3sf) that were investigated. The Mg/GNF/Al2O3sf hybrid composites with varying volume fraction of fiber (10 vol.%, 15 vol.%, 20 vol.%) were developed. SEM observations indicate that the GNF cluster distributions within the array of the Al2O3sf network are found to be relatively good. The Taguchi design of the experiment has been applied to conduct the wear test, and the statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to evaluate the influence of wear test parameters on the wear loss and coefficient of friction (COF) of the composites. The influence of wear test parameters such as volume fraction of fiber (VF), applied load (AL), sliding distance (SD), and sliding speed (SP) on the wear loss and COF of composites was analyzed under dry sliding conditions. The results of ANOVA indicate that the sliding distance was found to be the prominent factor affecting wear loss, and the applied load influenced the COF most significantly. Furthermore, the composites with 20 vol.% of fiber had lower wear loss than those with 10 vol.% and 15 vol.% of fiber. The COF of composites with 15 vol.% of fiber was found to be slightly lower compared to the 10 vol.% and 20 vol.% of fiber cases. The results imply that the hybridization of GNFs and Al2O3sf, as well as the formation of Mg17Al12 and Al2MgC2 precipitates enhanced the tribological properties of the Mg hybrid composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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29 pages, 4630 KiB  
Review
Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Self-Healing Metal Matrix Composites
by Masum Bellah, Michael Nosonovsky and Pradeep Rohatgi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 6884; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13126884 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
This paper reviews the synthesis, characterization, healing assessment, and mechanics of NiTi and other shape memory alloy (SMA)-reinforced self-healing metal matrix composites (SHMMCs). Challenges to synthesizing and characterizing the SMA-reinforced SHMMCs and the strategies followed to overcome those challenges are discussed. To design [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the synthesis, characterization, healing assessment, and mechanics of NiTi and other shape memory alloy (SMA)-reinforced self-healing metal matrix composites (SHMMCs). Challenges to synthesizing and characterizing the SMA-reinforced SHMMCs and the strategies followed to overcome those challenges are discussed. To design the SMA-reinforced SHMMCs, it is necessary to understand their microstructural evolution during melting and solidification. This requires the knowledge of the thermodynamics of phase diagrams and nonequilibrium solidification, which are presented in this paper for a model self-healing composite system. Healing assessment provides information about the autonomous and multicycle healing capability of synthesized SHMMCs, which ultimately determines their success. Different techniques to assess the degree of healing of SHMMCs are discussed in this paper. Strategies are explored to find the optimum volume fraction of SMA wires needed to yield the matrix and prevent damage to the SMA wires for the most effective healing. Finally, major challenges, knowledge gaps, and future research directions, including the need for autonomous and multicycle healing capability in SMA-reinforced SHMMCs, are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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16 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
Modeling Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Results of Cu and Cu-Thiosemicarbizide-Boron Nitride Nanosheets Electrodes in 3.5 wt% NaCl Solution, Based on an Electrochemical Reaction Mechanism
by Jesus Israel Barraza-Fierro, Edgar López-Martínez, Octavio Vázquez–Gómez, Mónica Galicia-García, Héctor Cruz-Mejía and Julio C. Villalobos
Crystals 2023, 13(5), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13050809 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The corrosion behavior of copper and copper-functionalized boron nitride nanocomposites (Cu-BNNS) was studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Polarization curves and cyclic voltammetry experiments were used to differentiate the various stages of corrosion behavior. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to [...] Read more.
The corrosion behavior of copper and copper-functionalized boron nitride nanocomposites (Cu-BNNS) was studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Polarization curves and cyclic voltammetry experiments were used to differentiate the various stages of corrosion behavior. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to understand the different steps in the degradation mechanism. The EIS results were analyzed using adsorption models at open circuit potential and at a bias potential of 250 mV, and different reaction kinetics parameters were quantified. During the first hour of immersion, the formation of CuCl increased on the Cu-BNNS, where the reaction constant for the formation of adsorbed CuCl was lower in the impedance model. However, on the Cu electrode, CuCl was not formed during the first hour, and the reaction constant was higher. The proposed model is consistent with the experimental observations from cyclic voltammetry, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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14 pages, 3817 KiB  
Article
Effect of Vibration Direction on Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding-Electrolysis-Discharge Generating Machining Mechanism of SiCp/Al
by Jing Li, Wanwan Chen and Yongwei Zhu
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072703 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
This study proposes the mechanism of two-dimensional ultrasonic assisted grinding- electrolysis-discharge generating machining (2UG-E-DM). It analyzed the influence of vibration directions on grinding characteristics and surface morphology through the motion simulation of an abrasive. Comparative experiments with different vibration directions verified the effect [...] Read more.
This study proposes the mechanism of two-dimensional ultrasonic assisted grinding- electrolysis-discharge generating machining (2UG-E-DM). It analyzed the influence of vibration directions on grinding characteristics and surface morphology through the motion simulation of an abrasive. Comparative experiments with different vibration directions verified the effect of ultrasonic assistance on the weakening of the grinding force, the widening of the surface pits, and the leveling of the surface morphology of SiCp/Al composites. Simulation analysis of a single abrasive particle verified the test results. The results of machining tests at different amplitudes showed that as the workpiece and tool amplitude increased, the grinding force of the normal force decreased faster than that of the tangential force. The effect of surface electrolysis discharge machining was significant, and the number of exposed particles increased, but the residual height of the surface and the surface roughness were reduced by vibration grinding. When the two-dimensional amplitude was increased to 5 μm, the axial and tangential vibrations increased the grinding domain, and the dragging and rolling of the reinforced particles significantly reduced the surface roughness, which obtained good surface quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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14 pages, 3389 KiB  
Article
Interfacial Characterization and Thermal Conductivity of Diamond/Cu Composites Prepared by Liquid-Solid Separation Technique
by Yaqiang Li, Hongyu Zhou, Chunjing Wu, Zheng Yin, Chang Liu, Junyou Liu and Zhongliang Shi
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(5), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13050878 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Diamond/Cu composites are widely studied as a new generation of thermal management materials in the field of electronic packaging and heat sink materials. The surface modification of diamond can improve interfacial bonding between the diamond and Cu matrix. The Ti-coated diamond/Cu composites are [...] Read more.
Diamond/Cu composites are widely studied as a new generation of thermal management materials in the field of electronic packaging and heat sink materials. The surface modification of diamond can improve interfacial bonding between the diamond and Cu matrix. The Ti-coated diamond/Cu composites are prepared via an independently developed liquid-solid separation (LSS) technology. It is worth noting that there are obvious differences for the surface roughness between the diamond-{100} and -{111} face by AFM analysis, which may be related to the surface energy of different facets. In this work, the formation of titanium carbide (TiC) phase makes up the chemical incompatibility between the diamond and copper, and the thermal conductivities of 40 vol.% Ti-coated diamond/Cu composites can be improved to reach 457.22 W·m−1·K−1. The results estimated by the differential effective medium (DEM) model illustrate that the thermal conductivity for 40 vol.% Ti-coated diamond/Cu composites show a dramatic decline with increasing TiC layer thickness, giving a critical value of ~260 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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11 pages, 10456 KiB  
Article
Effect of Annealing on the Interface and Properties of Pd/Al Composite Wires
by Jiabin Gui, Zhen Yang, Xiangqian Yin, Haofeng Xie, Lijun Peng, Wenjing Zhang and Xujun Mi
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041545 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
This paper investigates the changes in the interface organization and properties of 0.10 mm Pd/Al composite wires annealed at different temperatures. The optimum comprehensive performance of the material was obtained after annealing at 300 °C for 120 s. Its tensile strength, conductivity and [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the changes in the interface organization and properties of 0.10 mm Pd/Al composite wires annealed at different temperatures. The optimum comprehensive performance of the material was obtained after annealing at 300 °C for 120 s. Its tensile strength, conductivity and elongation are 140.61 MPa, 46.82%IACS and 14.89%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe the intermetallic compounds on the interface. The annealing temperature and the formation heat of intermetallic compounds determine the categories and evolution of intermetallic compounds. When the thickness of the intermetallic layer is more than 1 μm, it has a serious effect on the electrical conductivity and elongation of the materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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18 pages, 8001 KiB  
Article
Effect of SiC and WC Reinforcements on Microstructural and Mechanical Characteristics of Copper Alloy-Based Metal Matrix Composites Using Stir Casting Route
by Priyaranjan Samal, Harihar Tarai, Arabinda Meher, B. Surekha and Pandu R. Vundavilli
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031754 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
This study focuses on a comparative analysis of mechanical behavior and microstructural characteristics of Cu matrix (C87600) based hybrid composites reinforced with SiC-Grp and WC-Grp fabricated by the stir casting process. The graphite particle percentage was kept constant, whereas the content [...] Read more.
This study focuses on a comparative analysis of mechanical behavior and microstructural characteristics of Cu matrix (C87600) based hybrid composites reinforced with SiC-Grp and WC-Grp fabricated by the stir casting process. The graphite particle percentage was kept constant, whereas the content of SiC and WC in the respective composites was varied to analyze the mechanical properties of the fabricated composites. The morphological observation was carried out by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which revealed uniform dispersion of the reinforced particles in the hybrid composites. Clear phases of SiC and WC along with the Cu alloy were identified by the x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Further, a comparative study was conducted to analyze the mechanical behavior of the Cu-SiC-Gr and Cu-WC-Gr hybrid composites. With the addition of the hard ceramic materials, the tensile behavior and microhardness of both the Cu-based MMCs were improved. The WC-Gr reinforced composites exhibited higher mechanical properties than the SiC-Gr reinforced hybrid composites. Further, the fracture surfaces were also characterized to study the tensile behavior of the fabricated copper-based hybrid composites, which shows that ductile fracture was mainly associated with both hybrid composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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23 pages, 4698 KiB  
Article
Influence of Material and Process Parameters on Reduction-Swelling Characteristics of Sintered Iron Pellets
by Kedarnath Rane, Prashant Date and T. S. Srivatsan
Metals 2023, 13(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010141 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
This paper investigates the use of shop-floor ferrous scrap that contains iron ore as a raw material for the purpose of making steel products through an in situ carbothermic reduction. The technique of powder metallurgy (PM) was used for the purpose of studying [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the use of shop-floor ferrous scrap that contains iron ore as a raw material for the purpose of making steel products through an in situ carbothermic reduction. The technique of powder metallurgy (PM) was used for the purpose of studying reduction followed by densification during sintering. Two sources of iron oxide—ferrous grinding-sludge powder and iron ore—and three sources of the carbonaceous material—graphite, charcoal, and carbon black—were considered. The carbonaceous material was added to the iron oxide after calculating the stoichiometric carbon requirement for facilitating both direct reduction and direct–indirect reduction. This involves a simultaneous change in weight and volume. During sintering, an in situ reduction of the iron oxide takes place that often results in severe volumetric changes. The test results revealed the degree of reduction (DOR) and degree of densification (DOD) of the grinding sludge (GS) to be 15% and 45% higher, respectively, than that of iron ore (IO). This is essentially due to the presence of distinct iron-oxide phases coupled with a greater amenability to the occurrence of carbothermic reduction. Indirect reduction also took place and contributed to improving the degree of reduction (DOR) and degree of densification (DOD) of the final products. Overall, the shape stability of the sintered grinding-sludge (GS) powder was found to be optimized when parameter settings of graphite (from 25% in excess to 50% in excess) were added, a compaction pressure of 1050 MPa was applied, and a sintering temperature of 1200 °C was employed. Hence, ferrous scrap can be chosen as direct reduced iron for the manufacture of steel and can also be used for cost-efficient and eco-friendly structural components with a marginal compromise on both the purity and strength of the ferrous products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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13 pages, 15796 KiB  
Article
Reaction Behavior and Formation Mechanism of ZrB2 and ZrC from the Ni-Zr-B4C System during Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis
by Jiaying Xu, Pengfei Ma, Binglin Zou and Xue Yang
Materials 2023, 16(1), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010354 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a good way to prepare ZrB2-ZrC/metal cermet composites. In this work, ZrB2-ZrC/Ni cermet composites with various Ni contents were successfully fabricated by SHS using the Ni-Zr-B4C system. The effects of Ni content [...] Read more.
Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a good way to prepare ZrB2-ZrC/metal cermet composites. In this work, ZrB2-ZrC/Ni cermet composites with various Ni contents were successfully fabricated by SHS using the Ni-Zr-B4C system. The effects of Ni content and particle size of the B4C powder on the SHS reaction were investigated. The results indicated that with an increase in Ni content, the adiabatic temperature, maximum combustion temperature, ignition delay time, and ceramic particle size in the product all showed a gradually decreasing trend. The SHS products and the ignition of the SHS reactions were significantly dependent on the B4C particle size. The formation mechanism of ZrB2 and ZrC during SHS from the Ni-Zr-B4C system was proposed based on the combustion wave quenching experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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12 pages, 9821 KiB  
Communication
Synthesis of an Aluminum Alloy Metal Matrix Composite Using Powder Metallurgy: Role of Sintering Parameters
by Kanhu C. Nayak, Kedarnath K. Rane, Prashant P. Date and T. S. Srivatsan
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8843; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178843 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Powder metallurgy-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely chosen and used for the development of components in the fields spanning aerospace, automotive and even electronic components. Engineered MMCs are known to offer a high strength-to-weight (σ/ρ) ratio. In this research study, we synthesized [...] Read more.
Powder metallurgy-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely chosen and used for the development of components in the fields spanning aerospace, automotive and even electronic components. Engineered MMCs are known to offer a high strength-to-weight (σ/ρ) ratio. In this research study, we synthesized cylindrical sintered samples of a ceramic particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix using the technique of powder metallurgy. The samples for the purpose of testing, examination and analysis were made by mixing aluminum powder with powders of silicon carbide and aluminum oxide or alumina. Four varieties of aluminum composite were synthesized for a different volume percent of the ceramic particle reinforcement. The hybrid composite contained 2 vol.% and 7 vol.% of silicon carbide and 3 vol.% and 8 vol.% of alumina with aluminum as the chosen metal matrix. Homogeneous mixtures of the chosen powders were prepared using conventional ball milling. The homogeneous powder mixture was then cold compacted and subsequently sintered in a tubular furnace in an atmosphere of argon gas. Five different sintering conditions (combinations of temperature and sintering time) were chosen for the purpose of this study. The density and hardness of each sintered specimen were carefully evaluated. Cold compression tests were carried out for the purpose of determining the compressive strength of the engineered MMC. The sintered density and hardness of the aluminum MMCs varied with the addition of ceramic particle reinforcements. An increase in the volume fraction of the alumina particles to the Al/SiC mixture reduced the density, hardness and compressive strength. The sintering condition was optimized for the aluminum MMCs based on the hardness, densification parameter and cold compressive strength. The proposed powder metallurgy-based route for the fabrication of the aluminum matrix composite revealed a noticeable improvement in the physical and mechanical properties when compared one-on-one with commercially pure aluminum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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12 pages, 9295 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the In Situ Ti2AlC/TiAl Composite with a Homogenous Architecture by Adding Graphene Nanosheets
by Bo Hou, Aiqin Wang, Pei Liu and Jingpei Xie
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165766 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
The Ti2AlC/TiAl composite with a homogenous architecture was fabricated via spark plasma sintering (SPS) using Ti/Al/GNSs composite powders, after ultrasonic mechanical stirring, as raw materials. The phases, microstructure, compressive properties and Vickers hardness of the composite were methodically characterized. We observed [...] Read more.
The Ti2AlC/TiAl composite with a homogenous architecture was fabricated via spark plasma sintering (SPS) using Ti/Al/GNSs composite powders, after ultrasonic mechanical stirring, as raw materials. The phases, microstructure, compressive properties and Vickers hardness of the composite were methodically characterized. We observed the transformation of graphene nanosheets from multi-layer to few-layer by the ultrasonic dispersion and the uniform distribution of few-layer graphene nanosheets in composite powders by ultrasonic mechanical stirring. The composite is mainly composed of rod-shaped Ti2AlC particles and a TiAl matrix, and the formation of rod-shaped morphology with the long axis along the (0001) plane is due to the fact that the growth rate of Ti2AlC parallel to the (0001) plane is much higher than the growth rate along the [0001] direction. The compressive stress and strain of the as-prepared Ti2AlC/TiAl composite reach 1451.2 MPa and 19.7%, respectively, which are better than some Ti2AlC/TiAl composites using graphite as the carbon source, and the Vickers hardness remains between 400~500 HV. The fracture morphologies show the deformation and fracture features of Ti2AlC particles, i.e., lamellae kinking and laminated tearing, which could increase the toughness of TiAl alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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19 pages, 13003 KiB  
Review
Advanced Composite Materials: A Panacea for Improved Electricity Transmission
by Chika Oliver Ujah, Daramy Vandi Von Kallon, Daniel O. Aikhuele and Victor Sunday Aigbodion
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8291; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168291 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
The demand for electricity has increased drastically due to population explosion globally. Unfortunately, supply does not meet the demand. Consequently, the transmission grid becomes overloaded, culminating in frequent power outages. Worse still, the transmission grid lacks adequate maintenance, and this has led to [...] Read more.
The demand for electricity has increased drastically due to population explosion globally. Unfortunately, supply does not meet the demand. Consequently, the transmission grid becomes overloaded, culminating in frequent power outages. Worse still, the transmission grid lacks adequate maintenance, and this has led to energy crisis in Africa and some parts of Asia. In this review, studies on the strength and weaknesses of existing transmission conductors were conducted. Further studied were natural and artificial phenomena that attack the overhead transmission networks. It was observed that besides inherent conductor defects, overloading, bush fire, short-circuit, harsh weather, and lightning were the factors that ravage the transmission grid. Hence, there is the need to develop more robust conductor materials that can withstand these challenges. The conventional conductors such as all aluminum conductor (AAC) and aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) are challenged by low operating temperatures, among others. High-temperature low-sag (HTLS) conductors that were invented to tackle these shortcomings certainly have higher ampacity and better thermal rating than the conventional conductors. However, some challenges still devastate them. So, from the study conducted, it was discovered that developing advanced nano-based Al-composite conductor would help in ameliorating the challenges prevalent in the transmission grid. Such an Al-nanocomposite conductor would possess higher ampacity and better thermal stability and would be more durable and cost effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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16 pages, 9075 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effect of Fly Ash Addition on the Metallurgical and Mechanical Behavior of Al-Si-Mg-Cu Alloy for Engine Cylinder Head Application
by Karthik Venkitraman Shankar, Jan Jezierski, Vaira Vignesh Ramalingam, Devaprasad Padmakumar, Midun Raj Leena, Amal, Gokul Reghunath and Rakesh Krishnan
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155462 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
The authors researched the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical characteristics of A354 alloy (Al-Si-Mg-Cu) reinforced with 5, 10, and 15 wt% of fly ash metal matrix composites. A baseline alloy and three composites were fabricated by a liquid metallurgy route and poured into a [...] Read more.
The authors researched the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical characteristics of A354 alloy (Al-Si-Mg-Cu) reinforced with 5, 10, and 15 wt% of fly ash metal matrix composites. A baseline alloy and three composites were fabricated by a liquid metallurgy route and poured into a permanent mold to obtain cast rods of dimension Φ32 mm × 156 mm. The metallurgical characterization of the developed alloy and metal matrix composites was conducted using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray diffraction. All the developed composites showed a pore-free nature, but only A354 alloy reinforced with 5 wt% of fly ash (AF5) possessed a homogeneous distribution and perfect bonding of the fly ash with the A354 matrix. Therefore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed on the sample AF5. All developed alloys and metal matrix composites were subjected to hardness and mechanical property tests. It was observed that the AF5 sample had 170 ± 5.6 HV and tensile strength of 216 ± 2.3 MPa, 18.8% and 24.8% higher than the A354 matrix, but the ductility (6.5 ± 0.43%) was reduced by 23% from the baseline alloy. Finally, the fractography analysis was conducted on all the samples using FESEM to analyze the fracture mode. The fabricated 5 wt% fly ash-based metal matrix composite showed better mechanical performance than other samples. Hence, sample AF5 is suggested for manufacturing components in automotive and structural parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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16 pages, 26270 KiB  
Article
A Tribological Study on the Effect of Reinforcing SiC and Al2O3 in Al7075: Applications for Spur Gears
by Shridhar H. Budapanahalli, Shekhar B. Mallur, Arun Y. Patil, Abeer Mohamed Alosaimi, Anish Khan, Mahmoud Ali Hussein and Abdullah M. Asiri
Metals 2022, 12(6), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12061028 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
In today’s world, efficiency and margin of safety are prime considerations for any applications. To address such parameters in aerospace or high-tech consumer products, there are still limitations in terms of capabilities from a material perspective. Aluminium 7075 is predominantly used as a [...] Read more.
In today’s world, efficiency and margin of safety are prime considerations for any applications. To address such parameters in aerospace or high-tech consumer products, there are still limitations in terms of capabilities from a material perspective. Aluminium 7075 is predominantly used as a combination material in these applications, but it has many drawbacks such as early wear/friction, low fatigue life cycle, high weight ratios, high deformation and stresses. To overcome these key issues, many reinforcements have been used to date. However, the results are not so convincing with respect to tribological applications, and the aforementioned issues still persist. In the current work, a novel hybrid composite comprising Aluminium 7075 as substrate and the reinforcement of silicon carbide and aluminium oxide at varying combinations of 3 to 9% in steps of 3% and a constant percentage of 5% were added, respectively. The exhaustive work focuses on extracting the mechanical, tribological and physical properties of a hybrid composite. Furthermore, a microcharacterisation study of these combinations was carried out using FE-SEM and EDX. In a continuation to this simulation, a study was performed using ANSYS Workbench to identify a suitable gear application with real-time loading conditions. The observed results show a tensile strength of 366 MPa for 6%SiC, hardness of 93 VHN and wear rate of 0.00025 mm3/Nm for the 9%SiC combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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9 pages, 2258 KiB  
Article
Microstructure, Mechanical and Ignition Characteristics of Si3N4 Reinforced Magnesium Matrix Nanocomposites
by Mahammod Babar Pasha, Rajamalla Narasimha Rao, Syed Ismail and Manoj Gupta
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126138 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Lightweight magnesium-based materials have received attention in the automobile sector as a solution to minimize fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Magnesium has great weight-reduction potential in the aerospace sector, but its low ignition temperature limits its utilization. Improving magnesium’s ignition resistance is [...] Read more.
Lightweight magnesium-based materials have received attention in the automobile sector as a solution to minimize fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Magnesium has great weight-reduction potential in the aerospace sector, but its low ignition temperature limits its utilization. Improving magnesium’s ignition resistance is critical for aerospace applications. The present study developed Mg/Si3N4 nanocomposites to improve the ignition resistance to address this limitation. The nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonically-assisted stir casting with 0.5, 1, and 1.5 vol% Si3N4 nanoparticles. The effect of Si3N4 nanoparticles on the ignition and compression characteristics was examined. SEM micrographs showed the homogeneous dispersion of Si3N4 nanoparticles with negligible clustering. Notably, the nanocomposites’ ignition resistance was increased by increasing the vol% of the Si3N4 nanoparticles. Adding 1.5 vol% Si3N4 nanoparticles resulted in the highest ignition temperature of 614 °C, 34 °C higher than pure magnesium. Similarly, the compressive properties were enhanced with the progressive addition of Si3N4 nanoparticles. The inclusion of 1.5 vol% Si3N4 nanoparticles resulted in a maximum compressive yield strength of 118 MPa and ultimate compressive strength of 323 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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24 pages, 9650 KiB  
Review
The Advancement of Neutron-Shielding Materials for the Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel
by Zhengdong Qi, Zhong Yang, Jianping Li, Yongchun Guo, Guichun Yang, Yang Yu and Jiachen Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093255 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
In this paper, the mechanism of neutron absorption and common reinforced particles is introduced, and recent research progress on different types of neutron-shielding materials (borated stainless steels, B/Al Alloy, B4C/Al composites, polymer-based composites, and shielding concrete) for transportation and wet or [...] Read more.
In this paper, the mechanism of neutron absorption and common reinforced particles is introduced, and recent research progress on different types of neutron-shielding materials (borated stainless steels, B/Al Alloy, B4C/Al composites, polymer-based composites, and shielding concrete) for transportation and wet or dry storage of spent fuel is elaborated, and critical performance is summarized and compared. In particular, the most widely studied and used borated stainless steel and B4C/Al composite neutron-absorption materials in the field of spent fuel are discussed at length. The problems and solutions in the preparation and application of different types of neutron-shielding materials for spent fuel transportation and storage are discussed, and their research priorities and development trends are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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15 pages, 5403 KiB  
Article
Tribological Characterization of Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites with Hybrid Reinforcement of C, Cu, and SiC Particulates
by Azam Beigi Kheradmand, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Morteza Tayebi and Bejan Hamawandi
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050598 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
This study sought to design and characterize the Fe, SiC, Cu, and C metal matrix composite (MMC) with optimum SiC content to obtain sufficiently good wear resistance performance. For this purpose, Fe, Cu, graphite, and BaSO4 (Fe-11Cu-6.5G-6BaSO4) with 2, 4, [...] Read more.
This study sought to design and characterize the Fe, SiC, Cu, and C metal matrix composite (MMC) with optimum SiC content to obtain sufficiently good wear resistance performance. For this purpose, Fe, Cu, graphite, and BaSO4 (Fe-11Cu-6.5G-6BaSO4) with 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt.% SiC powders (in the range of 45–150 um) were milled for the fabrication of the composite. Then, sintering was performed by hot press at 1000 °C under 400 MPa in a controlled atmosphere furnace. Wear, and coefficient of friction (COF) were then carried out on the samples under 20 N and 700 rpm for 1000 m. SEM micrographs and EDS analysis were also utilized for the wear mechanism. According to the studies of worn surfaces, it was found that at the beginning of the sliding distance, the abrasion mechanism was predominant, and by increasing the sliding distance of plastic deformation, adhesive wear and oxidation were activated. It was concluded that the weight loss decreases less and has a constant and more appropriate COF due to an increase in SiC to an optimal value, i.e., 10%. In addition, wear resistance and hardness increase due to increased SiC. Therefore, due to the low wear rate and suitable coefficient of friction, composite Fe-11Cu-10SiC-6.5G-6BaSO4 can be introduced as brake pad applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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6 pages, 2057 KiB  
Communication
Mechanical Properties of Cu-GO Composite by Varying GO Mesh Sizes
by Faisal Nazeer, Hao Wu, Abdul Malik, Xianming Meng, Chuan Li and Jianyu Long
Metals 2022, 12(4), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12040601 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
In this study, the copper-graphene oxide composites were prepared using low sintering temperature to investigate the effect of various mesh sizes of GO on Cu-GO composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman were conducted to elaborate the microstructure, diffraction pattern [...] Read more.
In this study, the copper-graphene oxide composites were prepared using low sintering temperature to investigate the effect of various mesh sizes of GO on Cu-GO composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman were conducted to elaborate the microstructure, diffraction pattern and disorder in the powders as well as bulk composites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was also carried out to further study the microstructural analysis of composites at the nano-scale level. By changing the mesh sizes of GO from lower to higher level, the tensile strength and hardness of Cu-GO composites were significantly enhanced due to better mixing of GO with higher mesh size. A fractograph analysis was also examined in detail to investigate the effect of various mesh sizes of GO on Cu-GO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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22 pages, 5724 KiB  
Article
Simultaneously Enhancing the Strength, Plasticity, and Conductivity of Copper Matrix Composites with Graphene-Coated Submicron Spherical Copper
by Yulong Yang, Yilong Liang, Guanyu He and Pingxi Luo
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(6), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12061025 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
In this study, Cu matrix composites reinforced with reduced graphene oxide-coated submicron spherical Cu (SSCu@rGO) exhibiting both high-strength plastic product (UT) and high electrical conductivity (EC) were prepared. SSCu@rGO results in the formation of Cu4O3 and Cu2O nanotransition [...] Read more.
In this study, Cu matrix composites reinforced with reduced graphene oxide-coated submicron spherical Cu (SSCu@rGO) exhibiting both high-strength plastic product (UT) and high electrical conductivity (EC) were prepared. SSCu@rGO results in the formation of Cu4O3 and Cu2O nanotransition layers to optimize the interface combination. In addition, as a flow carrier, SSCu@rGO can also render graphene uniformly dispersed. The results show that SSCu@rGO has a significant strengthening effect on the Cu matrix composites. The relative density (RD) of the SSCu@rGO/Cu composites exceeds 95%, and the hardness, UT, and yield strength (YS) reach 106.8 HV, 14,455 MPa% (tensile strength (TS) 245 MPa, elongation (EL) 59%), and 119 MPa; which are 21%, 72%, and 98% higher than those of Cu, respectively. Furthermore, EC is 95% IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard), which is also higher than that of Cu. The strength mechanisms include transfer load strengthening, dislocation strengthening, and grain refinement strengthening. The plastic mechanisms include the coordinated deformation of the interface of the Cu4O3 and Cu2O nanotransition layers and the increase in the fracture energy caused by graphene during the deformation process. The optimized EC is due to SSCu@rGO constructing bridges between the large-size Cu grains, and graphene on the surface provides a fast path for electron motion. This path compensates for the negative influence of grain refinement and the sintering defects on EC. The reduced graphene oxide-reinforced Cu-matrix composites were studied, and it was found that the comprehensive performance of the SSCu@rGO/Cu composites is superior to that of the rGO/Cu composites in all aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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17 pages, 10875 KiB  
Article
The Fabrication of Porous Metal-Bonded Diamond Coatings Based on Low-Pressure Cold Spraying and Ni-Al Diffusion-Reaction
by Zhicheng Zhang, Zhanqiang Liu, Hui Ge, Bing Wang, Yukui Cai and Qinghua Song
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062234 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
A porous metal-bonded diamond grinding wheel has an excellent performance in precision grinding. In this research, a novel manufacturing process of porous metal-bonded diamond coating was presented. Firstly, the diamond/Ni/Al coatings (400–600 μm) were fabricated via low-pressure cold spraying and their microstructures were [...] Read more.
A porous metal-bonded diamond grinding wheel has an excellent performance in precision grinding. In this research, a novel manufacturing process of porous metal-bonded diamond coating was presented. Firstly, the diamond/Ni/Al coatings (400–600 μm) were fabricated via low-pressure cold spraying and their microstructures were studied. The diamond particles in the feedstock had a core–shell structure. Secondly, the post-spray heat-treatments were set at 400 °C and 500 °C to produce pores in the cold-sprayed coatings via Ni-Al diffusion. The porosities of 400 °C and 500 °C heated coating were 8.8 ± 0.8% and 16.1 ± 0.7%, respectively. Finally, the wear behavior of porous heated coating was tested in contrast with cold-sprayed coating under the same condition via a ball-on-disc tribometer. The wear mechanism was revealed. The porous heated coating had better wear performance including chip space and slight clogging. The surface roughness of wear counterpart ground by the porous heated coating was smaller (Sa: 0.30 ± 0.07 μm) than that ground by cold-sprayed coating (Sa: 0.37 ± 0.09 μm). After ultrasonic clean, the average exposure height of diamond particles in the wear track of porous heated coating was 44.5% higher than that of cold-sprayed coating. The presented manufacturing process can contribute to fabricate high performance grinding wheels via cold spraying and porous structure controlling through Ni-Al diffusion–reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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14 pages, 4926 KiB  
Article
Superior Radiation Resistance of ZrO2-Modified W Composites
by Bo Cui, Chunyang Luo, Xiaoxi Chen, Chengqin Zou, Muhong Li, Liujie Xu, Jijun Yang, Xianfu Meng, Haibin Zhang, Xiaosong Zhou, Shuming Peng and Huahai Shen
Materials 2022, 15(6), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15061985 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
The microstructure and mechanical properties of pure W, sintered and swaged W-1.5ZrO2 composites after 1.5 × 1015 Au+/cm2 radiation at room temperature were characterized to investigate the impact of the ZrO2 phase on the irradiation resistance mechanism [...] Read more.
The microstructure and mechanical properties of pure W, sintered and swaged W-1.5ZrO2 composites after 1.5 × 1015 Au+/cm2 radiation at room temperature were characterized to investigate the impact of the ZrO2 phase on the irradiation resistance mechanism of tungsten materials. It can be concluded that the ZrO2 phase near the surface consists of two irradiation damage layers, including an amorphous layer and polycrystallization regions after radiation. With the addition of the ZrO2 phase, the total density and average size of dislocation loops, obviously, decrease, attributed to the reason that many more glissile 1/2<111> loops migrate to annihilate preferentially at precipitate interfaces with a higher sink strength of 7.8 × 1014 m2. The swaged W-1.5ZrO2 alloys have a high enough density of precipitate interfaces and grain boundaries to absorb large numbers of irradiated dislocations. This leads to the smallest irradiation hardening change in hardness of 4.52 Gpa, which is far superior to pure W materials. This work has a collection of experiments and conclusions that are of crucial importance to the materials and nuclear communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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12 pages, 5254 KiB  
Article
Shear Localization and Mechanical Properties of Cu/Ta Metallic Nanolayered Composites: A Molecular Dynamics Study
by Chuanbin Wang, Junjie Wang, Jianian Hu, Shanglin Huang, Yi Sun, Youlin Zhu, Qiang Shen and Guoqiang Luo
Metals 2022, 12(3), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030421 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
With their excellent mechanical properties, Cu/Ta metallic nanolayered composites (MNCs) are extensively applied in aerospace and nuclear industry facilities. However, shear localization severely disrupts the ability of these materials to deform uniformly, attracting many researchers. The necessary time and length conditions of experiments [...] Read more.
With their excellent mechanical properties, Cu/Ta metallic nanolayered composites (MNCs) are extensively applied in aerospace and nuclear industry facilities. However, shear localization severely disrupts the ability of these materials to deform uniformly, attracting many researchers. The necessary time and length conditions of experiments limit the investigation of shear localization; thus, relevant studies are insufficient. The molecular dynamics simulation perfectly corresponds to the short duration and high strain rate of the deformation process. Therefore, in this study, we used molecular dynamics simulations to explore the effect of layer thickness on the shear localization of Cu/Ta MNCs with Kurdjumov–Sachs (KS) orientation–related interfaces. Our research demonstrates that shear localization occurs in samples with layer thicknesses below 2.5 nm, resulting in an inverse size effect on the flow strength. The quantitative analysis indicates that the asymmetry of dislocations in the slip transmission across the interface causes interface rotation. This activates dislocations parallel to the interface to glide beyond the distance of individual layer thicknesses, eventually forming shear bands. Both interface rotation and sliding dominate the plastic deformation in the shear band region. In addition, the dislocation density and amorphous phase increase with decreasing layer thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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14 pages, 2928 KiB  
Article
Effect of Temperature on the Corrosion Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of Copper–Aluminum Laminated Composite Plate
by Qiannan Li, Yifan Zhang, Yulin Cheng, Xiaojiao Zuo, Yinxiao Wang, Xiaoguang Yuan and Hongjun Huang
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041621 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior and corrosion resistance of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plates were investigated by salt-spray corrosion, potential polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Moreover, the microstructure of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plate after salt-spray [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior and corrosion resistance of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plates were investigated by salt-spray corrosion, potential polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Moreover, the microstructure of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plate after salt-spray corrosion was observed by scanning electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the composition of corrosion product. The results revealed that the corrosion products of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plate were Al2O3 and AlOOH. Due to the galvanic corrosion of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plate, the cathode underwent oxygen absorption corrosion during the corrosion process; therefore, the presence of moisture and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the corrosive environment had a great influence on the corrosion process. The increasing temperature would evaporate a large amount of moisture, resulting in the corrosion product—aluminum oxide dehydrated and covered the surface of the material in the process of salt-spray corrosion, which played a role in protecting the material. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plate first decreased and then increased. In the salt-spray corrosion environment, the corrosion resistance of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plate reached the lowest at 45 °C, and its corrosion rate was the fastest, at 0.728 g/m2·h. The electrochemical corrosion occurred in the solution, and the impact was small; however, in addition to the protective corrosion products, the ion mobility in the solution also had a certain influence on the corrosion rate, and the ionic activity increased with the increase of temperature. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of the copper–aluminum laminated composite plate gradually decreased as the temperature increased, and its corrosion resistance was the worst at 50 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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10 pages, 6377 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Fe-Si-B Based Amorphous Powder Cores by Spark Plasma Sintered and Their Magnetic Properties
by Liang Yan, Biao Yan and Yin Jian
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041603 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Mechanical ball milling was used to coat SiO2 nanopowder on a Fe-Si-B amorphous powder in this study. The Fe-Si-B/SiO2 core–shell amorphous composite powder was obtained after 6h of ball milling. At 490 °C, the amorphous powder is thermally stable. Discharge plasma [...] Read more.
Mechanical ball milling was used to coat SiO2 nanopowder on a Fe-Si-B amorphous powder in this study. The Fe-Si-B/SiO2 core–shell amorphous composite powder was obtained after 6h of ball milling. At 490 °C, the amorphous powder is thermally stable. Discharge plasma sintering was used to create a Fe-Si-B/SiO2 magnetic powder core (SPS). At a sintering temperature of 420 to 540 °C, the phase composition and magnetic characteristics of the magnetic particle core were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the structural features of the magnetic particle core. A precision resistance tester and a vibrating sample magnetometer were used to assess the resistivity and magnetic characteristics of the magnetic particle core. The findings showed that Fe3Si and Fe2B are the phases generated during spark plasma sintering. High-frequency power loss increases as density rises. However, at the measured frequency, the magnetic permeability of the magnetic particle core changes slightly and has excellent frequency characteristics, making it appropriate for use in high-frequency components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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14 pages, 6297 KiB  
Article
Effects of Chromium Carbide Coatings on Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity of Mg/Diamond Composites Prepared by Squeeze Casting
by Jianwei Li, Ren Peng, Jinming Ru, Jianhua Wu, Kaixiang Zhou, Yongxin Yan, Xiaojing Xu and Yuhua Zhou
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041284 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Magnesium matrix composites are considered a desired solution for lightweight applications. As an attractive thermal management material, diamond particle-reinforced Mg matrix (Mg/diamond) composites generally exhibit thermal conductivities lower than expected. To exploit the potential of heat conduction, a combination of Cr coating on [...] Read more.
Magnesium matrix composites are considered a desired solution for lightweight applications. As an attractive thermal management material, diamond particle-reinforced Mg matrix (Mg/diamond) composites generally exhibit thermal conductivities lower than expected. To exploit the potential of heat conduction, a combination of Cr coating on diamond particles and squeeze casting was used to prepare Mg/diamond (Cr) composites. The thickness of the Cr coating under different coating processes (950 °C/30 min, 950 °C/60 min, 950 °C/90 min, 1000 °C/30 min, and 1050 °C/30 min) was measured by FIB-SEM to be 1.09–2.95 μm. The thermal conductivity (TC) of the Mg/diamond composites firstly increased and then decreased, while the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Mg/diamond (Cr) composite firstly decreased and then increased with the increase in Cr coating thickness. The composite exhibited the maximum TC of 202.42 W/(m·K) with a 1.20 μm Cr coating layer, while a minimum CTE of 5.82 × 10−6/K was recorded with a coating thickness of 2.50 μm. The results clearly manifest the effect of Cr layer thickness on the TC and CTE of Mg/diamond composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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12 pages, 5802 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Reinforcement Preheating Temperatures on Tribological Behavior of Advanced Quranic Metal-Matrix Composites (QMMC)
by Sultan Althahban, Yosef Jazaa, Omar Bafakeeh, Abdullah S. Alomari, Hossam El-Din M. Sallam and Mahmoud Atta
Materials 2022, 15(2), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020659 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
The growing applications of iron/copper bimetallic composites in various industries are increasing. The relationship between the properties of these materials and manufacturing parameters should be well understood. This paper represents an experimental study to evaluate the effect of reinforcement (steel rod) preheating temperature [...] Read more.
The growing applications of iron/copper bimetallic composites in various industries are increasing. The relationship between the properties of these materials and manufacturing parameters should be well understood. This paper represents an experimental study to evaluate the effect of reinforcement (steel rod) preheating temperature on the mechanical properties (bond strength, microhardness, and wear resistance) of copper matrix composites (QMMC). In preparing the QMMC samples, the melted copper was poured on a steel rod that had been preheated to various temperatures, namely, room temperature, 600 °C, 800 °C, and 1200 °C. Properties of the QMMC (interface microstructure, interfacial bonding strength, microhardness, and wear) were investigated. The experimental results revealed that the best bond between the copper matrix and steel rod formed only in the composites prepared by preheating the steel rods with temperatures lower than the recrystallization temperature of steel (723 °C). This is because the oxide layer and shrinkage voids (due to the difference in shrinkage between the two metals) at the interface hinder atom diffusion and bond formation at higher temperatures. The microhardness test showed that preheating steel rod to 600 °C gives the highest value among all the samples. Furthermore, the QMMC’s wear behavior confirmed that the optimization of preheating temperature is 600 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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15 pages, 13928 KiB  
Article
First-Principles Calculations of Y-Si-O Nanoclusters and Effect of Si on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 12Cr ODS Steel in Vacuum Sintering System
by Feng Su, Guangtao Xu, Zhenhua Yao, Huachen Liu and Yikun Chen
Metals 2022, 12(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010155 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1709
Abstract
High density of thermally stable Y-Si-O nanoparticles dispersed in the Fe matrix play a primary role in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. In this study, the binding energies of solutes Y, O and Si with vacancies have been calculated in the framework of [...] Read more.
High density of thermally stable Y-Si-O nanoparticles dispersed in the Fe matrix play a primary role in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. In this study, the binding energies of solutes Y, O and Si with vacancies have been calculated in the framework of first-principles density functional theory. According to the calculations, any two solutes of Y, O and Si bound with each other strongly in the second nearest neighboring (NN) sites while not in 1NN. A vacancy (v) bounds strongly with Y and O in 1NN site. The binding sequence of solutes with v followed O-v → Y-v → Si-v, and the affinity of Y, Si and v with O followed O-Y → O-v → O-Si. The nucleation mechanism of Y-O-Si nanoclusters was determined, which gave the feasibility of adding Si to ODS steels. The core (consisting of Si and O)-shell (enriched Fe and Cr) structure of the microparticles was found in ODS steels containing Si, fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and vacuum sintering. Moreover the nanoparticles of monoclinic cubic Y2O3, Y2SiO5 and Y2Si2O7 with sizes of 5~12 nm were observed in ODS steel. Si reduced the sintering temperature by maximizing densities and mechanical properties at a lower sintering temperature. The steel with 3 wt% Si was sintered at 1280 °C, exhibiting the best comprehensive mechanical properties. The tensile strength, hardness and relative density were 1025 MPa, 442.44 HV and 95.3%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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9 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Study on the High-Temperature Deformation and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior near the Interface of Stainless Steel Cladding
by Meirong Shuai, Binbin Chang, Min Zhang, Zhibing Chu, Haibin Li, Liang Li and Lu Zhou
Crystals 2022, 12(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12010081 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
To ensure the long service life of concrete buildings in the marine environment, it is urgent to develop building materials with good corrosion resistance and weatherability. Stainless steel cladding is suitable for a highly corrosive environment and provides cost advantages. This paper investigated [...] Read more.
To ensure the long service life of concrete buildings in the marine environment, it is urgent to develop building materials with good corrosion resistance and weatherability. Stainless steel cladding is suitable for a highly corrosive environment and provides cost advantages. This paper investigated the deformation coordination and the microstructure evolution near the cladding interface of stainless steel/carbon steel. The stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates were analyzed on the basis of high-temperature compression experiments. In addition, the sin-hyperbolic constitutive model was constructed, and the optimized parameters were obtained using electron backscatter diffraction characterization technology. The results show that at the deformation temperature of 1100 °C and the strain rate of 1 s−1, the deformation coordination increases significantly near the interface, accompanied by a large number of recrystallized grains, which has a positive impact on the comprehensive performance of the materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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13 pages, 6248 KiB  
Article
Effect of Aluminum on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal of Q960 Steel
by Zongxuan Zou, Zhengjun Liu, Xingyu Ai and Dan Wu
Crystals 2022, 12(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12010026 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel is used in important steel structural members because of its strength and plastic toughness. Q960 steel is HSLA steel obtained by adding an appropriate amount of alloy elements and quenching and tempering treatment on the basis of ordinary low-carbon [...] Read more.
High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel is used in important steel structural members because of its strength and plastic toughness. Q960 steel is HSLA steel obtained by adding an appropriate amount of alloy elements and quenching and tempering treatment on the basis of ordinary low-carbon steel. This kind of steel has strong hardenability due to the alloy elements added. Cold cracks, embrittlement and softening of the heat-affected zone easily occur after welding. In particular, the low-temperature impact toughness cannot meet the requirements and limits its use. In this paper, self-shielded welding is used to adjust the content of aluminum in flux-cored wire. The relationship between weld metal (WM) microstructure and strength and properties was studied by tensile test and impact test, and the influence mechanism of Al content on weld metal microstructure and properties was analyzed. The results show that when the content of Al is 0.21%, the impact energy at 0 °C~−60 °C is the best, the tensile strength can reach 1035 MPA and the number of pores is small. The size of inclusions in WM is mostly less than 1.0 μm Al2O3 spherical oxide. It can become the center of acicular ferrite (AF) and increase the nucleation probability. However, with the increase of Al content, large irregular AlN inclusions are produced, which reduces the tensile strength and impact energy of the welded joint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Matrix Composites: Recent Advancements)
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