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Technologies, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Description: In an era of unprecedented cross-fertilization in science, atom-based quantum technologies (AQTs) are engendering a transformative impact in science and society with the development of quantum simulators, computing, sensing and communication. We illustrate how AQT are catalyzing applications via simulators and analogue models, relevant for condensed matter, fundamental physics, cosmology, astrophysics, foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum chemistry and biology. With AQT driving this interdisciplinarity at the forefront of science and applications, we discuss how adopting a responsible research and innovation approach is mandatory. This review is aimed at scientists in interdisciplinary research, providing an overview of the current fields where AQTs play a vital role in their description and simulation. View this paper
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17 pages, 441 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Survey on the Investigation of Machine-Learning-Powered Augmented Reality Applications in Education
by Haseeb Ali Khan, Sonain Jamil, Md. Jalil Piran, Oh-Jin Kwon and Jong-Weon Lee
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050072 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Machine learning (ML) is enabling augmented reality (AR) to gain popularity in various fields, including gaming, entertainment, healthcare, and education. ML enhances AR applications in education by providing accurate visualizations of objects. For AR systems, ML algorithms facilitate the recognition of objects and [...] Read more.
Machine learning (ML) is enabling augmented reality (AR) to gain popularity in various fields, including gaming, entertainment, healthcare, and education. ML enhances AR applications in education by providing accurate visualizations of objects. For AR systems, ML algorithms facilitate the recognition of objects and gestures from kindergarten through university. The purpose of this survey is to provide an overview of various ways in which ML techniques can be applied within the field of AR within education. The first step is to describe the background of AR. In the next step, we discuss the ML models that are used in AR education applications. Additionally, we discuss how ML is used in AR. Each subgroup’s challenges and solutions can be identified by analyzing these frameworks. In addition, we outline several research gaps and future research directions in ML-based AR frameworks for education. Full article
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26 pages, 929 KiB  
Perspective
Analysis, Evaluation, and Future Directions on Multimodal Deception Detection
by Arianna D’Ulizia, Alessia D’Andrea, Patrizia Grifoni and Fernando Ferri
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050071 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Multimodal deception detection has received increasing attention from the scientific community in recent years, mainly due to growing ethical and security issues, as well as the growing use of digital media. A great number of deception detection methods have been proposed in several [...] Read more.
Multimodal deception detection has received increasing attention from the scientific community in recent years, mainly due to growing ethical and security issues, as well as the growing use of digital media. A great number of deception detection methods have been proposed in several domains, such as political elections, security contexts, and job interviews. However, a systematic analysis of the current situation and the evaluation and future directions of deception detection based on cues coming from multiple modalities seems to be lacking. This paper, starting from a description of methods and metrics used for the analysis and evaluation of multimodal deception detection on video, provides a vision of future directions in this field. For the analysis, the PRISMA recommendations are followed, which allow the collection and synthesis of all the available research on the topic and the extraction of information on the multimodal features, the fusion methods, the classification approaches, the evaluation datasets, and metrics. The results of this analysis contribute to the assessment of the state of the art and the evaluation of evidence on important research questions in multimodal deceptive deception. Moreover, they provide guidance on future research in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communication Technologies)
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10 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Speckle Plethysmograph-Based Blood Pressure Assessment
by Floranne T. Ellington, Anh Nguyen, Mao-Hsiang Huang, Tai Le, Bernard Choi and Hung Cao
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050070 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Continuous non-invasive blood pressure (CNBP) monitoring is of the utmost importance in detecting and managing hypertension, a leading cause of death in the United States. Extensive research has delved into pioneering methods for predicting systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by leveraging pulse [...] Read more.
Continuous non-invasive blood pressure (CNBP) monitoring is of the utmost importance in detecting and managing hypertension, a leading cause of death in the United States. Extensive research has delved into pioneering methods for predicting systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by leveraging pulse arrival time (PAT), the time difference between the proximal and distal signal peaks. The most widely employed pairing involves electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG). Possessing similar characteristics in terms of measuring blood flow changes, a recently investigated optical signal known as speckleplethysmography (SPG) showed its stability and high signal-to-noise ratio compared with PPG. Thus, SPG is a potential surrogate to pair with ECG for CNBP estimation. The present study aims to unlock the untapped potential of SPG as a signal for non-invasive blood pressure monitoring based on PAT. To ascertain SPG’s capabilities, eight subjects were enrolled in multiple recording sessions. A third-party device was employed for ECG and PPG measurements, while a commercial device served as the reference for arterial blood pressure (ABP). SPG measurements were obtained using a prototype smartphone-based system. Following the completion of three scenarios—sitting, walking, and running—the subjects’ signals and ABP were recorded to investigate the predictive capacity of systolic blood pressure. The collected data were processed and prepared for machine learning models, including support vector regression and decision tree regression. The models’ effectiveness was evaluated using root-mean-square error and mean absolute percentage error. In most instances, predictions utilizing PATSPG exhibited comparable or superior performance to PATPPG (i.e., SPG Rest ± 12.4 mmHg vs. PPG Rest ± 13.7 mmHg for RSME, and SPG 8% vs. PPG 9% for MAPE). Furthermore, incorporating an additional feature, namely the previous SBP value, resulted in reduced prediction errors for both signals in multiple model configurations (i.e., SPG Rest ± 12.4 mmHg to ±3.7 mmHg for RSME, and SPG Rest 8% to 3% for MAPE). These preliminary tests of SPG underscore the remarkable potential of this novel signal in PAT-based blood pressure predictions. Subsequent studies involving a larger cohort of test subjects and advancements in the SPG acquisition system hold promise for further improving the effectiveness of this newly explored signal in blood pressure monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Smart Healthcare: Technologies and Applications)
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13 pages, 3794 KiB  
Article
Evaluating a Controlled Electromagnetic Launcher for Safe Remote Drug Delivery
by John LaRocco, Qudsia Tahmina and John Simonis
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050069 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Biologists and veterinarians rely on dart projectors to inject animals with drugs, take biopsies from specimens, or inject tracking chips. Firearms, air guns, and other launchers are limited in their ability to precisely control the kinetic energy of a projectile, which can injure [...] Read more.
Biologists and veterinarians rely on dart projectors to inject animals with drugs, take biopsies from specimens, or inject tracking chips. Firearms, air guns, and other launchers are limited in their ability to precisely control the kinetic energy of a projectile, which can injure the animal if too high. In order to improve the safety of remote drug delivery, a lidar-modulated electromagnetic launcher and a soft drug delivery dart were prototyped. A single-stage revolver coilgun and soft dart were designed and tested at distances up to 8 m. With a coil efficiency of 2.25%, the launcher could consistently deliver a projectile at a controlled kinetic energy of 1.00 ± 0.006 J and an uncontrolled kinetic energy of 2.66 ± 0.076 J. Although modifications to charging time, sensors, and electronics could improve performance, our launcher performed at the required level at the necessary distances. The precision achieved with commercial components enables many other applications, from law enforcement to manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Technology)
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20 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
Application and Challenges of the Technology Acceptance Model in Elderly Healthcare: Insights from ChatGPT
by Sang Dol Kim
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050068 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 596
Abstract
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) plays a pivotal role in elderly healthcare, serving as a theoretical framework. This study aimed to identify TAM’s core components, practical applications, challenges arising from its applications, and propose countermeasures in elderly healthcare. This descriptive study was conducted [...] Read more.
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) plays a pivotal role in elderly healthcare, serving as a theoretical framework. This study aimed to identify TAM’s core components, practical applications, challenges arising from its applications, and propose countermeasures in elderly healthcare. This descriptive study was conducted by utilizing OpenAI’s ChatGPT, with an access date of 10 January 2024. The three open-ended questions administered to ChatGPT and its responses were collected and qualitatively evaluated for reliability through previous studies. The core components of TAMs were identified as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward use, behavioral intention to use, subjective norms, image, and facilitating conditions. TAM’s application areas span various technologies in elderly healthcare, such as telehealth, wearable devices, mobile health apps, and more. Challenges arising from TAM applications include technological literacy barriers, digital divide concerns, privacy and security apprehensions, resistance to change, limited awareness and information, health conditions and cognitive impairment, trust and reliability concerns, a lack of tailored interventions, overcoming age stereotypes, and integration with traditional healthcare. In conclusion, customized interventions are crucial for successful tech acceptance among the elderly population. The findings of this study are expected to enhance understanding of elderly healthcare and technology adoption, with insights gained through natural language processing models like ChatGPT anticipated to provide a fresh perspective. Full article
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22 pages, 10593 KiB  
Article
Study of an LLC Converter for Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Integration in Shipboard Microgrids
by Nick Rigogiannis, Ioannis Roussos, Christos Pechlivanis, Ioannis Bogatsis, Anastasios Kyritsis, Nick Papanikolaou and Michael Loupis
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050067 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Static waste heat recovery, by means of thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules, constitutes a fast-growing energy harvesting technology on the way towards greener transportation. Many commercial solutions are already available for small internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, whereas further development and cost reductions of [...] Read more.
Static waste heat recovery, by means of thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules, constitutes a fast-growing energy harvesting technology on the way towards greener transportation. Many commercial solutions are already available for small internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, whereas further development and cost reductions of TEG devices expand their applicability at higher-power transportation means (i.e., ships and aircrafts). In this light, the integration of waste heat recovery based on TEG modules in a shipboard distribution network is studied in this work. Several voltage step-up techniques are considered, whereas the most suitable ones are assessed via the LTspice simulation platform. The design procedure of the selected LLC resonant converter is presented and analyzed in detail. Furthermore, a flexible control strategy is proposed, capable of either output voltage regulation (constant voltage) or maximum power point tracking (MPPT), according to the application demands. Finally, both simulations and experiments (on a suitable laboratory testbench) are performed. The obtained measurements indicate the high efficiency that can be achieved with the LLC converter for a wide operating area as well as the functionality and adequate performance of the control scheme in both operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOCAST 2023)
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16 pages, 2203 KiB  
Article
Converging Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Technologies: Accelerated Growth Effects in Technological Evolution
by Mario Coccia
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050066 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
One of the fundamental problems in the field of technological studies is to clarify the drivers and dynamics of technological evolution for sustaining industrial and economic change. This study confronts the problem by analyzing the converging technologies to explain effects on the evolutionary [...] Read more.
One of the fundamental problems in the field of technological studies is to clarify the drivers and dynamics of technological evolution for sustaining industrial and economic change. This study confronts the problem by analyzing the converging technologies to explain effects on the evolutionary dynamics over time. This paper focuses on technological interaction between artificial intelligence and quantum technologies using a technometric model of technological evolution based on scientific and technological information (publications and patents). Findings show that quantum technology has a growth rate of 1.07, artificial intelligence technology has a rate of growth of 1.37, whereas the technological interaction of converging quantum and artificial intelligence technologies has an accelerated rate of growth of 1.58, higher than trends of these technologies taken individually. These findings suggest that technological interaction is one of the fundamental determinants in the rapid evolution of path-breaking technologies and disruptive innovations. The deductive implications of results about the effects of converging technologies are: (a) accelerated evolutionary growth; (b) a disproportionate (allometric) growth of patents driven by publications supporting a fast technological evolution. Our results support policy and managerial implications for the decision making of policymakers, technology analysts, and R&D managers that can direct R&D investments towards fruitful inter-relationships between radical technologies to foster scientific and technological change with positive societal and economic impcats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quantum Technologies)
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15 pages, 2575 KiB  
Article
Fluorine-Free Single-Component Polyelectrolyte of Poly(ethylene glycol) Bearing Lithium Methanesulfonylsulfonimide Terminal Groups: Effect of Structural Variance on Ionic Conductivity
by Bungo Ochiai, Koki Hirabayashi, Yudai Fujii and Yoshimasa Matsumura
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050065 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Fluorine-free single-component polyelectrolytes were developed via the hybridization of lithium methanesulfonylsulfonimide (LiMSSI) moieties to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives with different morphologies, and the relationship between the structure and its ionic conductivity was investigated. The PEG-LiMSSI derivatives with one, two, and three LiMSSI end [...] Read more.
Fluorine-free single-component polyelectrolytes were developed via the hybridization of lithium methanesulfonylsulfonimide (LiMSSI) moieties to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives with different morphologies, and the relationship between the structure and its ionic conductivity was investigated. The PEG-LiMSSI derivatives with one, two, and three LiMSSI end groups were prepared via the concomitant Michael-type addition and lithiation of PEGs and N-methanesulfonylvinylsulfonimide. The ionic conductivity at 60 °C ranged from 1.8 × 10−7 to 2.0 × 10−4 S/cm. PEG-LiMSSI derivatives with one LiMSSI terminus and with two LiMSSI termini at both ends show higher ionic conductivity, that is as good as fluorine-free single-component polyelectrolytes, than that with two LiMSSI termini at one end and that with three LiMSSI termini. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems (SmaSys2023))
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124 pages, 17855 KiB  
Review
Atomic Quantum Technologies for Quantum Matter and Fundamental Physics Applications
by Jorge Yago Malo, Luca Lepori, Laura Gentini and Maria Luisa (Marilù) Chiofalo
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050064 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Physics is living an era of unprecedented cross-fertilization among the different areas of science. In this perspective review, we discuss the manifold impact that state-of-the-art cold and ultracold-atomic platforms can have in fundamental and applied science through the development of platforms for quantum [...] Read more.
Physics is living an era of unprecedented cross-fertilization among the different areas of science. In this perspective review, we discuss the manifold impact that state-of-the-art cold and ultracold-atomic platforms can have in fundamental and applied science through the development of platforms for quantum simulation, computation, metrology and sensing. We illustrate how the engineering of table-top experiments with atom technologies is engendering applications to understand problems in condensed matter and fundamental physics, cosmology and astrophysics, unveil foundational aspects of quantum mechanics, and advance quantum chemistry and the emerging field of quantum biology. In this journey, we take the perspective of two main approaches, i.e., creating quantum analogues and building quantum simulators, highlighting that independently of the ultimate goal of a universal quantum computer to be met, the remarkable transformative effects of these achievements remain unchanged. We wish to convey three main messages. First, this atom-based quantum technology enterprise is signing a new era in the way quantum technologies are used for fundamental science, even beyond the advancement of knowledge, which is characterised by truly cross-disciplinary research, extended interplay between theoretical and experimental thinking, and intersectoral approach. Second, quantum many-body physics is unavoidably taking center stage in frontier’s science. Third, quantum science and technology progress will have capillary impact on society, meaning this effect is not confined to isolated or highly specialized areas of knowledge, but is expected to reach and have a pervasive influence on a broad range of society aspects: while this happens, the adoption of a responsible research and innovation approach to quantum technologies is mandatory, to accompany citizens in building awareness and future scaffolding. Following on all the above reflections, this perspective review is thus aimed at scientists active or interested in interdisciplinary research, providing the reader with an overview of the current status of these wide fields of research where cold and ultracold-atomic platforms play a vital role in their description and simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quantum Technologies)
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29 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
Hunting Search Algorithm-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Controller for an Aero-Pendulum
by Ricardo Rojas-Galván, José R. García-Martínez, Edson E. Cruz-Miguel, Omar A. Barra-Vázquez, Luis F. Olmedo-García and Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050063 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 742
Abstract
The aero-pendulum is a non-linear system used broadly to develop and test new controller strategies. This paper presents a new methodology for an adaptive PID fuzzy-based tracking controller using a Hunting Search (HuS) algorithm. The HuS algorithm computes the parameters of the membership [...] Read more.
The aero-pendulum is a non-linear system used broadly to develop and test new controller strategies. This paper presents a new methodology for an adaptive PID fuzzy-based tracking controller using a Hunting Search (HuS) algorithm. The HuS algorithm computes the parameters of the membership functions of the fuzzification stage. As a novelty, the algorithm guarantees the overlap of the membership functions to ensure that all the functions are interconnected, generating new hunters to search for better solutions in the overlapping area. For the defuzzification stage, the HuS algorithm sets the singletons in optimal positions to evaluate the controller response using the centroid method. To probe the robustness of the methodology, the PID fuzzy controller algorithm is implemented in an embedded system to track the angular position of an aero-pendulum test bench. The results show that the adaptive PID fuzzy controller proposed presents root mean square error values of 0.42, 0.40, and 0.49 for 80, 90, and 100 degrees, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems (SmaSys2023))
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39 pages, 7829 KiB  
Article
Inference Analysis of Video Quality of Experience in Relation with Face Emotion, Video Advertisement, and ITU-T P.1203
by Tisa Selma, Mohammad Mehedy Masud, Abdelhak Bentaleb and Saad Harous
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050062 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
This study introduces an FER-based machine learning framework for real-time QoE assessment in video streaming. This study’s aim is to address the challenges posed by end-to-end encryption and video advertisement while enhancing user QoE. Our proposed framework significantly outperforms the base reference, ITU-T [...] Read more.
This study introduces an FER-based machine learning framework for real-time QoE assessment in video streaming. This study’s aim is to address the challenges posed by end-to-end encryption and video advertisement while enhancing user QoE. Our proposed framework significantly outperforms the base reference, ITU-T P.1203, by up to 37.1% in terms of accuracy and 21.74% after attribute selection. Our study contributes to the field in two ways. First, we offer a promising solution to enhance user satisfaction in video streaming services via real-time user emotion and user feedback integration, providing a more holistic understanding of user experience. Second, high-quality data collection and insights are offered by collecting real data from diverse regions to minimize any potential biases and provide advertisement placement suggestions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communication Technologies)
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16 pages, 5227 KiB  
Article
New Upgrade to Improve Operation of Conventional Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
by Manuel Cáceres, Alexis Raúl González Mayans, Andrés Firman, Luis Vera and Juan de la Casa Higueras
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050061 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The incorporation of distributed generation with photovoltaic systems entails a drawback associated with intermittency in the generation capacity due to variations in the solar resource. In general, this aspect limits the level of penetration that this resource can have without producing an appreciable [...] Read more.
The incorporation of distributed generation with photovoltaic systems entails a drawback associated with intermittency in the generation capacity due to variations in the solar resource. In general, this aspect limits the level of penetration that this resource can have without producing an appreciable impact on the quality of the electrical supply. With the intention of reducing its intermittency, this paper presents the characterization of a methodology for maximizing grid-connected PV system operation under low-solar-radiation conditions. A new concept of a hybrid system based on a constant current source and capable of integrating different sources into a conventional grid-connected PV system is presented. Results of an experimental characterization of a low-voltage grid–PV system connection with a DC/DC converter for constant-current source application are shown in zero and non-zero radiation conditions. The results obtained demonstrate that the proposed integration method works efficiently without causing appreciable effects on the parameters that define the quality of the electrical supply. In this way, it is possible to efficiently incorporate another source of energy, taking advantage of the characteristics of the GCPVS without further interventions in the system. It is expected that this topology could help to integrate other generation and/or storage technologies into already existing PV systems, opening a wide field of research in the PV systems area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Electrical Technologies)
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16 pages, 3414 KiB  
Article
A Cyber–Physical System Based on Digital Twin and 3D SCADA for Real-Time Monitoring of Olive Oil Mills
by Cristina Martinez-Ruedas, Jose-Maria Flores-Arias, Isabel M. Moreno-Garcia, Matias Linan-Reyes and Francisco Jose Bellido-Outeiriño
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050060 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Cyber–physical systems involve the creation, continuous updating, and monitoring of virtual replicas that closely mirror their physical counterparts. These virtual representations are fed by real-time data from sensors, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, and other sources, enabling a dynamic and accurate reflection of [...] Read more.
Cyber–physical systems involve the creation, continuous updating, and monitoring of virtual replicas that closely mirror their physical counterparts. These virtual representations are fed by real-time data from sensors, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, and other sources, enabling a dynamic and accurate reflection of the state of the physical system. This emphasizes the importance of data synchronization, visualization, and interaction within virtual environments as a means to improve decision-making, training, maintenance, and overall operational efficiency. This paper presents a novel approach to a cyber–physical system that integrates virtual reality (VR)-based digital twins and 3D SCADA in the context of Industry 4.0 for the monitoring and optimization of an olive mill. The methodology leverages virtual reality to create a digital twin that enables immersive data-driven simulations for olive mill monitoring. The proposed CPS takes data from the physical environment through the existing sensors and measurement elements in the olive mill, concentrates them, and exposes them to the virtual environment through the Open Platform Communication United Architecture (OPC-UA) protocol, thus establishing bidirectional and real-time communication. Furthermore, in the proposed virtual environment, the digital twin is interfaced with the 3D SCADA system, allowing it to create virtual models of the process. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize the olive oil industry by improving operational efficiency, product quality, and sustainability while optimizing maintenance practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cyber-Physical Security for IoT Systems)
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14 pages, 5243 KiB  
Article
Neural Network-Based Body Weight Prediction in Pelibuey Sheep through Biometric Measurements
by Alfonso J. Chay-Canul, Enrique Camacho-Pérez, Fernando Casanova-Lugo, Omar Rodríguez-Abreo, Mayra Cruz-Fernández and Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050059 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 840
Abstract
This paper presents an intelligent system for the dynamic estimation of sheep body weight (BW). The methodology used to estimate body weight is based on measuring seven biometric parameters: height at withers, rump height, body length, body diagonal length, total body length, semicircumference [...] Read more.
This paper presents an intelligent system for the dynamic estimation of sheep body weight (BW). The methodology used to estimate body weight is based on measuring seven biometric parameters: height at withers, rump height, body length, body diagonal length, total body length, semicircumference of the abdomen, and semicircumference of the girth. A biometric parameter acquisition system was developed using a Kinect as a sensor. The results were contrasted with measurements obtained manually with a flexometer. The comparison gives an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 9.91 and a mean R2 of 0.81. Subsequently, the parameters were used as input in a back-propagation artificial neural network. Performance tests were performed with different combinations to make the best choice of architecture. In this way, an intelligent body weight estimation system was obtained from biometric parameters, with a 5.8% RMSE in the weight estimations for the best architecture. This approach represents an innovative, feasible, and economical alternative to contribute to decision-making in livestock production systems. Full article
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20 pages, 1412 KiB  
Article
RFID Tags for On-Metal Applications: A Brief Survey
by Emanuel Pereira, Sandoval Júnior, Luís Felipe Vieira Silva, Mateus Batista, Eliel Santos, Ícaro Araújo, Jobson Araújo, Erick Barboza, Francisco Gomes, Ismael Trindade Fraga, Daniel Oliveira Dos Santos and Roger Davanso
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050058 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 992
Abstract
Radio-frequency identification technology finds extensive use in various industrial applications, including those involving metallic surfaces. The integration of radio-frequency identification systems with metal surfaces, such as those found in the automotive sector, presents distinct challenges that can notably affect system efficacy due to [...] Read more.
Radio-frequency identification technology finds extensive use in various industrial applications, including those involving metallic surfaces. The integration of radio-frequency identification systems with metal surfaces, such as those found in the automotive sector, presents distinct challenges that can notably affect system efficacy due to metal’s tendency to reflect electromagnetic waves, thus degrading the functionality of conventional radio-frequency identification tags. This highlights the importance of conducting research into academic publications and patents to grasp the current advancements and challenges in this field, aiming to improve the applications of radio-frequency identification tags technology on metal. Consequently, this research undertakes a concise review of both the literature and patents exploring radio-frequency identification technology’s use for on-metal tags, utilizing resources like Google Scholar and Google Patents. The research categorized crucial aspects such as tag flexibility, operating frequency, and geographic origins of the research. Findings highlight China’s prominent role in contributing to metal-focused radio-frequency identification tag research, with a considerable volume of articles and patents. In particular, flexible tags and the Ultra-High Frequency range are dominant in both scholarly and patent documents, reflecting their significance in radio-frequency identification technology applications. The research underscores a vibrant area of development within radio-frequency identification technology, with continued innovation driven by specific industrial needs. Despite the noted advances, the presence of a significant percentage of no longer valid patents suggests substantial opportunities for further research and innovation in radio-frequency identification technology for on-metal applications, especially considering the demand for flexible tags and for solutions in systems that offer specialized characteristics or are tailored for specific uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communication Technologies)
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18 pages, 4551 KiB  
Article
Miniaturized Microstrip Dual-Channel Diplexer Based on Modified Meander Line Resonators for Wireless and Computer Communication Technologies
by Yaqeen Sabah Mezaal, Shahad K. Khaleel, Ban M. Alameri, Kadhum Al-Majdi and Aqeel A. Al-Hilali
Technologies 2024, 12(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12050057 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
There has been a lot of interest in microstrip diplexers lately due to their potential use in numerous wireless and computer communication technologies, including radio broadcasts, mobile phones, broadband wireless, and satellite-based communication systems. It can do this because it has a communication [...] Read more.
There has been a lot of interest in microstrip diplexers lately due to their potential use in numerous wireless and computer communication technologies, including radio broadcasts, mobile phones, broadband wireless, and satellite-based communication systems. It can do this because it has a communication channel that can combine two distinct filters into one. This article presents a narrow-band microstrip diplexer that uses a stepped impedance resonator, a uniform impedance resonator, tiny square patches, and a meander line resonator. The projected diplexer might be made smaller than its initial dimensions by utilizing the winding construction. To model the microstrip diplexer topology for WiMAX and WIFI/WLAN at 1.66 GHz and 2.52 GHz, the Advanced Wave Research (AWR) solver was employed. It exhibited an insertion loss of 3.2 dB and a return loss of 16 dB for the first channel, while the insertion loss and return loss were 2.88 dB and 21 dB, respectively, for the second channel. When both filters were simulated, the band isolation was 31 dB. The projected microstrip diplexer has been fabricated using an FR4 epoxy laminate with dimensions of 32 × 26 mm2. The simulated S-parameters phase and group delay closely matched the measurements. Full article
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