Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Matrix Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 13107

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Guest Editor
Materials Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Interests: metal additive manufacturing; processing; characterization; lightweight materials; nanocomposites
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal matrix composites have matured significantly over last 50 years with significant contributions from researchers around the world. Based on scientific understanding coupled with technological success, these materials have assisted in improving the performance and reliability of engineering structures, irrespective of the area of application. In view of refreshing these fundamentals for a larger community and young researchers and to highlight new developments, this Special Issue is launched which will target both review and research papers. The papers which present review of targeted areas of development will be most desirable. These areas can be related to (not limited to) processing; microstructural aspects; physical, electrical, thermal, mechanical, and electrochemical properties; joining; machining; tribology; corrosion; and industrial applications.

Prof. Dr. Manoj Gupta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • composites
  • processing
  • microstructure
  • properties
  • joining
  • corrosion
  • applications

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

18 pages, 5687 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Dry-Sliding Wear Characterization of Open-Cell AlSn6Cu–Al2O3 Composites with LSTM-Based Coefficient of Friction Prediction
by Mihail Kolev, Ludmil Drenchev, Veselin Petkov, Rositza Dimitrova, Krasimir Kolev and Tatiana Simeonova
Metals 2024, 14(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14040428 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
This study investigates the fabrication, wear characterization, and coefficient of friction (COF) prediction of open-cell AlSn6Cu–Al2O3 composites obtained by a liquid-state processing technique. Focusing on wear behavior under varying loads using the pin-on-disk method, this research characterizes microstructure and phase [...] Read more.
This study investigates the fabrication, wear characterization, and coefficient of friction (COF) prediction of open-cell AlSn6Cu–Al2O3 composites obtained by a liquid-state processing technique. Focusing on wear behavior under varying loads using the pin-on-disk method, this research characterizes microstructure and phase composition via SEM, EDS, and XRD analyses. A novel aspect of this research is the application of an LSTM recurrent neural network model for the fast and accurate prediction of the COF of the composites, eliminating the need for extensive experimental work. Additionally, feature importance analysis using Random Forest regressors is conducted to ascertain the relative contribution of each input variable to the output variable, enhancing our understanding of the wear mechanisms in these materials. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the composite’s reinforcement in improving wear resistance, highlighting the critical role of mechanical stress and the reinforcement’s hardness in the wear process. The quantitative findings related to the wear behavior include a mass-wear reduction in the open-cell AlSn6Cu–Al2O3 composite from 8.05 mg to 1.90 mg at 50 N and a decrease from 17.55 mg to 8.10 mg at 100 N, demonstrating the Al2O3 particles’ effectiveness in improving wear resistance under different loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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14 pages, 3061 KiB  
Article
Compactability Regularities Observed during Cold Uniaxial Pressing of Layered Powder Green Samples Based on Ti-Al-Nb-Mo-B and Ti-B
by Pavel Bazhin, Alexander Konstantinov, Andrey Chizhikov, Mikhail Antipov, Pavel Stolin, Varvara Avdeeva and Anna Antonenkova
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111827 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1941
Abstract
We determined the compactability regularities observed during the cold uniaxial pressing of layered powder green samples, taking into account factors such as composition, height, and number of Ti–B (TiB) and Ti–Al–Nb–Mo–B (TNM) layers. The following composition was chosen for the TNM layer at [...] Read more.
We determined the compactability regularities observed during the cold uniaxial pressing of layered powder green samples, taking into account factors such as composition, height, and number of Ti–B (TiB) and Ti–Al–Nb–Mo–B (TNM) layers. The following composition was chosen for the TNM layer at %: 51.85Ti–43Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.15B, while for the Ti-B layer we selected the composition wt %: Ti-B-(20, 30, 40) Ti. Green samples were made containing both 100 vol % TiB and TNM, and those taken in the following proportions, vol %: 70TiB/30TNM, 50TiB/50TNM, 30TiB/70TNM; multilayer green samples were studied in the following proportions, vol %: 35TiB/30TNM/35TiB, 25TiB/25TNM/25TiB/25TNM, 35TNM/30TiB/35TNM. Based on the obtained rheological data, we determined the rheological characteristics of the layered green samples, including compressibility modulus, compressibility coefficient, relaxation time, and limiting value of linear section deformation. These characteristics were found to vary depending on the composition, height, and number of layers. Our findings revealed that reducing the TNM content in the charge billet composition improves the compaction of powder materials under the given technological parameters of uniaxial cold pressing. Moreover, we observed that increasing the boron content and decreasing the amount of titanium in the Ti–B composition enhances the compactability of powder materials. We also established a relationship between the compaction pressure interval and the density of the layered powder green sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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18 pages, 8130 KiB  
Article
Structural Synergy of NanoAl2O3/NanoAl Composites with High Thermomechanical Properties and Ductility
by Magzhan K. Kutzhanov, Andrei T. Matveev, Andrey V. Bondarev, Igor V. Shchetinin, Anton S. Konopatsky and Dmitry V. Shtansky
Metals 2023, 13(10), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13101696 - 5 Oct 2023
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Achieving a combination of high strength and ductility in metal-based composites is still a difficult task, and it is especially challenging in a wide temperature range. Here, nanoAl2O3/nanoAl composites with high tensile and compressive strength and excellent ductility at [...] Read more.
Achieving a combination of high strength and ductility in metal-based composites is still a difficult task, and it is especially challenging in a wide temperature range. Here, nanoAl2O3/nanoAl composites with high tensile and compressive strength and excellent ductility at 25 and 500 °C were obtained using Al and Al2O3 nanopowders via a combination of high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Being about three times lighter than conventional high-strength steel (with a density of 2.7 g/cm3 vs. that of 7.8 g/cm3 for steel), the nanoAl2O3/nanoAl materials demonstrated tensile strength and elongation before failure comparable with those of steel. The nanoAl2O3/nanoAl composites were strengthened with two types of Al2O3 NPs, in situ formed, and introduced into the powder mixture. The resulting materials had a bimodal microstructure consisting of Al with micron and submicron grains surrounded by an Al/Al2O3 framework whose structural components were all in the size range of 20–50 nm. Among the studied compositions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 20 wt.% of Al2O3), the Al-3%Al2O3 material showed the best thermomechanical properties, such as a tensile strength of 512 MPa and 280 MPa and a compressive strength of 489 MPa and 344 MPa at 25 and 500 °C, respectively, with an elongation to failure of 15–18%. These results show the promise of nanoAl2O3/nanoAl composites for use as small items in the automotive and aviation industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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18 pages, 12022 KiB  
Article
Structure and Properties of High-Strength Cu-7.7Nb Composite Wires under Various Steps of Strain and Annealing Modes
by Irina L. Deryagina, Elena N. Popova and Evgeny I. Patrakov
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091576 - 9 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Microstructure and mechanical properties of in situ Cu-7.7Nb microcomposite (MC) wires manufactured by cold drawing with intermediate heat treatment (HT) have been studied. The evolution of Nb filaments morphology under various steps of deformation and modes of intermediate HT have been studied by [...] Read more.
Microstructure and mechanical properties of in situ Cu-7.7Nb microcomposite (MC) wires manufactured by cold drawing with intermediate heat treatment (HT) have been studied. The evolution of Nb filaments morphology under various steps of deformation and modes of intermediate HT have been studied by the SEM and TEM methods. According to X-ray analysis, internal microstresses accumulate in the niobium filaments of the drawn MC, leading to a decrease in ductility. After heat treatment, the ductility of the wire increases significantly, since the microstresses in the niobium decrease even at the lowest HT temperature. The strength of the composite decreases under the HT because of negative changes in morphology and interface density of Nb filaments. The <110>Nb texture is stable under the HT up to 800 °C. The Nb filaments morphology and semi-coherent boundaries at Cu/Nb interfaces are restored under the post-HT cold drawing, leading to a sharp increase in the strength of the MC wire. Reducing the niobium concentration to 7.7%Nb relative to the traditional MC with 16–20%Nb and the recovery of the wire ductility under the HT makes it possible to obtain long-scale high-strength microwires with an extremely small diameter of 0.05 mm and high ultimate tensile strength of 1227 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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14 pages, 5220 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Air Exposure on the Hydrogenation Properties of 2Mg-Fe Composite after Mechanical Alloying and Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB)
by Gisele F. de Lima-Andreani, Leonardo H. Fazan, Erika B. Baptistella, Bruno D. Oliveira, Katia R. Cardoso, Dilermando N. Travessa, Andre M. Neves and Alberto M. Jorge, Jr.
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091544 - 1 Sep 2023
Viewed by 647
Abstract
In this study, we successfully obtained a 2Mg-Fe mixture through mechanical alloying (MA) and processed it via accumulative roll bonding (ARB) (MA+ARB). Our primary focus was to analyze the impact of ambient air exposure while also evaluating the processing route. Some powder samples [...] Read more.
In this study, we successfully obtained a 2Mg-Fe mixture through mechanical alloying (MA) and processed it via accumulative roll bonding (ARB) (MA+ARB). Our primary focus was to analyze the impact of ambient air exposure while also evaluating the processing route. Some powder samples were exposed to air for 12 months (stored in a glass desiccator with an average yearly temperature and relative humidity of ~27 °C and 50.5%) before undergoing ARB processing. The Mg samples obtained after ARB processing exhibited a (002)-type texture. Our results demonstrate that all samples, including those processed via ARB, could rapidly absorb hydrogen within a matter of minutes despite considerable differences in surface area between powders and rolled samples. Grain size reduction by MA and ARB processing and texturing may have influenced this behavior. ARB-processed samples reached approximately 60% (~1.8 wt.%) of their maximum acquired capacity within just 24 min compared to powders (~2.2 wt.%) stored for a year, which took 36 min. In addition, the desorption temperatures (~300 °C) were lower than those of MgH2 (~434 °C). The absorption and desorption kinetics remained fast, even after prolonged exposure to air. Although there were minor variations in capacities, our overall findings are promising since scalable techniques such as ARB have the potential to produce hydrogen storage materials that are both safe and cost-effective in a highly competitive market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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17 pages, 22227 KiB  
Article
Effect of TiC Particle Size on Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Inconel 718/TiC Composite Material Made by Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing
by Vadim Sufiiarov, Artem Borisov, Anatoly Popovich and Danil Erutin
Metals 2023, 13(7), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13071271 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of TiC particle size on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an Inconel 718/TiC composite material fabricated using binder jetting additive manufacturing was investigated. Vacuum sintering, hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment as post-processing were applied to the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of TiC particle size on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an Inconel 718/TiC composite material fabricated using binder jetting additive manufacturing was investigated. Vacuum sintering, hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment as post-processing were applied to the samples. The addition of 1 wt% micron-sized TiC to the Inconel 718 matrix resulted in a significant increase in strength and relative elongation during tensile tests at both room temperature and 700 °C. The distribution of micron-sized TiC particles in the matrix was uniform, and the MC phase precipitated after HT was located along the grain boundaries and near the micron-sized TiC particles, which contributed to the strengthening. The hardness increased insignificantly with the addition of micron-sized TiC. The nano-sized TiC particles added to the matrix were located on the surfaces of the Inconel 718 particles of the initial powders, which obstructed sintering and resulted in a porous structure and, consequently, low mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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11 pages, 2332 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Physical, Thermal, and Mechanical Responses of a Mg/2wt.%CeO2 Nanocomposite Using Deep Cryogenic Treatment
by Shwetabh Gupta, Gururaj Parande, Khin Sandar Tun and Manoj Gupta
Metals 2023, 13(4), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040660 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Deep cryogenic treatment has shown promise as a facile method of increasing the characteristics of many materials including alloys of iron, aluminum, and magnesium. However, there have not been any prior studies on its effect on the microstructure and thermal and mechanical properties [...] Read more.
Deep cryogenic treatment has shown promise as a facile method of increasing the characteristics of many materials including alloys of iron, aluminum, and magnesium. However, there have not been any prior studies on its effect on the microstructure and thermal and mechanical properties of magnesium-based nanocomposites. In this study, a Mg/2wt.%CeO2 nanocomposite was processed using disintegrated melt deposition processing coupled with hot extrusion, followed by cryogenic treatment in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. The characterization results show increases in density (reduction in porosity), ignition temperature, compressive yield strength, compressive ductility, and microhardness. This study, for the first time, shows the significant relevance of deep cryogenic treatment in enhancing an array of properties of a magnesium-based nanocomposite that may be catalytic in improving its application spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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12 pages, 7022 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of the Mechanical, Thermal and Electrical Properties of an AA7075 Alloy Reinforced with Hybrid Ceramic Nanoparticles Using Friction Stir Processing
by Ahmed B. Khoshaim, Essam B. Moustafa, Mashhour A. Alazwari and Mohammed A. Taha
Metals 2023, 13(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010124 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Aluminum AA7075, graphene nanoplates (GNP), boron nitride (BN), and vanadium carbide (VC) are used to fabricate hybrid nanocomposite matrices. BN and VC serve as secondary reinforcement particles in the fabrication of hybrid composites, with graphene (GNP) as a key component of the hybrid [...] Read more.
Aluminum AA7075, graphene nanoplates (GNP), boron nitride (BN), and vanadium carbide (VC) are used to fabricate hybrid nanocomposite matrices. BN and VC serve as secondary reinforcement particles in the fabrication of hybrid composites, with graphene (GNP) as a key component of the hybrid process. Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to manufacture the composite matrix; it also has a major role in improving the microstructure’s grain refinement, as well as the reinforcing of the particles, which play a crucial role in limiting grain growth during the dynamic recrystallization process. Consequently, the grain sizes of the nanocomposite AA7075/GNPs, hybrid composites AA7075/GNPs+BN, and hybrid composites AA7075/GNPs+BN+VC were decreased by an average of 10.3 times compared to the base alloy. The SEM analysis demonstrated that the dispersion of the hybrid reinforcement particles was performed, and the particles were dispersed uniformly throughout the metal matrix. The mechanical characteristics of the hybrid AA7075/GNPs+BN+VC include the highest compression stress and hardness values due to the homogeneity of the hybridization process between the BN and VC particles. The GNPs reduce the electrical conductivity by 7.3% less than the base alloy. In comparison, when hybridized with BN and VC, it is reduced by 24.4% and 31.1%, respectively. In addition, the inclusion of thermally insulating materials, such as BN and VC, decreases the thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite metal matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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8 pages, 11301 KiB  
Communication
TiAl-Based Materials by In Situ Selective Laser Melting of Ti/Al Reactive Composites
by Andrey A. Nepapushev, Dmitry O. Moskovskikh, Ksenia V. Vorotilo and Alexander S. Rogachev
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111505 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2118
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) of refractory materials requires either a high laser power or the use of various easily melting binders. In this work, we propose an alternative—the use of spherical reactive Ti/Al composite particles, obtained by preliminary high-energy ball milling. These powders were [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of refractory materials requires either a high laser power or the use of various easily melting binders. In this work, we propose an alternative—the use of spherical reactive Ti/Al composite particles, obtained by preliminary high-energy ball milling. These powders were used to produce high-temperature TiAl-based materials during the selective laser melting (SLM) process. When laser heating is applied, mechanically activated composite particles readily react with the release of a considerable amount of heat and transform into corresponding intermetallic compounds. The combustion can be initiated at relatively low temperatures, and the exothermic effect prevents the sharp cooling of as-sintered tracks. This approach allows one to produce dense intermetallic materials with a homogeneous structure in one step via SLM and eliminates the need for powerful lasers, binders, or additional post-processing and heat treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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Review

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26 pages, 5400 KiB  
Review
Strategies and Outlook on Metal Matrix Composites Produced Using Laser Powder Bed Fusion: A Review
by Min-Kyeom Kim, Yongjian Fang, Juwon Kim, Taehwan Kim, Yali Zhang, Wonsik Jeong and Jonghwan Suhr
Metals 2023, 13(10), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13101658 - 27 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Particle-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) produced using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) technique have gained considerable attention because of their distinct attributes and properties in comparison with conventional manufacturing methods. Nevertheless, significant challenges persist with LPBF-fabricated MMCs: more design parameters over commercially [...] Read more.
Particle-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) produced using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) technique have gained considerable attention because of their distinct attributes and properties in comparison with conventional manufacturing methods. Nevertheless, significant challenges persist with LPBF-fabricated MMCs: more design parameters over commercially available alloys and several defects resulting from inappropriate process conditions. These challenges arise from the intricate interaction of material- and process-related phenomena, requiring a fundamental understanding of the LPBF process to elucidate the microstructural evolution and underlying mechanisms of strengthening. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of these intricate phenomena and mechanisms, aiming to mitigate the process-related defects and facilitate the design of MMCs with enhanced mechanical properties. The material processing approach was suggested, covering from material design and LPBF to postprocessing. Furthermore, the role of in situ heat treatment on the microstructure evolution of MMCs was clarified, and several novel, potential strengthening theories were discussed for the LPBF-fabricated MMCs. The suggested strategies to address the challenges and design high-performance MMCs will offer an opportunity to develop promising LPBF-fabricated MMCs, while overcoming the material limitations of LPBF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Metal Matrix Composites)
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