Symmetry beyond the Standard Models of Cosmology, High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 10379

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Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Pr. Stachky 194, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Interests: cosmology; astrophysics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this special issue is presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders and is to answer questions on the standard model of electroweak and color interactions and the cosmological standard model.

Prof. Dr. Maxim Yu. Khlopov
Prof. Dr. Vitaly Beylin
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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29 pages, 460 KiB  
Article
Clifford Odd and Even Objects in Even and Odd Dimensional Spaces Describing Internal Spaces of Fermion and Boson Fields
by Norma Susana Mankoč Borštnik
Symmetry 2023, 15(4), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15040818 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
In a long series of works, it has been demonstrated that the spin-charge-family theory, assuming a simple starting action in even dimensional spaces with d(13+1), with massless fermions interacting with gravity only, offers the explanation for [...] Read more.
In a long series of works, it has been demonstrated that the spin-charge-family theory, assuming a simple starting action in even dimensional spaces with d(13+1), with massless fermions interacting with gravity only, offers the explanation for all assumed properties of the second quantized fermion and boson fields in the standard model, as well as offering predictions and explanations for several of the observed phenomena. The description of the internal spaces of the fermion and boson fields by the Clifford odd and even objects, respectively, justifies the choice of the simple starting action of the spin-charge-family theory. The main topic of the present article is the analysis of the properties of the internal spaces of the fermion and boson fields in odd dimensional spaces, d=(2n+1), which can again be described by the Clifford odd and even objects, respectively. It turns out that the properties of fermion and boson fields differ essentially from their properties in even dimensional spaces, resembling the ghosts needed when looking for final solutions with Feynman diagrams. Full article
9 pages, 1075 KiB  
Article
Charge Asymmetry of New Stable Families in Baryon Asymmetrical Universe
by Vitaly A. Beylin, Maxim Yu. Khlopov and Danila O. Sopin
Symmetry 2023, 15(3), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15030657 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
The new stable fermion family, with Standard Model electroweak (EW) charges, should take part in sphaleron transitions in the early Universe before breaking of the EW symmetry. The conditions of balance between the excess of new fermions (additional generation of new superheavy U, [...] Read more.
The new stable fermion family, with Standard Model electroweak (EW) charges, should take part in sphaleron transitions in the early Universe before breaking of the EW symmetry. The conditions of balance between the excess of new fermions (additional generation of new superheavy U, D quarks and new E, N leptons) and baryon asymmetry, were considered at temperatures above, and below, the phase transition, using a system of equations for chemical potentials. Full article
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12 pages, 402 KiB  
Article
Gravitational Waves from the Merger of Two Primordial Black Hole Clusters
by Yury Eroshenko and Viktor Stasenko
Symmetry 2023, 15(3), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15030637 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
The orbital evolution of a binary system consisting of two primordial black hole clusters is investigated. Such clusters are predicted in some theoretical models with broken symmetry in the inflation Lagrangian. A cluster consists of the most massive central black hole surrounded by [...] Read more.
The orbital evolution of a binary system consisting of two primordial black hole clusters is investigated. Such clusters are predicted in some theoretical models with broken symmetry in the inflation Lagrangian. A cluster consists of the most massive central black hole surrounded by many smaller black holes. Similar to single primordial black holes, clusters can form gravitationally bounded pairs and merge during their orbital evolution. The replacement of single black holes by such clusters significantly changes the entire merger process and the final rate of gravitational wave bursts in some parameter ranges (with sufficiently large cluster radii). A new important factor is the tidal gravitational interaction of the clusters. It leads to an additional dissipation of the orbital energy, which is transferred into the internal energy of the clusters or carried away by black holes flying out of the clusters. Comparison with the data of gravitational-wave telescopes allows one to constrain the fractions of primordial black holes in clusters, depending on their mass and compactness. Even the primordial black hole fraction in the composition of dark matter 1 turns out to be compatible with LIGO/Virgo observational data, if the black holes are in clusters. Full article
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13 pages, 1023 KiB  
Article
Post-Inflationary Production of Dark Matter after Inflection Point Slow Roll Inflation
by Anish Ghoshal, Gaetano Lambiase, Supratik Pal, Arnab Paul and Shiladitya Porey
Symmetry 2023, 15(2), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15020543 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
We explore a feasible model that combines near-inflection point small-field slow roll inflationary scenario driven by single scalar inflaton with the production of non-thermal vector-like fermionic dark matter, χ, during the reheating era. For the inflationary scenario, we consider two separate polynomial [...] Read more.
We explore a feasible model that combines near-inflection point small-field slow roll inflationary scenario driven by single scalar inflaton with the production of non-thermal vector-like fermionic dark matter, χ, during the reheating era. For the inflationary scenario, we consider two separate polynomial forms of the potential; one is symmetric about the origin, and the other is not. We fix the coefficients of the potentials satisfying current Planck-Bicep data. We calculate the permissible range of yχ and mχ for the production of enough dark matter to explain the total Cold Dark Matter (CDM) mass density of the present universe while satisfying Cosmic Background Radiation (CMBR) measurements and other cosmological bounds. Full article
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10 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Gravitational Baryogenesis: Problems and Possible Resolution
by Elena Arbuzova, Alexander Dolgov, Koushik Dutta and Raghavan Rangarajan
Symmetry 2023, 15(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15020404 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
The coupling of baryonic current to the derivative of the curvature scalar, R, inherent to gravitational baryogenesis (GBG), leads to a fourth-order differential equation of motion for R instead of the algebraic one of general relativity (GR). The fourth-order differential equation is [...] Read more.
The coupling of baryonic current to the derivative of the curvature scalar, R, inherent to gravitational baryogenesis (GBG), leads to a fourth-order differential equation of motion for R instead of the algebraic one of general relativity (GR). The fourth-order differential equation is generically unstable. We consider a possible mechanism of stabilization of GBG by the modification of gravity, introducing an R2 term into the canonical action of GR. It is shown that this mechanism allows for the stabilization of GBG with bosonic and fermionic baryon currents. We establish the region of the model parameters leading to the stabilization of R. Still, the standard cosmology would be noticeably modified. Full article
10 pages, 1814 KiB  
Article
Hot Primordial Regions with Anomalous Hydrogenless Chemical Composition
by Konstantin M. Belotsky, Mohamed M. El Kasmi, Sergey G. Rubin and Maxim L. Solovyov
Symmetry 2022, 14(7), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14071452 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
We study primordial nucleosynthesis in hypothetical hot regions that could be formed by the primordial density inhomogeneities. It is shown that the regions that survived up to the present times acquire an abnormally high metallicity. This conclusion holds in a wide range of [...] Read more.
We study primordial nucleosynthesis in hypothetical hot regions that could be formed by the primordial density inhomogeneities. It is shown that the regions that survived up to the present times acquire an abnormally high metallicity. This conclusion holds in a wide range of initial parameters of such regions. We considered the thermonuclear reaction rates and estimated abundances of deuterium and helium-3 and -4 inside these areas. It has been established that all baryons tend to form helium-4, which is the thermonuclear link in the chain of formation of heavier elements. Full article
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7 pages, 385 KiB  
Article
Sub-Planckian Scale and Limits for f(R) Models
by Polina Petriakova, Arkady Popov and Sergey Rubin
Symmetry 2021, 13(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13020313 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
We study the universe evolution starting from the sub-Planckian scale to present times. The requirement for an exponential expansion of the space with the observed metric as a final stage leads to significant restrictions on the parameter values of a function [...] Read more.
We study the universe evolution starting from the sub-Planckian scale to present times. The requirement for an exponential expansion of the space with the observed metric as a final stage leads to significant restrictions on the parameter values of a function f(R). An initial metric of the Universe is supposed to be maximally symmetric with the positive curvature. Full article
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12 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Heavy Quark Symmetry and Fine Structure of the Spectrum of Hadronic Dark Matter
by Vladimir Kuksa and Vitaly Beylin
Symmetry 2020, 12(11), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111906 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
We analyze the structure of excited states of new heavy hadrons in the scenario with hadronic dark matter. Fine mass-splitting in a doublet of new mesons stipulates the existence of charged metastable heavy mesons. We describe the structure of new meson excited states [...] Read more.
We analyze the structure of excited states of new heavy hadrons in the scenario with hadronic dark matter. Fine mass-splitting in a doublet of new mesons stipulates the existence of charged metastable heavy mesons. We describe the structure of new meson excited states in the framework of the heavy quark effective theory. Phenomenological consequences of fine and hyperfine splitting are considered in the hadronic dark matter scenario and beyond. Full article

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10 pages, 753 KiB  
Conference Report
Copernican Paradigm beyond FLRW
by Chethan Krishnan, Ranjini Mondol and M. M. Sheikh Jabbari
Symmetry 2023, 15(2), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15020428 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
We present the dipole cosmological principle, i.e., the notion that the Universe is a Copernican cosmology that agrees with the cosmic flow. It suits the most symmetric paradigm that generalizes the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker ansatz in the context of numerous suggestions that have appeared in [...] Read more.
We present the dipole cosmological principle, i.e., the notion that the Universe is a Copernican cosmology that agrees with the cosmic flow. It suits the most symmetric paradigm that generalizes the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker ansatz in the context of numerous suggestions that have appeared in the literature for non-kinematic components in the cosmic microwave background dipole. Field equations in our “dipole cosmology” are still ODEs, but we now have four instead of two Friedmann equations. The two extra functions can be regarded as additional scale factors that break the isotropy group from SO(3) to U(1) and a “tilt” that denotes the cosmic flow. The result is an axially isotropic Universe. We examined the dynamics of the expansion rate, anisotropic shear, and tilt in some cases. One important observation is that the cosmic flow (tilt) can grow while the anisotropy (shear) dies down. Full article
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