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Magnetic Sensors

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018) | Viewed by 164256

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic sensors are gaining substantial penetration in the global sensor market. Several magnetic devices are already used for numerous engineering applications. The generic use of particular magnetic sensors may offer a wide use in a variety of applications. Apart from that, the specific use of specific sensors may also offer smart specialization and therefore attract the interest of industrial giants allowing for the integration of novel and inventive devices in their products. Apart from that, on-going research work in several fields of engineering applications can be aided by new advances in the field of magnetic sensors, therefore increasing their impact. Therefore, any kind of new advances in magnetic sensors can be of great importance for groups using them.

The categories of magnetic sensors are numerous, such as new types of fluxgates, sensors based on magneto-transport effects, such as giant magnetoresistance, magneto-impedance, etc. This Special Issue targets researchers working in the field of new sensors and transducers, as well as companies working towards the development or the integration of existing magnetic sensors and devices. We hereby invite the international community of magnetic sensors and transducers to participate in this high impact journal, aiming at the proper dissemination of our products/devices.

Prof. Dr. Evangelos Hristoforou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Magnetic effects
  • Sensing elements
  • Hybrid sensors
  • Integrated sensors
  • Lab-on-a-chip

Published Papers (32 papers)

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13 pages, 3091 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Location and Magnetic Moment of Ferromagnetic Objects Based on the Analysis of Magnetovision Measurements
by Michał Nowicki and Roman Szewczyk
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020337 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4297
Abstract
This article is concerned with the localization of ferromagnetic objects on the basis of magnetovision measurement analysis. In the presented case, the concept of localization is understood as the indication of the x, y, and z coordinates of the magnetic moment [...] Read more.
This article is concerned with the localization of ferromagnetic objects on the basis of magnetovision measurement analysis. In the presented case, the concept of localization is understood as the indication of the x, y, and z coordinates of the magnetic moment of the sought object. Magnetovision measurement provides a much simpler, two-dimensional localization of magnetic anomalies compared to existing active and passive mobile devices, largely based on operator knowledge and experience. In addition, the analysis of the obtained magnetovision measurement, by fusing data with a mathematical model, enables a quantitative assessment of the position of an object in space and the determination of the value and spatial orientation of its magnetic moment vector. The detection and localization method was verified using the certified magnetic moment standard. An additional novelty is the inclusion of the influence of the constant gradient of the external field in the model, which corresponds to disturbing the measurement by the influence of large, but distant, objects. The proposed three-dimensional magnetovision measurement method and its analysis enable the determination of the x, y, and z coordinates; the angular position; and the magnetic moment values of unknown magnetic dipoles in real conditions (effects of disturbances generated by other distant objects and background noise), thus precisely detecting and locating the ferromagnetic object. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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13 pages, 3407 KiB  
Article
A Two-Dimensional Wireless and Passive Sensor for Stress Monitoring
by Yisong Tan, Jianhua Zhu and Limin Ren
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010135 - 2 Jan 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3955
Abstract
A new two-dimensional wireless and passive stress sensor using the inverse magnetostrictive effect is proposed, designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested in this work. Three pieces of magnetostrictive material are bonded on the surface of a smart elastomer structure base to form the sensor. [...] Read more.
A new two-dimensional wireless and passive stress sensor using the inverse magnetostrictive effect is proposed, designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested in this work. Three pieces of magnetostrictive material are bonded on the surface of a smart elastomer structure base to form the sensor. Using the external load, an amplitude change in the higher-order harmonic signal of the magnetic material is detected (as a result of the passive variation of the magnetic permeability wirelessly). The finite element method (FEM) is used to accomplish the design and analysis process. The strain-sensitive regions of the tension and torque are distributed at different locations, following the FEM analysis. After the fabrication of a sensor prototype, the mechanical output performance is measured. The effective measurement range is 0–40 N and 0–4 N·M under tension and torque, respectively. Finally, the error of the sensor after calibration and decoupling for Fx is 3.4% and for Tx is 4.2% under a compound test load (35 N and 3.5 N·M). The proposed sensor exhibits the merits of being passive and wireless, and has an ingenious structure. This passive and wireless sensor is useful for the long-term detection of mechanical loading within a moving object, and can even potentially be used for tracing dangerous overloads and for preventing implant failures by monitoring the deformation of implants in the human body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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11 pages, 5130 KiB  
Article
Tensductor—Amorphous Alloy Based Magnetoelastic Tensile Force Sensor
by Michał Nowicki
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4420; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124420 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4598
Abstract
In this paper new, tensile force sensor is presented, based on Pressductor topology and single layer of ferromagnetic amorphous ribbon. Simplified operating principle of the magnetic core with orthogonal coils is described. Straight and diagonal cut sensors are compared. The load vs. induced [...] Read more.
In this paper new, tensile force sensor is presented, based on Pressductor topology and single layer of ferromagnetic amorphous ribbon. Simplified operating principle of the magnetic core with orthogonal coils is described. Straight and diagonal cut sensors are compared. The load vs. induced voltage characteristics are presented, as well as possibility of higher harmonics utilization. The effect of supply current on signal amplitude and measurement hysteresis is given. The developed ‘Tensductor’ sensor has near-linear characteristics and is relatively easy to manufacture. The measurement range is scalable, the experimental unit had 0–12 N measurement range with 1% accuracy, mostly due to magnetoelastic hysteresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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17 pages, 4885 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Particles under Alternating Magnetic Fields: Focus on Particle Detection Sensor Applications
by Ran Jia, Biao Ma, Changsong Zheng, Liyong Wang, Xin Ba, Qiu Du and Kai Wang
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4144; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124144 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3976
Abstract
The electromagnetic wear particles detection sensor has been widely studied due to its ability to monitor the wear status of equipment in real time. To precisely estimate the change of the magnetic energy of the sensor coil caused by the wear particles, the [...] Read more.
The electromagnetic wear particles detection sensor has been widely studied due to its ability to monitor the wear status of equipment in real time. To precisely estimate the change of the magnetic energy of the sensor coil caused by the wear particles, the magnetic property models of wear particles under the alternating magnetic field was established. The models consider the hysteresis effect and the eddy current effect of the wear particles. The analysis and experimental results show that with the increase of the effective field frequency, the change of the magnetic energy caused by the wear particles gradually decrease, which makes the induced electromotive force output by the sensor reduce with the decrease of the particle speed, so a signal compensation method is presented to obtain a unified signal when the same wear particle passing through the sensor in different speeds. The magnetic coupling effect between the two adjacent wear particles is analyzed. The result illustrates that the change of the magnetic energy caused by the dual wear particles system is larger than the sum of the energy variation caused by two independent wear particles, and with the increase of the interparticle distance, the magnetic coupling effect gradually weakens and disappears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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11 pages, 5008 KiB  
Article
Effect of Torsion Stress on the Offset and Sensitivity of Diagonal and Off-Diagonal GMI in Amorphous Wires
by Julie Nabias, Aktham Asfour and Jean-Paul Yonnet
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4121; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124121 (registering DOI) - 24 Nov 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3473
Abstract
In this paper, the torsional stress effect on Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) was studied in Co-rich amorphous wires. The study, which was conducted in the context of the development of a current clamp based on GMI, considered torsion as a parameter of the influence [...] Read more.
In this paper, the torsional stress effect on Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) was studied in Co-rich amorphous wires. The study, which was conducted in the context of the development of a current clamp based on GMI, considered torsion as a parameter of the influence of this sensor. Both diagonal, Z11, and off-diagonal, Z21, components of the impedance tensor were investigated. The samples were Co-rich wires with a 100 µ diameter. The wires were twisted positive and negative angles with respect to a reference position. For each component of the impedance, the intrinsic sensitivity and offset were measured as a function of the rotation angle. The results showed that the sensitivity of the diagonal component at a given working point slightly increased for angles between −90° to +90°, whereas the sensitivity was almost constant for the off-diagonal component at zero-field. The intrinsic offset in the diagonal configuration was almost unchanged for the rotation angles considered, whereas this offset increased in the off-diagonal configuration. Furthermore, the GMI ratio of Z11 was also measured as a function of the rotation angle for comparison purposes with known data. The maximum of this ratio was obtained for a rotation angle of about 50°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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16 pages, 3831 KiB  
Article
An Inductive Sensing System to Measure In-Socket Residual Limb Displacements for People Using Lower-Limb Prostheses
by Katrina M. Henrikson, Ethan J. Weathersby, Brian G. Larsen, John C. Cagle, Jake B. McLean and Joan E. Sanders
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3840; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113840 - 9 Nov 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4177
Abstract
The objective of this research was to assess the performance of an embedded sensing system designed to measure the distance between a prosthetic socket wall and residual limb. Low-profile inductive sensors were laminated into prosthetic sockets and flexible ferromagnetic targets were created from [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to assess the performance of an embedded sensing system designed to measure the distance between a prosthetic socket wall and residual limb. Low-profile inductive sensors were laminated into prosthetic sockets and flexible ferromagnetic targets were created from elastomeric liners with embedded iron particles for four participants with transtibial amputation. Using insights from sensor performance testing, a novel calibration procedure was developed to quickly and accurately calibrate the multiple embedded sensors. The sensing system was evaluated through laboratory tests in which participants wore sock combinations with three distinct thicknesses and conducted a series of activities including standing, walking, and sitting. When a thicker sock was worn, the limb typically moved further away from the socket and peak-to-peak displacements decreased. However, sensors did not measure equivalent distances or displacements for a given sock combination, which provided information regarding the fit of the socket and how a sock change intervention influenced socket fit. Monitoring of limb–socket displacements may serve as a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians to quantitatively assess socket fit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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19 pages, 1803 KiB  
Article
Estimating Three-Dimensional Body Orientation Based on an Improved Complementary Filter for Human Motion Tracking
by Chunzhi Yi, Jiantao Ma, Hao Guo, Jiahong Han, Hefu Gao, Feng Jiang and Chifu Yang
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3765; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113765 - 4 Nov 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5094
Abstract
Rigid body orientation determined by IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) is widely applied in robotics, navigation, rehabilitation, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, aiming at dynamically fusing quaternions computed from angular rate integration and FQA algorithm, a quaternion-based complementary filter algorithm is proposed to [...] Read more.
Rigid body orientation determined by IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) is widely applied in robotics, navigation, rehabilitation, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, aiming at dynamically fusing quaternions computed from angular rate integration and FQA algorithm, a quaternion-based complementary filter algorithm is proposed to support a computationally efficient, wearable motion-tracking system. Firstly, a gradient descent method is used to determine a function from several sample points. Secondly, this function is used to dynamically estimate the fusion coefficient based on the deviation between measured magnetic field, gravity vectors and their references in Earth-fixed frame. Thirdly, a test machine is designed to evaluate the performance of designed filter. Experimental results validate the filter design and show its potential of real-time human motion tracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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14 pages, 2851 KiB  
Article
A Quantum-Based Microwave Magnetic Field Sensor
by Hao Shi, Jie Ma, Xiaofeng Li, Jie Liu, Chao Li and Shougang Zhang
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3288; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103288 - 30 Sep 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5111
Abstract
In this paper, a quantum-based method for measuring the microwave magnetic field in free space is presented by exploring atomic Rabi resonance in the clock transition of 133Cs. A compact cesium glass cell serving as the microwave magnetic field sensing head was [...] Read more.
In this paper, a quantum-based method for measuring the microwave magnetic field in free space is presented by exploring atomic Rabi resonance in the clock transition of 133Cs. A compact cesium glass cell serving as the microwave magnetic field sensing head was used to measure the spatial distribution of microwave radiation from an open-ended waveguide antenna. The measured microwave magnetic field was not restricted by other microwave devices. The longitudinal distribution of the magnetic field was measured. The experimental results measured by the sensor were in agreement with the simulation. In addition, a slightly electromagnetic perturbation caused by the glass cell was investigated through simulation calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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14 pages, 4176 KiB  
Article
An Optimized Two-Step Magnetic Correction Strategy by Means of a Lagrange Multiplier Estimator with an Ellipsoid Constraint
by Linlin Xia, Jingtong Geng, Hanrui Yang, Yunqi Wang, Zhaolong Fu and Bo Meng
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103284 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3790
Abstract
The geomagnetic field is as fundamental a constituent of passive navigation as Earth’s gravity. In cases where no other external attitude reference is available, for the direct heading angle estimation by a typical magnetic compass, a two-step optimized correction algorithm is proposed to [...] Read more.
The geomagnetic field is as fundamental a constituent of passive navigation as Earth’s gravity. In cases where no other external attitude reference is available, for the direct heading angle estimation by a typical magnetic compass, a two-step optimized correction algorithm is proposed to correct the model coefficients caused by hard and soft iron nearby. Specifically, in Step 1, a Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) fitting estimator with an ellipsoid constraint is applied to solve the hard magnetic coefficients. In Step 2, a Lagrange multiplier estimator is used to deal with the soft magnetic iron circumstance. The essential attribute of “the two-step” lies in its eliminating the coupling effects of hard and soft magnetic fields, and their mutual interferences on the pure geomagnetic field. Under the conditions of non-deterministic magnetic interference sources with noise, the numerical simulation by referring to International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), and the laboratory tests based upon the turntable experiments with Honeywell HMR3000 compass (Honeywell, Morristown, NJ, USA) conducted, the experimental results indicate that, in the presence of the variation of multi-magnetic interferences, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of the estimated total magnetic flux density by the proposed two-step estimator falls to 0.125 μT from its initial 2.503 μT, and the mean values of the heading angle error estimates are less than 1°. The proposed solution therefore, exhibits ideal convergent properties, fairly meeting the accuracy requirements of non-tactical level navigation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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15 pages, 4725 KiB  
Article
New Constitutive Matrix in the 3D Cell Method to Obtain a Lorentz Electric Field in a Magnetic Brake
by José Miguel Monzón-Verona, Pablo Ignacio González-Domínguez and Santiago García-Alonso
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3185; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103185 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
In this work, we have obtained a new constitutive matrix to calculate the induced Lorentz electric current of in a conductive disk in movement within a magnetic field using the cell method in 3D. This disk and a permanent magnet act as a [...] Read more.
In this work, we have obtained a new constitutive matrix to calculate the induced Lorentz electric current of in a conductive disk in movement within a magnetic field using the cell method in 3D. This disk and a permanent magnet act as a magnetic brake. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with the finite element method (FEM) using the computer applications Getdp and femm. The error observed is less than 0.1173%. Likewise, a second verification has been made in the laboratory using Hall sensors to measure the magnetic field in the proximity of the magnetic brake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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17 pages, 3243 KiB  
Article
High-Accuracy Calibration Based on Linearity Adjustment for Eddy Current Displacement Sensor
by Wei Liu, Bing Liang, Zhenyuan Jia, Di Feng, Xintong Jiang, Xiao Li and Mengde Zhou
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092842 - 28 Aug 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6198
Abstract
High precision position control is essential in the process of parts manufacturing and assembling, where eddy current displacement sensors (ECDSs) are widely used owing to the advantages of non-contact sensing, compact volume, and resistance to harsh conditions. To solve the nonlinear characteristics of [...] Read more.
High precision position control is essential in the process of parts manufacturing and assembling, where eddy current displacement sensors (ECDSs) are widely used owing to the advantages of non-contact sensing, compact volume, and resistance to harsh conditions. To solve the nonlinear characteristics of the sensors, a high-accuracy calibration method based on linearity adjustment is proposed for ECDSs in this paper, which markedly improves the calibration accuracy and then the measurement accuracy. After matching the displacement value and the output voltage of the sensors, firstly, the sensitivity is adjusted according to the specified output range. Then, the weighted support vector adjustment models with the optimal weight of the zero-scale, mid-scale and full-scale are established respectively to cyclically adjust the linearity of the output characteristic curve. Finally, the final linearity adjustment model is obtained, and both the calibration accuracy and precision are verified by the established calibration system. Experimental results show that the linearity of the output characteristic curve of ECDS adjusted by the calibration method reaches over 99.9%, increasing by 1.9–5.0% more than the one of the original. In addition, the measurement accuracy improves from 11–25 μ m to 1–10 μ m in the range of 6mm, which provides a reliable guarantee for high accuracy displacement measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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16 pages, 3407 KiB  
Article
A Uniform Linear Multi-Coil Array-Based Borehole Transient Electromagnetic System for Non-Destructive Evaluations of Downhole Casings
by Bo Dang, Ling Yang, Changzan Liu, Yahong Zheng, Hui Li, Ruirong Dang and Baoquan Sun
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082707 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3630
Abstract
Borehole transient electromagnetic (TEM) techniques have been proven to be efficient for nondestructive evaluations (NDEs) of metal casings using eddy-current properties. However, physical limitations and bad borehole conditions restrict the use of eddy-current sensors, which makes downhole casing inspections very different from those [...] Read more.
Borehole transient electromagnetic (TEM) techniques have been proven to be efficient for nondestructive evaluations (NDEs) of metal casings using eddy-current properties. However, physical limitations and bad borehole conditions restrict the use of eddy-current sensors, which makes downhole casing inspections very different from those of conventional NDE systems. In this paper, we present a uniform linear multi-coil array-based borehole TEM system for NDEs of downhole casings. On the basis of the borehole TEM signal model, a numerical multi-coil array approach using the Gauss–Legendre quadrature is derived. The TEM response can be divided into two independent parts related to the transmitting-receiving distance (TRD) and the observation time and casing thickness. Using this property, the signal received by the multi-coil array is weighted to cancel the influence of the TRDs of the different array elements to obtain the optimal response according to the linearly constrained minimum variance criterion, which can be shown to be identical to that of achieving the maximum signal-to-noise ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by applying the uniform linear multi-coil array to a borehole TEM system for NDEs of oil-well casings. Field experiments were conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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13 pages, 4616 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Residual Bending Strength of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beam Based on Micromagnetic Sensor
by Jianting Zhou, Junli Qiu, Yingxin Zhou, Yi Zhou and Runchuan Xia
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082635 - 11 Aug 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
This paper presents a nondestructive test method to evaluate the residual bending strength of corroded reinforced concrete beam by analyzing the self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) signals. The automatic scanning device was equipped with a micromagnetic sensor and sensor-based experimental details were introduced. Next, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a nondestructive test method to evaluate the residual bending strength of corroded reinforced concrete beam by analyzing the self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) signals. The automatic scanning device was equipped with a micromagnetic sensor and sensor-based experimental details were introduced. Next, the theoretical formula of the normal component HS(z) of the SMFL signal that originated from the corroded region was derived based on the magnetic dipole model and the experimental results were discussed. The results indicate that the experimental data of HS(z) are consistent with the theoretical calculations, both location and extent of the steel bars corrosion can be qualitatively determined by using HS(z). The gradient K of HS(z) is approximately linearly related to the loss rate, S, of the bending strength, which can be used to evaluate the residual bending strength of the corroded reinforced concrete beam. This work lays the foundation for evaluating the residual bending strength of corroded reinforced concrete beams using the SMFL signal; the micromagnetic sensor is further applied to the civil engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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14 pages, 5436 KiB  
Article
Lagging-Domain Model for Compensation of Hysteresis of xMR Sensors in Positioning Applications
by Dora Domajnko and Dejan Križaj
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072281 - 14 Jul 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3896
Abstract
The hysteresis of magnetoresistive sensors remains a considerable cause of inaccuracy of positioning applications. The phenomena itself has been well studied and described by different physical and phenomenological models. Various biasing techniques have been proposed. However, the increased fabrication and computational price they [...] Read more.
The hysteresis of magnetoresistive sensors remains a considerable cause of inaccuracy of positioning applications. The phenomena itself has been well studied and described by different physical and phenomenological models. Various biasing techniques have been proposed. However, the increased fabrication and computational price they require is undesirable. In this paper, a computational algorithm for the compensation of hysteresis of linear and rotary encoders is proposed. A lagging-domain model based on play operators is presented for prediction of hysteresis. The outlined procedure for the calibration of parameters allows the use of the algorithm for various types of encoders without knowing their exact material properties. The method was tested on different anisotropic magnetoresistive and tunneling magnetoresistive sensors. Results show that the impact of hysteresis was reduced by up to 90% without a significant increase of computational time or production costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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12 pages, 3137 KiB  
Article
Temperature Compensation of Elasto-Magneto-Electric (EME) Sensors in Cable Force Monitoring Using BP Neural Network
by Ru Zhang, Yuanfeng Duan, Yang Zhao and Xuan He
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072176 - 6 Jul 2018
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 3748
Abstract
Techniques based on the elasto-magnetic (EM) effect have been receiving increasing attention for their significant advantages in cable stress/force monitoring of in-service structures. Variations in ambient temperature affect the magnetic behaviors of steel components, causing errors in the sensor and measurement system results. [...] Read more.
Techniques based on the elasto-magnetic (EM) effect have been receiving increasing attention for their significant advantages in cable stress/force monitoring of in-service structures. Variations in ambient temperature affect the magnetic behaviors of steel components, causing errors in the sensor and measurement system results. Therefore, temperature compensation is essential. In this paper, the effect of temperature on the force monitoring of steel cables using smart elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensors was investigated experimentally. A back propagation (BP) neural network method is proposed to obtain a direct readout of the applied force in the engineering environment, involving less computational complexity. On the basis of the data measured in the experiment, an improved BP neural network model was established. The test result shows that, over a temperature range of approximately −10 °C to 60 °C, the maximum relative error in the force measurement is within ±0.9%. A polynomial fitting method was also implemented for comparison. It is concluded that the method based on a BP neural network can be more reliable, effective and robust, and can be extended to temperature compensation of other similar sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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12 pages, 24029 KiB  
Article
In-Line Inspection Tool with Eddy Current Instrumentation for Fatigue Crack Detection
by Cesar Camerini, João Marcos Alcoforado Rebello, Lucas Braga, Rafael Santos, Tomasz Chady, Grzegorz Psuj and Gabriela Pereira
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072161 - 5 Jul 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5318
Abstract
Eddy current transducer with sensing coils placed orthogonally and connected in differential mode was introduced to evaluate fatigue cracks in clad pipeline circumferential welds. A dedicated embedded electronic hardware was developed to drive the transducer and measure the electrical complex impedance of the [...] Read more.
Eddy current transducer with sensing coils placed orthogonally and connected in differential mode was introduced to evaluate fatigue cracks in clad pipeline circumferential welds. A dedicated embedded electronic hardware was developed to drive the transducer and measure the electrical complex impedance of the coils, and was specifically designed for operation under autonomous in-line inspection tool. In the laboratory experiments, an automated inspection was performed with the goal to evaluate transducer’s detectability, and different scanning speed was tested to reproduce in service situation. The results have confirmed that the introduced eddy current transducer is a potential solution for fatigue crack detection in clad circumferential weld root, while the hardware developed presented a reasonable SNR reaching the data rate required to be incorporated in an autonomous in-line inspection tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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8 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Design and Fabrication of Full Wheatstone-Bridge-Based Angular GMR Sensors
by Shaohua Yan, Zhiqiang Cao, Zongxia Guo, Zhenyi Zheng, Anni Cao, Yue Qi, Qunwen Leng and Weisheng Zhao
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061832 - 5 Jun 2018
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6879
Abstract
Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistive (GMR) effect, GMR sensors have gained much attention in last decades due to their high sensitivity, small size, and low cost. The full Wheatstone-bridge-based GMR sensor is most useful in terms of the application point of [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistive (GMR) effect, GMR sensors have gained much attention in last decades due to their high sensitivity, small size, and low cost. The full Wheatstone-bridge-based GMR sensor is most useful in terms of the application point of view. However, its manufacturing process is usually complex. In this paper, we present an efficient and concise approach to fabricate a full Wheatstone-bridge-based angular GMR sensor by depositing one GMR film stack, utilizing simple patterned processes, and a concise post-annealing procedure based on a special layout. The angular GMR sensor is of good linear performance and achieves a sensitivity of 0.112 mV/V/Oe at the annealing temperature of 260 °C in the magnetic field range from −50 to +50 Oe. This work provides a design and method for GMR-sensor manufacturing that is easy for implementation and suitable for mass production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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16 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
Vehicle Classification Using an Imbalanced Dataset Based on a Single Magnetic Sensor
by Chang Xu, Yingguan Wang, Xinghe Bao and Fengrong Li
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061690 - 24 May 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4925
Abstract
This paper aims to improve the accuracy of automatic vehicle classifiers for imbalanced datasets. Classification is made through utilizing a single anisotropic magnetoresistive sensor, with the models of vehicles involved being classified into hatchbacks, sedans, buses, and multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs). Using time domain [...] Read more.
This paper aims to improve the accuracy of automatic vehicle classifiers for imbalanced datasets. Classification is made through utilizing a single anisotropic magnetoresistive sensor, with the models of vehicles involved being classified into hatchbacks, sedans, buses, and multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs). Using time domain and frequency domain features in combination with three common classification algorithms in pattern recognition, we develop a novel feature extraction method for vehicle classification. These three common classification algorithms are the k-nearest neighbor, the support vector machine, and the back-propagation neural network. Nevertheless, a problem remains with the original vehicle magnetic dataset collected being imbalanced, and may lead to inaccurate classification results. With this in mind, we propose an approach called SMOTE, which can further boost the performance of classifiers. Experimental results show that the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier with the SMOTE algorithm can reach a classification accuracy of 95.46%, thus minimizing the effect of the imbalance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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16 pages, 5131 KiB  
Article
Cold-Rolled Strip Steel Stress Detection Technology Based on a Magnetoresistance Sensor and the Magnetoelastic Effect
by Ben Guan, Yong Zang, Xiaohui Han and Kailun Zheng
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051638 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4964
Abstract
Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress [...] Read more.
Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress in manufactured cold-rolled strips. An experimental device was designed and produced. Characteristics of this detection technology were investigated through experiments assisted by theoretical analysis. Theoretically, a linear correlation exists between the internal stress of strip steel and the voltage output of a magneto-resistive sensor. Therefore, for this stress detection system, the sensitivity of the stress detection was adjusted by adjusting the supply voltage of the magnetoresistance sensor, detection distance, and other relevant parameters. The stress detection experimental results showed that this detection system has good repeatability and linearity. The detection error was controlled within 1.5%. Moreover, the intrinsic factors of the detected strip steel, including thickness, carbon percentage, and crystal orientation, also affected the sensitivity of the detection system. The detection technology proposed in this research enables online contactless detection and meets the requirements for cold-rolled steel strips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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14 pages, 7943 KiB  
Article
Microwave Metamaterial-Based Sensor for Dielectric Characterization of Liquids
by André Soffiatti, Yuri Max, Sandro G. Silva and Laércio M. de Mendonça
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051513 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5233
Abstract
This article proposed to build a system founded on metamaterial sensor antennas, which can be used to evaluate impurities in aqueous substances according to the quality of transmission between the sensor antennas. In order to do this, a dedicated setup with tests in [...] Read more.
This article proposed to build a system founded on metamaterial sensor antennas, which can be used to evaluate impurities in aqueous substances according to the quality of transmission between the sensor antennas. In order to do this, a dedicated setup with tests in several frequencies was deployed so as to monitor the behavior of transmission variation between sensors. These sensors are microstrip antennas with a ground plane of resonant cleaved metallic rings; the substrate functions as a metamaterial for the irradiating element. In this study, an analysis was made of transmission between the sensors, looking for variation in angles of incidence of signal and of distance between the antennas. The sensor was tested at various operating frequencies, as such 1.8 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 4.1 GHz, resulting in different values of sensitivity. The prototypes were constructed and tested so as to analyze the dielectric effects of the impurities on NaCl and C2H4O2 substances. The research aims to use these control systems of impurities in industrial premises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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12 pages, 3223 KiB  
Article
Response of a Bell–Bloom Magnetometer to a Magnetic Field of Arbitrary Direction
by Zhichao Ding, Jie Yuan and Xingwu Long
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051401 - 2 May 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4913
Abstract
The Bell–Bloom magnetometer in response to a magnetic field of arbitrary direction is observed theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model is built from a macroscopic view to simulate the magnetometer frequency response to an external magnetic field of arbitrary direction. Based on the [...] Read more.
The Bell–Bloom magnetometer in response to a magnetic field of arbitrary direction is observed theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model is built from a macroscopic view to simulate the magnetometer frequency response to an external magnetic field of arbitrary direction. Based on the simulation results, the magnetometer characteristics, including the signal phase and amplitude at resonance, the linewidth, and the magnetometer sensitivity, are analyzed, and the dependencies of these characteristics on the external magnetic field direction are obtained, which are verified by the experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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13 pages, 6122 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Study on Corrosion of Steel Strands Based on Self-Magnetic Flux Leakage
by Runchuan Xia, Jianting Zhou, Hong Zhang, Leng Liao, Ruiqiang Zhao and Zeyu Zhang
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051396 - 2 May 2018
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 4481
Abstract
This paper proposed a new computing method to quantitatively and non-destructively determine the corrosion of steel strands by analyzing the self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) signals from them. The magnetic dipole model and three growth models (Logistic model, Exponential model, and Linear model) were [...] Read more.
This paper proposed a new computing method to quantitatively and non-destructively determine the corrosion of steel strands by analyzing the self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) signals from them. The magnetic dipole model and three growth models (Logistic model, Exponential model, and Linear model) were proposed to theoretically analyze the characteristic value of SMFL. Then, the experimental study on the corrosion detection by the magnetic sensor was carried out. The setup of the magnetic scanning device and signal collection method were also introduced. The results show that the Logistic Growth model is verified as the optimal model for calculating the magnetic field with good fitting effects. Combined with the experimental data analysis, the amplitudes of the calculated values (BxL(x,z) curves) agree with the measured values in general. This method provides significant application prospects for the evaluation of the corrosion and the residual bearing capacity of steel strand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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14 pages, 9086 KiB  
Article
Recognition of Broken Wire Rope Based on Remanence using EEMD and Wavelet Methods
by Juwei Zhang, Pengbo Zheng and Xiaojiang Tan
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041110 - 5 Apr 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5948
Abstract
The magnetic flux leakage method is widely used for non-destructive testing in wire rope applications. A non-destructive testing device for wire rope based on remanence was designed to solve the problems of large volume, low accuracy, and complex operations seen in traditional devices. [...] Read more.
The magnetic flux leakage method is widely used for non-destructive testing in wire rope applications. A non-destructive testing device for wire rope based on remanence was designed to solve the problems of large volume, low accuracy, and complex operations seen in traditional devices. A wavelet denoising method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition was proposed to reduce the system noise in broken wire rope testing. After extracting the defects image, the wavelet super-resolution reconstruction technique was adopted to improve the resolution of defect grayscale. A back propagation neural network was designed to classify defects by the feature vectors of area, rectangle, stretch length, and seven invariant moments. The experimental results show that the device was not only highly precise and sensitive, but also easy to operate; noise is effectively suppressed by the proposed filtering algorithm, and broken wires are classified by the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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14 pages, 23625 KiB  
Article
A New Design of a Single-Device 3D Hall Sensor: Cross-Shaped 3D Hall Sensor
by Wei Tang, Fei Lyu, Dunhui Wang and Hongbing Pan
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041065 - 2 Apr 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5634
Abstract
In this paper, a new single-device three-dimensional (3D) Hall sensor called a cross-shaped 3D Hall device is designed based on the five-contact vertical Hall device. Some of the device parameters are based on 0.18 μm BCDliteTM technology provided by GLOBALFOUNDRIES. Two-dimensional (2D) [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new single-device three-dimensional (3D) Hall sensor called a cross-shaped 3D Hall device is designed based on the five-contact vertical Hall device. Some of the device parameters are based on 0.18 μm BCDliteTM technology provided by GLOBALFOUNDRIES. Two-dimensional (2D) and 3D finite element models implemented in COMSOL are applied to understand the device behavior under a constant magnetic field. Besides this, the influence of the sensing contacts, active region’s depth, and P-type layers are taken into account by analyzing the distribution of the voltage along the top edge and the current density inside the devices. Due to the short-circuiting effect, the sensing contacts lead to degradation in sensitivities. The P-type layers and a deeper active region in turn are responsible for the improvement of sensitivities. To distinguish the P-type layer from the active region which plays the dominant role in reducing the short-circuiting effect, the current-related sensitivity of the top edge (Stop) is defined. It is found that the short-circuiting effect fades as the depth of the active region grows. Despite the P-type layers, the behavior changes a little. When the depth of the active region is 7 μm and the thickness of the P-type layers is 3 μm, the sensitivities in the x, y, and z directions can reach 91.70 V/AT, 92.36 V/AT, and 87.10 V/AT, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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13 pages, 8442 KiB  
Article
Temperature and Vibration Dependence of the Faraday Effect of Gd2O3 NPs-Doped Alumino-Silicate Glass Optical Fiber
by Seongmin Ju, Jihun Kim, Kadathala Linganna, Pramod R. Watekar, Seong Gu Kang, Bok Hyeon Kim, Seongjae Boo, Youjin Lee, Yong Ho An, Cheol Jin Kim and Won-Taek Han
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040988 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4399
Abstract
All-optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on the Gd2O3 nano-particles (NPs)-doped alumino-silicate glass optical fiber was developed, and its temperature and vibration dependence on the Faraday Effect were investigated. Uniformly embedded Gd2O3 NPs were identified to form [...] Read more.
All-optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on the Gd2O3 nano-particles (NPs)-doped alumino-silicate glass optical fiber was developed, and its temperature and vibration dependence on the Faraday Effect were investigated. Uniformly embedded Gd2O3 NPs were identified to form in the core of the fiber, and the measured absorption peaks of the fiber appearing at 377 nm, 443 nm, and 551 nm were attributed to the Gd2O3 NPs incorporated in the fiber core. The Faraday rotation angle (FRA) of the linearly polarized light was measured at 650 nm with the induced magnetic field by the solenoid. The Faraday rotation angle was found to increase linearly with the magnetic field, and it was about 18.16° ± 0.048° at 0.142 Tesla (T) at temperatures of 25 °C–120 °C, by which the estimated Verdet constant was 3.19 rad/(T∙m) ± 0.01 rad/(T∙m). The variation of the FRA with time at 0.142 T and 120 °C was negligibly small (−9.78 × 10−4 °/min). The variation of the FRA under the mechanical vibration with the acceleration below 10 g and the frequency above 50 Hz was within 0.5°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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11 pages, 15027 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Modelled and Measured Magnetic Field Scans of Different Planar Coil Topologies for Stress Sensor Applications
by Robert Gibbs, Gregory Moreton, Turgut Meydan and Paul Williams
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040931 - 21 Mar 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6512
Abstract
The investigation of planar coils of differing topologies, when combined with a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon to form a stress-sensitive self-inductor, is an active research area for applications as stress or pressure sensors. Four topologies of planar coil (Circular, Mesh, Meander, and Square) have [...] Read more.
The investigation of planar coils of differing topologies, when combined with a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon to form a stress-sensitive self-inductor, is an active research area for applications as stress or pressure sensors. Four topologies of planar coil (Circular, Mesh, Meander, and Square) have been constructed using copper track on 30 mm wide PCB substrate. The coils are energized to draw 0.4 A and the resulting magnetic field distribution is observed with a newly developed three-dimensional magnetic field scanner. The system is based on a variably angled Micromagnetics® STJ-020 tunneling magneto-resistance sensor with a spatial resolution of 5–10 µm and sensitivity to fields of less than 10 A/m. These experimental results are compared with the fields computed by ANSYS Maxwell® finite element modelling of the same topologies. Measured field shape and strength correspond well with the results of modelling, including direct observation of corner and edge effects. Three-dimensional analysis of the field shape produced by the square coil, isolating the components H(x) and H(z), is compared with the three-dimensional field solutions from modelling. The finite element modelling is validated and the accuracy and utility of the new system for three-dimensional scanning of general stray fields is confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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16 pages, 4647 KiB  
Article
Design of Meter-Scale Antenna and Signal Detection System for Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding in Mines
by Xiaofeng Yi, Jian Zhang, Tiehu Fan, Baofeng Tian and Chuandong Jiang
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030848 - 13 Mar 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5064
Abstract
Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a novel geophysical method to detect groundwater directly. By applying this method to underground projects in mines and tunnels, warning information can be provided on water bodies that are hidden in front prior to excavation and thus reduce [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a novel geophysical method to detect groundwater directly. By applying this method to underground projects in mines and tunnels, warning information can be provided on water bodies that are hidden in front prior to excavation and thus reduce the risk of casualties and accidents. However, unlike its application to ground surfaces, the application of MRS to underground environments is constrained by the narrow space, quite weak MRS signal, and complex electromagnetic interferences with high intensities in mines. Focusing on the special requirements of underground MRS (UMRS) detection, this study proposes the use of an antenna with different turn numbers, which employs a separated transmitter and receiver. We designed a stationary coil with stable performance parameters and with a side length of 2 m, a matching circuit based on a Q-switch and a multi-stage broad/narrowband mixed filter that can cancel out most electromagnetic noise. In addition, noises in the pass-band are further eliminated by adopting statistical criteria and harmonic modeling and stacking, all of which together allow weak UMRS signals to be reliably detected. Finally, we conducted a field case study of the UMRS measurement in the Wujiagou Mine in Shanxi Province, China, with known water bodies. Our results show that the method proposed in this study can be used to obtain UMRS signals in narrow mine environments, and the inverted hydrological information generally agrees with the actual situation. Thus, we conclude that the UMRS method proposed in this study can be used for predicting hazardous water bodies at a distance of 7–9 m in front of the wall for underground mining projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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23 pages, 12066 KiB  
Article
Research on the Factors Influencing the Measurement Errors of the Discrete Rogowski Coil
by Mengyuan Xu, Jing Yan, Yingsan Geng, Kun Zhang and Chao Sun
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030847 - 13 Mar 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4092
Abstract
An innovative array of magnetic coils (the discrete Rogowski coil—RC) with the advantages of flexible structure, miniaturization and mass producibility is investigated. First, the mutual inductance between the discrete RC and circular and rectangular conductors are calculated using the magnetic vector potential (MVP) [...] Read more.
An innovative array of magnetic coils (the discrete Rogowski coil—RC) with the advantages of flexible structure, miniaturization and mass producibility is investigated. First, the mutual inductance between the discrete RC and circular and rectangular conductors are calculated using the magnetic vector potential (MVP) method. The results are found to be consistent with those calculated using the finite element method, but the MVP method is simpler and more practical. Then, the influence of conductor section parameters, inclination, and eccentricity on the accuracy of the discrete RC is calculated to provide a reference. Studying the influence of an external current on the discrete RC’s interference error reveals optimal values for length, winding density, and position arrangement of the solenoids. It has also found that eccentricity and interference errors decreasing with increasing number of solenoids. Finally, a discrete RC prototype is devised and manufactured. The experimental results show consistent output characteristics, with the calculated sensitivity and mutual inductance of the discrete RC being very close to the experimental results. The influence of an external conductor on the measurement of the discrete RC is analyzed experimentally, and the results show that interference from an external current decreases with increasing distance between the external and measured conductors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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11 pages, 3919 KiB  
Article
Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology
by Jiawen Chen, Jianhua Li, Yiyuan Li, Yulong Chen and Lixin Xu
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030732 - 1 Mar 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 7422
Abstract
A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance) magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based [...] Read more.
A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance) magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm3. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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12 pages, 2353 KiB  
Article
Circular Array of Magnetic Sensors for Current Measurement: Analysis for Error Caused by Position of Conductor
by Hao Yu, Zheng Qian, Huayi Liu and Jiaqi Qu
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020578 - 14 Feb 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5301
Abstract
This paper analyzes the measurement error, caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, of a circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement. The circular array of magnetic sensors is an effective approach for AC or DC non-contact measurement, as it is [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the measurement error, caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, of a circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement. The circular array of magnetic sensors is an effective approach for AC or DC non-contact measurement, as it is low-cost, light-weight, has a large linear range, wide bandwidth, and low noise. Especially, it has been claimed that such structure has excellent reduction ability for errors caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, crosstalk current interference, shape of the conduction cross-section, and the Earth’s magnetic field. However, the positions of the current-carrying conductor—including un-centeredness and un-perpendicularity—have not been analyzed in detail until now. In this paper, for the purpose of having minimum measurement error, a theoretical analysis has been proposed based on vector inner and exterior product. In the presented mathematical model of relative error, the un-center offset distance, the un-perpendicular angle, the radius of the circle, and the number of magnetic sensors are expressed in one equation. The comparison of the relative error caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor between four and eight sensors is conducted. Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors are used in the experimental prototype to verify the mathematical model. The analysis results can be the reference to design the details of the circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement in practical situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

15 pages, 6370 KiB  
Review
The Improvement of Flaw Detection by the Configuration of Uniform Eddy Current Probes
by Ageng S. Repelianto and Naoya Kasai
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020397 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 7167
Abstract
In this review, the principles to detect flaws with uniform eddy currents were presented based on the shape and orientation of the excitation coils and detection coils of the probe. Techniques are applied to detect flaws like cracks, especially on the weld zone [...] Read more.
In this review, the principles to detect flaws with uniform eddy currents were presented based on the shape and orientation of the excitation coils and detection coils of the probe. Techniques are applied to detect flaws like cracks, especially on the weld zone surface, of test pieces of non-magnetic and ferromagnetic materials, and have unique features which are immune to the effects of lift-off. In the technique of interest, almost all the probe models developed are the type with tangential rectangular excitation coils. The induction condition and the flaw signal for each probe were discussed based on the shape and orientation of the excitation coils and detection coils of the probe. Finally, the challenge of increasing sensitivity to detect flaws with a uniform eddy current was also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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27 pages, 12115 KiB  
Review
Optical Fiber Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Magnetic Fluid: A Review
by Nélia Alberto, Maria Fátima Domingues, Carlos Marques, Paulo André and Paulo Antunes
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4325; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124325 - 7 Dec 2018
Cited by 124 | Viewed by 11609
Abstract
Magnetic field sensing is an important issue for many application areas, such as in the military, industry and navigation. The current sensors used to monitor this parameter can be susceptible to electromagnetic interferences, however due to their advantages over the traditional sensors, the [...] Read more.
Magnetic field sensing is an important issue for many application areas, such as in the military, industry and navigation. The current sensors used to monitor this parameter can be susceptible to electromagnetic interferences, however due to their advantages over the traditional sensors, the optical fiber devices could be an excellent alternative. Furthermore, magnetic fluid (MF) is a new type of functional material which possesses outstanding properties, including Faraday effect, birefringence, tunable refractive index and field dependent transmission. In this paper, the optical fiber magnetic field sensors using MF as sensing element are reviewed. Due to the extensive literature, only the most used sensing configurations are addressed and discussed, which include optical fiber grating, interferometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and other schemes involving tailored (etched, tapered and U-shaped) fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors)
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