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Selected Papers from 2021 IEEE MTT-S Wireless Power Transfer Conference

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Intelligent Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2021) | Viewed by 16775

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75205, USA
Interests: sensor; medical application; implant; wearables; wireless power
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Interests: wireless power; wireless sensor; RFIC; radar; biomedical application

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wireless power transfer and energy harvesting techniques are implemented in modern electronics and sensors providing advantages of convenience, mobility and integration, as well as enabling functions such as elimination of or reduction in battery, remote operation and nondestructive/noninvasive nature for infrastructures. The 2021 IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC 2021) features advances and innovations in wireless power transfer and energy harvesting techniques and applications. This Special Issue is devoted to these works. Authors of all accepted papers relevant to topics of electronics and sensors presented at WPTC 2021 are invited to submit an expanded version of their accepted conference paper to the Special Issue.

The expanded version requires that the new technical content includes more in-depth and/or new results beyond the WPTC 2021 conference paper. The authors should take advantage of the discussions taking place at the conference, which may lead to new information for the expanded manuscript. The submitted papers will be subjected to the same peer review process as all other regular submissions to MDPI Sensors and Electronics.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Electronics.

Prof. Dr. Jenshan Lin
Prof. J.-C. Chiao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wireless power transfer
  • wireless energy transfer
  • wireless energy harvesting
  • batteryless
  • electromagnetic waves
  • optical power transfer
  • acoustic power transfer
  • beam forming
  • inductive coupling
  • capacitive coupling
  • microwave power transmission

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Optimal Solutions for Underwater Capacitive Power Transfer
by Hussein Mahdi, Bjarte Hoff and Trond Østrem
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8233; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248233 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
Capacitive power transfer (CPT) has attracted attention for on-road electric vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, and electric ships charging applications. High power transfer capability and high efficiency are the main requirements of a CPT system. This paper proposes three possible solutions to achieve maximum [...] Read more.
Capacitive power transfer (CPT) has attracted attention for on-road electric vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, and electric ships charging applications. High power transfer capability and high efficiency are the main requirements of a CPT system. This paper proposes three possible solutions to achieve maximum efficiency, maximum power, or conjugate-matching. Each solution expresses the available load power and the efficiency of the CPT system as functions of capacitive coupling parameters and derives the required admittance of the load and the source. The experimental results demonstrated that the available power and the efficiency decrease by the increasing of the frequency from 300 kHz to 1 MHz and the separation distance change from 100 to 300 mm. The maximum efficiency solution gives 83% at 300 kHz and a distance of 100 mm, while the maximum power solution gives the maximum normalized power of 0.994 at the same frequency and distance. The CPT system can provide a good solution to charge electric ships and underwater vehicles over a wide separation distance and low-frequency ranges. Full article
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20 pages, 7662 KiB  
Article
Wireless Torque and Power Transfer Using Multiple Coils with LCC-S Topology for Implantable Medical Drug Pump
by Jaewon Rhee, Yujun Shin, Seongho Woo, Changmin Lee, Dongwook Kim, Jangyong Ahn, Haerim Kim and Seungyoung Ahn
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8150; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238150 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a method of wirelessly torque transfer (WTT) and power (WPT) to a drug pump, one of implantable medical devices. By using the magnetic field generated by the WPT system to transfer torque and power to the receiving coil [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a method of wirelessly torque transfer (WTT) and power (WPT) to a drug pump, one of implantable medical devices. By using the magnetic field generated by the WPT system to transfer torque and power to the receiving coil at the same time, applications that previously used power from the battery can be operated without a battery. The proposed method uses a receiving coil with magnetic material as a motor, and can generate torque in a desired direction using the magnetic field from the transmitting coil. The WPT system was analyzed using a topology that generates a constant current for stable torque generation. In addition, a method for detecting the position of the receiving coil without using additional power was proposed. Through simulations and experiments, it was confirmed that WTT and WPT were possible at the same time, and in particular, it was confirmed that WTT was stably possible. Full article
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16 pages, 7009 KiB  
Article
A Resonant Coupler for Subcutaneous Implant
by Sen Bing, Khengdauliu Chawang and J.-C. Chiao
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8141; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238141 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
A resonator coupler for subcutaneous implants has been developed with a new impedance matching pattern added to the conventional loop antenna. The tuning element of a concentric metal pad contributes distributed capacitance and inductance to the planar inductive loop and improves resonance significantly. [...] Read more.
A resonator coupler for subcutaneous implants has been developed with a new impedance matching pattern added to the conventional loop antenna. The tuning element of a concentric metal pad contributes distributed capacitance and inductance to the planar inductive loop and improves resonance significantly. It provides a better qualify factor for resonant coupling and a much lower reflection coefficient for the implant electronics. Practical constraints are taken into account for designs including the requirement of operation within a regulated frequency band and the limited thickness for a monolithic implant. In this work, two designs targeting to operate in the two industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands at 903 MHz and 2.45 GHz are considered. The tuning metal pad improves their resonances significantly, compared to the conventional loop designs. Since it is difficult to tune the implant antenna after implantation, the effects of tissue depth variations due to the individual’s surgery and the appropriate implant depths are investigated. Simulations conducted with the dielectric properties of human skin documented in the literature are compared to measurements done with hydrated ground pork as phantoms. Experiments and simulations are conducted to explain the discrepancies in frequency shifts due to the uses of pork phantoms. The design method is thus validated for uses on human skin. A noninvasive localization method to identify the implant under the skin has been examined and demonstrated by both simulations and measurements. It can efficiently locate the subcutaneous implant based on the high quality-factor resonance owing to the tuning elements in both implant and transmitter couplers. The planar resonant coupler for wireless power transfer shows good performance and promise in subcutaneous applications for implants. Full article
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22 pages, 6523 KiB  
Article
Optimized NFC Circuit and Coil Design for Wireless Power Transfer with 2D Free-Positioning and Low Load Sensibility
by Guilherme Germano Buchmeier, Alexandru Takacs, Daniela Dragomirescu, Juvenal Alarcon Ramos and Amaia Fortes Montilla
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8074; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238074 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
This paper proposes a method for optimizing and designing a wireless power transfer system operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used as guidelines for designing coils for the new-trending technology that enables NFC devices to not only to communicate but [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a method for optimizing and designing a wireless power transfer system operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used as guidelines for designing coils for the new-trending technology that enables NFC devices to not only to communicate but also to charge. Since NFC wireless charging is an emerging technology, it is of interest to propose optimizations and a dedicated circuit design for such systems. This work proposes an optimization procedure to calculate the dimensions of a transmitter and receiver pair that assures the highest efficiency while considering all possible positions of a receiver that is placed on a desired surface. This procedure seeks to facilitate and automate the design of rectangular-shaped coils, whereas the literature proposes mainly square-shaped coils. Afterwards, a circuit analysis was conducted, and the series-parallel compensation network is proposed as the most promising topology of the receiver to assure a low efficiency sensibility to load variations for 13.56 MHz wireless power transfer systems. A pair of optimized transmitter and receiver coils is prototyped, and the experimental results are tested against the theory. The transmitter of 7 cm×11.4 cm and receiver of 4 cm ×4 cm are separated by 10 mm. The receiver can move on a surface of 8 cm ×12 cm and the load can vary from 36 Ω to 300 Ω while assuring a minimum and maximum efficiency of 80% and 88.3%, respectively. Full article
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16 pages, 2189 KiB  
Article
Analytical Optimal Load Calculation of RF Energy Rectifiers Based on a Simplified Rectifying Model
by Lichen Yao, Guido Dolmans and Jac Romme
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8038; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238038 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Wireless power transfer (WPT) is an essential enabler for novel sensor networks such as the wireless powered communication network (WPCN). The efficiency of an energy rectifier is dependent on both input power and loading condition. In this work, to maximize the rectifier efficiency, [...] Read more.
Wireless power transfer (WPT) is an essential enabler for novel sensor networks such as the wireless powered communication network (WPCN). The efficiency of an energy rectifier is dependent on both input power and loading condition. In this work, to maximize the rectifier efficiency, we present a low-complexity numerical method based on an analytical rectifier model to calculate the optimal load for different rectifier topologies, including half-wave and voltage-multipliers, without needing time-consuming simulations. The method is based on a simplified analytical rectifier model based on the diode equivalent circuit including parasitic parameters. Furthermore, by using Lambert-W function and the perturbation method, closed-form solutions are given for low-input power cases. The method is validated by means of both simulations and measurements. Extensive transient simulation results using different diodes (Skyworks SMS7630 and Avago HSMS285x) and frequency bands (400 MHz, 900 MHz, and 2.4 GHz) are provided for validation of the method. A 400 MHz 1- and 2-stage voltage multiplier are designed and fabricated, and measurements are conducted. Different input signals are used when validating the proposed methods, including the single sinewave signal and the multisine signal. The proposed numerical method shows excellent accuracy with both signal types, as long as the output voltage ripple is sufficiently low. Full article
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15 pages, 5133 KiB  
Article
Miniature Coil for Wireless Power and Data Transfer through Aluminum
by Juan M. Romero-Arguello, Anh-Vu Pham, Christopher S. Gardner and Brad T. Funsten
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7573; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227573 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
This paper presents the design and development of miniature coils for wireless power and data transfer through metal. Our coil has a total size of 15 mm × 13 mm × 6 mm. Experimental results demonstrate that we can harvest 440 mW through [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and development of miniature coils for wireless power and data transfer through metal. Our coil has a total size of 15 mm × 13 mm × 6 mm. Experimental results demonstrate that we can harvest 440 mW through a 1 mm-thick aluminum plate. Aluminum and stainless-steel barriers of different thicknesses were used to characterize coil performance. Using a pair of the designed coils, we have developed a through-metal communication system to successfully transfer data through a 1 mm-thick aluminum plate. A maximum data rate of 100 bps was achieved using only harvested power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates power and data transfer through aluminum using miniature coils. Full article
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22 pages, 39590 KiB  
Article
Alignment-Free Wireless Charging of Smart Garments with Embroidered Coils
by Chin-Wei Chang, Patrick Riehl and Jenshan Lin
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7372; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217372 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies have been adopted by many products. The capability of charging multiple devices and the design flexibility of charging coils make WPT a good solution for charging smart garments. The use of an embroidered receiver (RX) coil makes the [...] Read more.
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies have been adopted by many products. The capability of charging multiple devices and the design flexibility of charging coils make WPT a good solution for charging smart garments. The use of an embroidered receiver (RX) coil makes the smart garment more breathable and comfortable than using a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB). In order to charge smart garments as part of normal daily routines, two types of wireless-charging systems operating at 400 kHz have been designed. The one-to-one hanger system is desired to have a constant charging current despite misalignment so that users do not need to pay much attention when they hang the garment. For the one-to-multiple-drawer system, the power delivery ability must not change with multiple garments. Additionally, the system should be able to charge folded garments in most of the folding scenarios. This paper analyses the two WPT systems for charging smart garments and provides design approaches to meet the abovementioned goals. The wireless-charging hanger is able to charge a smart garment over a coupling variance kmaxkmin=2 with only 21% charging current variation. The wireless-charging drawer is able to charge a smart garment with at least 20 mA under most folding scenarios and three garments with stable power delivery ability. Full article
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