Modifications and Applications of Chitin/Chitosan for Biomedical, Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Biotechnology and Related Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019) | Viewed by 44587

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, UT-UofM Joint Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Memphis, Engineering Technology Bldg, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
Interests: chitosan; bone; cartilage; tissue engineering; dental/craniofacial implants; orthopedic implants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
Interests: chitosan; biopolymers; biofilm; local drug delivery; infection; orthopedics; wound healing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
Interests: biodegradable polymers; block copolymers; micelles; hydrogels; drug delivery systems; tissue regeneration; nanostructures; membranes; 3D printing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
Interests: nanotechnology; nanomaterials; environmental remediation; nanostructures; contaminants; pollutants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitin- and chitosan- based materials have been developed and researched for many applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology, and related fields. The research and development of chitin and chitosan for these applications are in part linked with their unique physical and chemical characteristics, ease of manufacture into a variety of forms including fibers, films, sponges, gels, and micro- and nanoparticles, and availability, as they constitute an abundant and renewable resource. In particular, the versatility of chitin and chitosan in regard to chemical modification provides numerous options to develop and create chitin- and chitosan- based materials with novel properties and characteristics, such as mechanical toughness, swelling, viscosity, antimicrobial activity, oxygen/water permeability, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, degradability, chemical bonding, presence of reaction sites, composite structure, nano-structure, and environmentally responsive and smart features, to name a few. This Special Issue focuses on new and innovative strategies to modify chitin- and chitosan- based materials to create new materials with novel properties, and optimize them for biomedical implants and pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biotechnology applications.

Dr. Joel D. Bumgardner
Dr. J. Amber Jennings
Dr. Tomoko Fujiwara
Dr. Fernanda Delbuque Guerra
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • Chitin
  • Chitosan
  • Chemical modification
  • Physical modification
  • Biomedical
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Drug delivery
  • Smart materials
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine engineering
  • Biotechnology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3008 KiB  
Article
Removal of Linear and Branched Alkylphenols with the Combined Use of Polyphenol Oxidase and Chitosan
by Mitsuki Tsushima, Yuji Kimura, Ayumi Kashiwada and Kazunori Yamada
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11060931 - 28 May 2019
Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Removal of linear and branched alkylphenols with different alkyl chain lengths or different branchings (normal, secondary, and tertiary), some of which are suspected as endocrine disrupting chemicals, from an aqueous medium were investigated through quinone oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and subsequent quinone [...] Read more.
Removal of linear and branched alkylphenols with different alkyl chain lengths or different branchings (normal, secondary, and tertiary), some of which are suspected as endocrine disrupting chemicals, from an aqueous medium were investigated through quinone oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and subsequent quinone adsorption on chitosan beads or powders at pH 7.0 and 40 °C. PPO-catalyzed quinone oxidation increased with an increase in alkyl chain length of the alkylphenols used. Although a higher PPO dose was required for quinone oxidation of branched alkylphenols, they were completely or mostly removed by quinone adsorption on chitosan beads or powders. The apparent activity of PPO increased by a decrease in quinone concentration. On the other hand, in the homogeneous systems with solutions of chitosan and PPO at pH 6.0, longer reaction times were required to generate insoluble aggregates, and a small amount of quinone derivatives were left in the solution even under optimum conditions. These results support that the two-step reaction, that is, PPO-catalyzed quinone oxidation and subsequent quinone adsorption on chitosan beads or powders, in the heterogeneous system is a good procedure for removing linear and branched alkylphenols from aqueous medium. Full article
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13 pages, 3540 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Saltiness Perception Using Chitin Nanomaterials
by Wan-Chen Tsai, Shang-Ta Wang, Ke-Liang Bruce Chang and Min-Lang Tsai
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040719 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4173
Abstract
In the present study, we prepared and characterized chitin nanomaterials with different diameters, lengths, and degree of deacetylation (DD), and investigated their capability for enhancing saltiness perception. Chitin was isolated from squid pens and transformed into chitin nanofiber (CNF), deacetylated chitin nanofiber (DACNF), [...] Read more.
In the present study, we prepared and characterized chitin nanomaterials with different diameters, lengths, and degree of deacetylation (DD), and investigated their capability for enhancing saltiness perception. Chitin was isolated from squid pens and transformed into chitin nanofiber (CNF), deacetylated chitin nanofiber (DACNF), and chitin nanocrystal (CNC) by ultrasonication, alkali treatment followed by ultrasonication and acid hydrolysis, respectively. The diameters of CNF, CNC and DACNF were 17.24 nm, 16.05 nm and 15.01 nm while the lengths were 1725.05 nm, 116.91 nm, and 1806.60 nm, respectively. The aspect ratios of CNF and DACNF were much higher than that of CNC. The crystalline indices of CNF and CNC were lower than that of original β-chitin, suggesting that ultrasonication and acid hydrolysis might change the molecular arrangement in crystalline region of chitin. The zeta-potentials were between 19.73 nV and 30.08 mV of chitin nanomaterials in distilled water. Concentrations of chitin nanomaterials (40–74 μg/mL) showed minimal effect on zeta-potential, whereas increasing the level of NaCl reduced the zeta-potential of solution. Moreover, NaCl solution (0.3%) with chitin nanomaterials addition produced significant higher saltiness perception than that of solution with NaCl alone. Therefore, chitin nanomaterials may be promising saltiness enhancers in the food industry. Full article
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14 pages, 4895 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Performances of Warp-Knitted Hernia Repair Mesh Fabricated with Chitosan Fiber
by Shuang Yu, Pibo Ma, Honglian Cong and Gaoming Jiang
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040595 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4204
Abstract
In this paper, warp-knitted knitted fabrics with chitosan fibers for ventral hernia repair were fabricated with three kinds of structures. The properties of chitosan fiber, yarns, and fabrics were tested. The results demonstrated that the properties of a mesh fabricated with 1-0/1-2/2-3/2-1// structure [...] Read more.
In this paper, warp-knitted knitted fabrics with chitosan fibers for ventral hernia repair were fabricated with three kinds of structures. The properties of chitosan fiber, yarns, and fabrics were tested. The results demonstrated that the properties of a mesh fabricated with 1-0/1-2/2-3/2-1// structure were slightly better than those of other fabrics. The mechanical properties of the three produced fabrics were weak. However, the results demonstrated that chitosan meshes have many advantages, such as excellent hygroscopicity, and thermal and antimicrobial properties, which makes them one of the best materials for ventral hernia repair. The findings have theoretical and practical significance for the industrial uses of chitosan in ventral hernia repair. Full article
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13 pages, 3347 KiB  
Article
Quaternized Polysulfone Cross-Linked N,N-Dimethyl Chitosan-Based Anion-Conducting Membranes
by Gautam Das, Chae Yeon Kim, Dong Ho Kang, Bo Hyeon Kim and Hyon Hee Yoon
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030512 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4395
Abstract
Anion-conducting membranes were obtained following the cross-linking of 1,4-diazoniabicycle[2.2.2]octane functionalized-polysulfone with N,N-dimethyl chitosan (DMC). The ionic conductivity of the composite membranes was controlled by the amount of DMC. The influence of the amount of DMC on water uptake, swelling ratio, [...] Read more.
Anion-conducting membranes were obtained following the cross-linking of 1,4-diazoniabicycle[2.2.2]octane functionalized-polysulfone with N,N-dimethyl chitosan (DMC). The ionic conductivity of the composite membranes was controlled by the amount of DMC. The influence of the amount of DMC on water uptake, swelling ratio, and ionic conductivity of the obtained membrane was studied. The membrane with 2 wt% DMC exhibited an ionic conductivity of 54 mS/cm and 94 mS/cm at 25 °C and 70 °C, respectively. The membrane showed good dimensional stability under hydrated conditions. A urea/O2 fuel cell, built using the composite membrane, exhibited a peak power density of 4.4 mW/cm2 with a current density of 16.22 mA/cm2 at 70 °C. Full article
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14 pages, 4623 KiB  
Article
Chitosan-Modified PLGA Nanoparticles for Control-Released Drug Delivery
by Boting Lu, Xikun Lv and Yuan Le
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020304 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 206 | Viewed by 15587
Abstract
Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) are well recognized as an ideal drug delivery carrier for their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In order to overcome the disadvantage of drug burst release, chitosan (CS) was used to modify the PLGA nanoparticles. In this [...] Read more.
Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) are well recognized as an ideal drug delivery carrier for their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In order to overcome the disadvantage of drug burst release, chitosan (CS) was used to modify the PLGA nanoparticles. In this work, CS-PLGA nanoparticles with different ratio of CS to PLGA were prepared using high-gravity rotating packed bed (RPB). With the increase of amount of CS, the particle size increased from 132.8 ± 1.5 nm to 172.7 ± 3.2 nm, zeta potential increased from −20.8 ± 1.1 mV to 25.6 ± 0.6 mV, and drug encapsulation efficiency increased from 65.8% to 87.1%. The initial burst release of PLGA NPs reduced after being modified by CS, and the cumulative release was 66.9%, 41.9%, 23.8%, and 14.3%, after 2 h, respectively. The drug release of CS-modified PLGA NPs was faster at pH5.5 than that at pH 7.4. The cellular uptake of CS-modified PLGA NPs increased compared with PLGA NPs, while cell viability was reduced. In conclusion, these results indicated that CS-modified, PTX-loaded PLGA NPs have the advantages of sustained drug release and enhanced drug toxicity, suggesting that CS-modified NPs can be used as carriers of anticancer drugs. Full article
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Review

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34 pages, 4019 KiB  
Review
Exploration of Chitinous Scaffold-Based Interfaces for Glucose Sensing Assemblies
by Dipali R. Bagal-Kestwal and Been-Huang Chiang
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11121958 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3855
Abstract
The nanomaterial-integrated chitinous polymers have promoted the technological advancements in personal health care apparatus, particularly for enzyme-based devices like the glucometer. Chitin and chitosan, being natural biopolymers, have attracted great attention in the field of biocatalysts engineering. Their remarkable tunable properties have been [...] Read more.
The nanomaterial-integrated chitinous polymers have promoted the technological advancements in personal health care apparatus, particularly for enzyme-based devices like the glucometer. Chitin and chitosan, being natural biopolymers, have attracted great attention in the field of biocatalysts engineering. Their remarkable tunable properties have been explored for enhancing enzyme performance and biosensor advancements. Currently, incorporation of nanomaterials in chitin and chitosan-based biosensors are also widely exploited for enzyme stability and interference-free detection. Therefore, in this review, we focus on various innovative multi-faceted strategies used for the fabrication of biological assemblies using chitinous biomaterial interface. We aim to summarize the current development on chitin/chitosan and their nano-architecture scaffolds for interdisciplinary biosensor research, especially for analytes like glucose. This review article will be useful for understanding the overall multifunctional aspects and progress of chitin and chitosan-based polysaccharides in the food, biomedical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and other diverse applications. Full article
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9 pages, 258 KiB  
Review
Recent Applications of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Polymers in Plants
by Massimo Malerba and Raffaella Cerana
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050839 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 9058
Abstract
In recent years, the use of complex molecules based on the natural biopolymer chitin and/or on its deacetylated derivative chitosan has resulted in great advantages for many users. In particular, industries involved in the production of drugs, cosmetics, biotechnological items, and food have [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of complex molecules based on the natural biopolymer chitin and/or on its deacetylated derivative chitosan has resulted in great advantages for many users. In particular, industries involved in the production of drugs, cosmetics, biotechnological items, and food have achieved better results using these particular molecules. In plants, chitin- and chitosan-based molecules are largely used as safe and environmental-friendly tools to ameliorate crop productivity and conservation of agronomic commodities. This review summarizes the results of the last two years on the application of chitin- and chitosan-based molecules on plant productivity. The open questions and future perspectives to overcome the present gaps and limitations are also discussed. Full article
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