Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan, 3rd Edition

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials of Marine Origin".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 4539

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
Interests: chitosan; biopolymers; biofilm; local drug delivery; infection; orthopedics; wound healing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
The Herff College of Engineering Directory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
Interests: biopolymers; polymeric hydrogels; nanocomposites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Following the success of this serial Special Issue titled “Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan” (First edition: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs/special_issues/Application_Marine_Chitin_Chitosan, Second edition: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs/special_issues/Application_Marine_Chitin_Chitosan_II), we are delighted to present the third Special Issue on this topical area.

Chitin and chitosan are biopolymers that are derived from natural sources, including marine crustaceans, squid pens and sponges. Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, with both chitin and chitosan having unique properties and advantages for biomedical applications, most notably biocompatibility and biodegradability. Chitin and chitosan have functional groups such as hydroxyl and amine groups that allow for the conjugation of therapeutic molecules to biopolymers. Processing methods also allow for the tailoring of chitin or chitosan properties by modifying the degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, viscosity, mineral content and protein content, among other properties. These naturally sourced materials are abundant and sustainable, which has proven advantageous for their use in biomedical applications when compared to synthetic polymers. Chitin and chitosan have many applications in the field of therapeutic biomaterials, including anti-infective materials, tissue engineering templates, drug delivery devices, transfection agents for gene therapy and implant coatings.

This Special Issue will provide a platform for researchers to publish studies using these biopolymers and their derivatives in biomedical contexts. We welcome innovative research on biomedical and therapeutic applications of chitin and chitosan.

Dr. Jessica Amber Jennings
Dr. Tippabattini Jayaramudu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitin
  • chitosan
  • biomaterials
  • biopolymer
  • derivative
  • drug delivery
  • drug conjugation
  • chemical modification
  • physical modification
  • pharmaceutical
  • tissue engineering
  • regenerative medicine
  • biotechnology

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 9770 KiB  
Article
Tunable Oxidized-Chitin Hydrogels with Customizable Mechanical Properties by Metal or Hydrogen Ion Exposure
by Angelica Mucaria, Demetra Giuri, Claudia Tomasini, Giuseppe Falini and Devis Montroni
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040164 - 03 Apr 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
This study focuses on the optimization of chitin oxidation in C6 to carboxylic acid and its use to obtain a hydrogel with tunable resistance. After the optimization, water-soluble crystalline β-chitin fibrils (β-chitOx) with a degree of functionalization of 10% were obtained. Diverse reaction [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the optimization of chitin oxidation in C6 to carboxylic acid and its use to obtain a hydrogel with tunable resistance. After the optimization, water-soluble crystalline β-chitin fibrils (β-chitOx) with a degree of functionalization of 10% were obtained. Diverse reaction conditions were also tested for α-chitin, which showed a lower reactivity and a slower reaction kinetic. After that, a set of hydrogels was synthesized from β-chitOx 1 wt.% at pH 9, inducing the gelation by sonication. These hydrogels were exposed to different environments, such as different amounts of Ca2+, Na+ or Mg2+ solutions, buffered environments such as pH 9, PBS, pH 5, and pH 1, and pure water. These hydrogels were characterized using rheology, XRPD, SEM, and FT-IR. The notable feature of these hydrogels is their ability to be strengthened through cation chelation, being metal cations or hydrogen ions, with a five- to tenfold increase in their storage modulus (G’). The ions were theorized to alter the hydrogen-bonding network of the polymer and intercalate in chitin’s crystal structure along the a-axis. On the other hand, the hydrogel dissolved at pH 9 and pure water. These bio-based tunable hydrogels represent an intriguing material suitable for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan, 3rd Edition)
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12 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
Porous Nano-Fiber Structure of Modified Electrospun Chitosan GBR Membranes Improve Osteoblast Calcium Phosphate Deposition in Osteoblast-Fibroblast Co-Cultures
by Hengjie Su, Tomoko Fujiwara, Omar Skalli, Gretchen Schreyack Selders, Ting Li, Linna Mao and Joel D. Bumgardner
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040160 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Desirable characteristics of electrospun chitosan membranes (ESCM) for guided bone regeneration are their nanofiber structure that mimics the extracellular fiber matrix and porosity for the exchange of signals between bone and soft tissue compartments. However, ESCM are susceptible to swelling and loss of [...] Read more.
Desirable characteristics of electrospun chitosan membranes (ESCM) for guided bone regeneration are their nanofiber structure that mimics the extracellular fiber matrix and porosity for the exchange of signals between bone and soft tissue compartments. However, ESCM are susceptible to swelling and loss of nanofiber and porous structure in physiological environments. A novel post-electrospinning method using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (tBOC) prevents swelling and loss of nanofibrous structure better than sodium carbonate treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that retention of nanofiber morphology and high porosity of tBOC-modified ESCM (tBOC-ESCM) would support more bone mineralization in osteoblast-fibroblast co-cultures compared to Na2CO3 treated membranes (Na2CO3-ESCM) and solution-cast chitosan solid films (CM-film). The results showed that only the tBOC-ESCM retained the nanofibrous structure and had approximately 14 times more pore volume than Na2CO3-ESCM and thousands of times more pore volume than CM-films, respectively. In co-cultures, the tBOC-ESCM resulted in a significantly greater calcium-phosphate deposition by osteoblasts than either the Na2CO3-ESCM or CM-film (p < 0.05). This work supports the study hypothesis that tBOC-ESCM with nanofiber structure and high porosity promotes the exchange of signals between osteoblasts and fibroblasts, leading to improved mineralization in vitro and thus potentially improved bone healing and regeneration in guided bone regeneration applications Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan, 3rd Edition)
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16 pages, 13167 KiB  
Article
Effects of Shrimp Shell-Derived Chitosan on Growth, Immunity, Intestinal Morphology, and Gene Expression of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Reared in a Biofloc System
by Nguyen Vu Linh, Anisa Rilla Lubis, Nguyen Dinh-Hung, Supreya Wannavijit, Napatsorn Montha, Camilla Maria Fontana, Phattawin Lengkidworraphiphat, Orranee Srinual, Won-Kyo Jung, Marina Paolucci and Hien Van Doan
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040150 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Chitosan (CH) shows great potential as an immunostimulatory feed additive in aquaculture. This study evaluates the effects of varying dietary CH levels on the growth, immunity, intestinal morphology, and antioxidant status of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in a biofloc system. [...] Read more.
Chitosan (CH) shows great potential as an immunostimulatory feed additive in aquaculture. This study evaluates the effects of varying dietary CH levels on the growth, immunity, intestinal morphology, and antioxidant status of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in a biofloc system. Tilapia fingerlings (mean weight 13.54 ± 0.05 g) were fed diets supplemented with 0 (CH0), 5 (CH5), 10 (CH10), 20 (CH20), and 40 (CH40) mL·kg−1 of CH for 8 weeks. Parameters were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks. Their final weight was not affected by CH supplementation, but CH at 10 mL·kg−1 significantly improved weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) compared to the control (p < 0.05) at 8 weeks. Skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase activities were lower in the chitosan-treated groups at weeks 4 and 8. Intestinal villi length and width were enhanced by 10 and 20 mL·kg−1 CH compared to the control. However, 40 mL·kg−1 CH caused detrimental impacts on the villi and muscular layer. CH supplementation, especially 5–10 mL·kg−1, increased liver and intestinal expressions of interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), LPS-binding protein (LBP), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST-α) compared to the control group. Overall, dietary CH at 10 mL·kg−1 can effectively promote growth, intestinal morphology, innate immunity, and antioxidant capacity in Nile tilapia fingerlings reared in biofloc systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan, 3rd Edition)
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19 pages, 3674 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Purification of Chitosan Oligosaccharides (Mw ≤ 1000) and Their Protective Effect on Acute Liver Injury Caused by CCl4
by Kai Wang, Dawei Yu, Yan Bai, Hua Cao, Jiao Guo and Zhengquan Su
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22030128 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Chitosan oligosaccharides are the degradation products of chitin obtained from the shell extracts of shrimps and crabs. Compared with chitosan, chitosan oligosaccharides have better solubility and a wider application range. In this study, high-molecular-weight chitosan oligosaccharides (COST, chitosan oligosaccharides, MW ≤ 1000) were [...] Read more.
Chitosan oligosaccharides are the degradation products of chitin obtained from the shell extracts of shrimps and crabs. Compared with chitosan, chitosan oligosaccharides have better solubility and a wider application range. In this study, high-molecular-weight chitosan oligosaccharides (COST, chitosan oligosaccharides, MW ≤ 1000) were isolated and purified by a GPC gel column, and the molecular weight range was further reduced to obtain high-purity and low-molecular-weight chitosan (COS46). Compared with COST, COS46 is better at inhibiting CCl4-induced cell death, improving cell morphology, reducing ALT content, and improving cell antioxidant capacity. The effects of COST and COS46 on CCl4-induced acute liver injury were further verified in mice. Both COS46 and COST improved the appearance of the liver induced by CCl4, decreased the levels of ALT and AST in serum, and decreased the oxidation/antioxidant index in the liver. From the liver pathological section, the effect of COS46 was better. In addition, some indicators of COS46 showed a dose-dependent effect. In conclusion, compared with COST, low-molecular-weight COS46 has better antioxidant capacity and a better therapeutic effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan, 3rd Edition)
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22 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Acid Functional Quaternized Chitooligosaccharide Derivatives: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activity
by Yan Sun, Jingmin Cui, Liguang Tian, Yingqi Mi and Zhanyong Guo
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(10), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21100535 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
As a promising biological material, chitooligosaccharide (COS) has attracted increasing attention because of its unique biological activities. In this study, fourteen novel phenolic acid functional COS derivatives were successfully prepared using two facile methods. The structures of derivatives were characterized by FT-IR and [...] Read more.
As a promising biological material, chitooligosaccharide (COS) has attracted increasing attention because of its unique biological activities. In this study, fourteen novel phenolic acid functional COS derivatives were successfully prepared using two facile methods. The structures of derivatives were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. The in vitro antioxidant activity experiment results demonstrated that the derivatives presented stronger 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power, especially the N,N,N-trimethylated chitooligosaccharide gallic acid salt (GLTMC), gallic acid esterified N,N,N-trimethylated chitooligosaccharide (GL-TMC) and caffeic acid N,N,N-trimethylated chitooligosaccharide (CFTMC) derivatives. Furthermore, the antifungal assay was carried out and the results indicated that the salicylic acid esterified N,N,N-trimethylated chitooligosaccharide (SY-TMC) had much better inhibitory activity against Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum. Additionally, the results of the bacteriostasis experiment showed that the caffeic acid esterified N,N,N-trimethylated chitooligosaccharide (CF-TMC) had the potential ability to inhibit Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Altogether, this study may provide a neoteric method to produce COS derivatives with significantly increased biological activities, which have potential use in food, medicine, and health care products and other related industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan, 3rd Edition)
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