Optical Properties and Color Stability of Polymers used for Dental Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 8965

Special Issue Editor

Restorative Dentistry Department, Dental School, Vita-Salute University, Via dell'Olgettina, 62 - 20132 Milan, Italy
Interests: optical properties; composite materials; adhesive dental restorations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Due to their various advantageous properties and wide applicability, polymeric materials have become increasingly incorporated into biomedical applications. Within dental applications, some of the most used polymeric materials include polyethylene, polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, polyethylene glycol, polyurethane, hexamethyldisilane, etc. Notable advancements within the fields of both engineering and nanotechnology have allowed for these polymeric materials to be tailored for specific dental requirements. They are used for mechanical purposes and for esthetic ones.

For esthetic reasons, the color stability of the dental materials is a significant factor in dental rehabilitation. Dental restoration materials are affected in the oral cavity by various food and drinks with discoloration potential. This could lead to esthetic failure of the restorations. While ceramic materials have a rather low discoloration potential, this is significantly higher for polymeric materials.

For this Special Issue of Polymers, subjects including, but limited to, the following are welcome for submission:

  • Theoretical and experimental research, knowledge and new ideas in dental polymeric materials and their technologies related to color and esthetics;
  • Optical Properties and/or Color Stability of dental polymeric materials (composites, highly filled polymers (resin nano ceramic), polymer infiltrated ceramic network, either for direct or for indirect restorations.
  • Use of spectrophotometers, photographic equipment, colorimeters to evaluate optical properties and color stability
  • Understanding the staining behaviour of dental polymeric materials.

Dr. Gaetano Paolone
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • color stability
  • staining
  • optical properties
  • composites
  • dental materials

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Color Stability of Resin Cements after Water Aging
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030655 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
The color stability of resin cements plays a key role in the achievement of esthetically-pleasant restorations. Resin luting materials can be mainly divided into two main classes: adhesive (relying on previous application of adhesive systems) or self-adhesive (also known as one-step cements). The [...] Read more.
The color stability of resin cements plays a key role in the achievement of esthetically-pleasant restorations. Resin luting materials can be mainly divided into two main classes: adhesive (relying on previous application of adhesive systems) or self-adhesive (also known as one-step cements). The different chemical compositions determine their physio-mechanical characteristics which, in turns, influence their color stability. To evaluate the color variations of different dual-cured resin cements after water aging, 80 disc-shaped specimens (15 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick) were obtained from the following resin cements (n = 10): (1) Maxcem Elite Universal, MCU (Kerr); (2) RelyX Universal, RXU (3M); (3) Calibra Ceram, CAL (Dentsply); (4) Multilink, MUL (Ivoclar-Vivadent); (5) Panavia V5, PAN (Kuraray); (6) Calibra Universal, CUN (Dentsply); (7) SpeedCEM Plus, SCP (Ivoclar); and (8) Panavia SA, PSA (Kuraray). After light-polymerization, the specimens were measured with a spectrophotometer and CIELab* values were recorded. The specimens were then placed in a digitally controlled thermostatic water bath at 60° for 30 days and afterwards the color measurements were repeated. Color differences were calculated for each specimen before and after water-aging procedures with ΔEab formula and the data were statistically analyzed (p < 0.05). The type of cement statistically influenced the ΔEab (p < 0.05), with MCU showing the lowest color variations (4.3 ± 0.7) whereas RXU and PSA the highest (16.9 ± 1.6 and 16.8 ± 1.2, respectively). No differences were observed between CAL, CUN and SCP (p = 0.05). Color stability is related to the chemical composition of the resinous luting materials, thus material dependent. Full article
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10 pages, 756 KiB  
Article
Effects of Substrate and Cement Shade on the Translucency and Color of CAD/CAM Lithium-Disilicate and Zirconia Ceramic Materials
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091778 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of substrate and cement shades on the translucency and color of lithium-disilicate and zirconia CAD/CAM materials. Two light-cured resin cements (RelyX Veneer Cement; 3M; Choice 2 Veneer Cement; Bisco Dental) with [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of substrate and cement shades on the translucency and color of lithium-disilicate and zirconia CAD/CAM materials. Two light-cured resin cements (RelyX Veneer Cement; 3M; Choice 2 Veneer Cement; Bisco Dental) with a standardized thickness (0.1 mm) were tested in combination with two different monolithic CAD/CAM materials (E-Max CAD (LI2SI2O5); Ivoclar Vivadent; Katana (ZrO2); Kuraray-Noritake Dental) on two different colored composite substrates used as a dentin (Filtek Supreme XTE; 3M); for a total of 12 combinations (n = 10). The specimens’ color was measured with a spectrophotometer (Spectroshade; MHT). Measurements were taken using the CIELAB color coordinate system (L*a*b*) against black and white backgrounds. L*a*b* values were statistically analyzed for the variables Substrate, Ceramic, and Cement by applying a Three-Way ANOVA followed by the Tukey Test for post-hoc comparison (p < 0.05). Translucency Parameter (TP) and Constant Ratio (CR) were assessed to evaluate translucency; acceptability and perceptibility thresholds (ΔE00 1.8 and 0.8) were used. Statistically significant influence was found for factors ceramic material, cement shade, and substrate color (p < 0.05). Unacceptable color differences were reported for Li2Si2O5. Opacity was significantly higher when white opaque cement shade was employed. Ceramic type and cement shade significantly influenced L*a*b* color coordinates. The final translucency and color of ceramic restorations can, therefore, be influenced by ceramic material, cement shade, and substrate color. Full article
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18 pages, 9027 KiB  
Article
Color Stability, Chemico-Physical and Optical Features of the Most Common PETG and PU Based Orthodontic Aligners for Clear Aligner Therapy
Polymers 2022, 14(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14010014 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4302
Abstract
It is difficult to find research papers collecting comparative results about characterization studies of clear aligners. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide the first comparative analysis of most commercial clear aligners, in terms of their stability towards intra-oral staining agents, [...] Read more.
It is difficult to find research papers collecting comparative results about characterization studies of clear aligners. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide the first comparative analysis of most commercial clear aligners, in terms of their stability towards intra-oral staining agents, their physicochemical and optical properties, as well as their water absorption behavior. Five types of aligners, characterized by different techniques, are considered: Erkodur, Essix Plastic, Ghost Aligner, Zendura, and Invisalign. The obtained results show that clear aligners are made up of PETG, semi rigid PU, and a mixture of PU and PETG, with different degrees of crystallinity which affect the transparency of each aligner. In particular, the PETG-based materials reveal the highest value of short-range order and the highest properties in terms of transparency in the visible range. After 14 days of immersion into red wine and coffee, PETG and PU-based aligners reveal a perceivable change in color (NBS values from 1.5 to 3), corresponding to a loss of transparency due to the deposition of impurities on the surface. These results are particularly marked for Invisalign, showing changes towards other colors (NBS up to 35), probably due to the thermoforming process which led to the formation of a wrinkled surface entrapping the impurities. Full article
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