Crops Diseases under Climate Change Context and Their Control

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Physiology and Crop Production".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2022) | Viewed by 3869

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the coming century, the climate is likely to become warmer and wetter during winter seasons and hotter and drier during summer seasons, resulting in higher average temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events, increasing the threats to sustainable food security. Apart from having direct effects on plant productivity, climate changes can also influence productivity through indirect effects mediated by changes in pests and diseases. Plant diseases result from the compatible interaction of a susceptible host with a pathogen, and environmental conditions favorable to the pathogen. Consequently, any climatic alteration that increases host vulnerability to pathogens or results in less suitable environmental conditions will amplify both disease severity and incidence. Further, climate change may facilitate invasion by new nonnative pathogens, leading to new epidemics. Therefore, we need to develop new control strategies, other than chemical control, based on an in-depth understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms occurring in plants under unfavorable conditions. The present issue will present state-of-the-art research in plant sciences by addressing fundamental questions of functions and mechanisms involved when plants are subjected to abiotic or biotic stress and how these processes are affected/amplified in a climate change context. This Special Issue will be useful not only for students, teachers, and researchers but also for those interested in agriculture, plant physiology, plant pathology, plant-microbe interactions, environmental science, and agronomy. We invite researchers to submit regular research papers, reviews, communications and short notes that are intended to meet these specific issues or related issues. Studies based on field, potting or lab experiments that involve physiology, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics analysis are welcomed. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: biological control; gene regulation and genomic regulatory analysis; phytohormones signaling; metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, proteomic and metabolomics analysis; plant-microbe interactions; plant responses to abiotic stress; plant responses to biotic stress; signal transduction during the induction of acquired resistance (immunity) in plants; and sustainable agriculture.

Prof. Dr. Essaid Ait Barka
Prof. Dr. Rachid Lahlali
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • biological control
  • gene regulation and genomic regulatory analysis
  • phytohormones signaling
  • metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, proteomic and metabolomics analysis
  • plant-microbe interactions
  • plant responses to abiotic stress
  • plant responses to biotic stress
  • signal transduction during the induction of acquired resistance (immunity) in plants
  • sustainable agriculture.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1738 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Serological and Molecular Methods for Detection of Spiroplasma citri in Moroccan Citrus-Growing Areas
Plants 2023, 12(3), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030667 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Spiroplasma citri, a helical motile, wall-less, and cultivable microorganism of the class Mollicutes, is the agent of the citrus stubborn disease. There is currently a lack of data about the presence of this pathogen in Moroccan citrus orchards. This study aims to validate [...] Read more.
Spiroplasma citri, a helical motile, wall-less, and cultivable microorganism of the class Mollicutes, is the agent of the citrus stubborn disease. There is currently a lack of data about the presence of this pathogen in Moroccan citrus orchards. This study aims to validate serological and molecular methods for routine S. citri diagnosis in Moroccan citrus groves. To provide an update on the present status of the outbreak of the pathogen in Moroccan citrus orchards, a survey of S. citri was conducted in the main citrus-growing regions of Morocco. A total of 575 leaf samples were collected from citrus trees with symptoms attributable to S. citri infection. Samples were collected during 2020 and 2021 from 23 citrus orchards. The presence of S. citri was tested in all samples using the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Using this method, 57 samples were found to be infected with S. citri, 41 samples had doubtful results, and the remaining samples were negative. To corroborate the results of the DAS-ELISA test, 148 samples were chosen for additional molecular testing using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) based on specific primer pairs targeting three different genes (putative adhesion-like gene P58, putative adhesion gene P89, and spiralin gene). Using primers that target the putative adhesion-like gene P58, S. citri was detected by conventional and real-time PCR amplification from plant tissue with differing degrees of specificity. The results allowed us to determine the incidence of S. citri in all Moroccan citrus orchards, with a wide range of positive samples varying from 6.5% to 78%, and to show that molecular tests, particularly real-time PCR assays that target the putative adhesion-like gene P58, are the most sensitive for making an accurate diagnosis of S. citri. Indeed, the real-time PCR with P58-targeting primers yielded positive results from all positive and doubtful ELISA samples as well as some negative samples, with an OD value close to 1.5× times healthy samples, thus demonstrating a high sensibility of this technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crops Diseases under Climate Change Context and Their Control)
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14 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Botryosphaeria Dieback (Lasiodiplodia viticola): An Imminent Emerging Threat to the Moroccan Vineyards
Plants 2022, 11(16), 2167; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11162167 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
A decline of various grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in the province of Doukkala in Morocco was observed in 2021. The causal pathogen was identified as Lasiodiplodia viticola based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed region (ITS), the β-tubulin [...] Read more.
A decline of various grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in the province of Doukkala in Morocco was observed in 2021. The causal pathogen was identified as Lasiodiplodia viticola based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed region (ITS), the β-tubulin gene (TUB) and calmodulin (cmdA). Koch’s postulates were confirmed by successful re-isolation of L. viticola from plants inoculated with the pathogen under controlled conditions. The disease was shown to be prevalent in Bni Hilal (71.43%), Laamria (60%), and Boulaouane (40%) districts, but was quasi-absent in Lmechrek. To understand the dominance of L. viticola as one of the grapevine trunk pathogens, effects of temperature (10–40 °C) and pH (pH 3–pH 12) on growth and sporulation were investigated. The species were able to grow in a range of temperatures ranging from 15 to 40°C and showed a higher growth rate at 35 °C. The fungus were also characterized by a broad optimum pH ranging between 3–12. This study is the first report dealing with L. viticola associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Morocco. Additional studies are therefore required to understand the high occurrence of this disease in vineyards, which is likely due to climate changes. A good understanding of this complex disease might help to develop a reliable and sustainable preventive control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crops Diseases under Climate Change Context and Their Control)
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