Plant Fungal Pathogens: Isolation, Characterization and Control Strategies

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Ecological Interactions of Fungi".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 28504

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The outcome of interactions between plants and microbes can be neutral, detrimental, or even beneficial for the photoautotrophic organisms. Cultivated plants and fruit trees are permanently assaulted by several pathogens namely fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, phytoplasmas, viruses, and nematodes.

The interaction between plants and their pathogens is more than just a series of puzzles for plant biologists to resolve, as it can be a matter of life and death for the plant. Nowadays, it has become clear that plant and animal innate immunity display many structural and functional similitudes, which suggests a shared evolutionary origin of pathogen perception and respective signal transduction in higher eukaryotes.

Why are some microbes able to attack certain types of plants and not others? Is it because they do not have the necessary weapons to infect them or because some plants are equipped with better arsenals to counteract the assault?

Why some microbes are pathogenic and others not? How do plants defend themselves from pathogen attack?

Plant pathogens are generally managed by chemical treatments using different synthetic substances belonging to different chemical specialties. However, it is important to understand the cause of symptoms in a plant to effectively control the disease while avoiding unnecessary efforts. In this Special Issue, understanding the critical role of host-pathogen interaction in developing new and alternative biocontrol agents that promote plant health and disease resistance in crop pathosystems is of interest.

Based on the above, we highly encourage experts and researchers to contribute with original scientific articles, reviews, and communications addressing the following topics:

  • Isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of plant pathogens;
  • Etiology and epidemiology of plant pathogens;
  • Pathogenesis mechanisms and plant defense;
  • Plants resistance mechanisms;
  • Chemical controls and integrated control strategies;
  • Biological control: screening, mechanisms of action, formulation and field applications.

Prof. Dr. Essaid Ait Barka
Prof. Dr. Rachid Lahlali
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of plant pathogens
  • etiology and epidemiology of plant pathogens
  • pathogenesis mechanisms and plant defense
  • plants resistance mechanisms
  • chemical controls and integrated control strategies
  • biological control: screening, mechanisms of action, formulation and field applications

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

6 pages, 241 KiB  
Editorial
Plant and Trees Pathogens: Isolation, Characterization and Control Strategies (1.0)
by Salah-Eddine Laasli, Essaid Ait Barka and Rachid Lahlali
J. Fungi 2023, 9(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9040416 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Agricultural production is under constant threat from biotic and abiotic stresses [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
Differential Adaptation Has Resulted in Aggressiveness Variation of Calonectria pseudonaviculata on Hosts Buxus, Pachysandra, and Sarcococca
by Ping Kong, Margery L. Daughtrey and Chuanxue Hong
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020181 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Cps) infects Buxus (boxwood), Pachysandra (pachysandra), and Sarcococca spp. (sweet box); yet, how it adapts to its hosts has been unclear. Here, we performed serial passage experiments with the three hosts and measured Cps changes in three aggressiveness components: [...] Read more.
Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Cps) infects Buxus (boxwood), Pachysandra (pachysandra), and Sarcococca spp. (sweet box); yet, how it adapts to its hosts has been unclear. Here, we performed serial passage experiments with the three hosts and measured Cps changes in three aggressiveness components: infectibility, lesion size, and conidial production. The detached leaves of individual hosts were inoculated with isolates (P0) from the originating host, followed by nine serial inoculations of new leaves of the same host with conidia from the infected leaves of the previous inoculation. All boxwood isolates maintained their capability of infection and lesion expansion through the 10 passages, whereas most non-boxwood isolates lost these abilities during the passages. Isolates from plants of origin (*-P0) and their descendants isolated from passages 5 (*-P5) and 10 (*-P10) were used to evaluate aggressiveness changes on all three hosts with cross-inoculation. While post-passage boxwood isolates gave enlarged lesions on pachysandra, sweet box P5 and pachysandra P10 isolates showed reduced aggressiveness on all hosts. Cps appears to be most adapted to boxwood and less adapted to sweet box and pachysandra. These results suggest speciation of Cps, with its coevolutionary pace with the hosts the fastest with boxwood, intermediate with sweet box, and the slowest with pachysandra. Full article
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17 pages, 3208 KiB  
Article
Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol of Leaf Blight Caused by Nigrospora sphaerica on Passion Fruit by Endophytic Bacillus subtilis Strain GUCC4
by Junrong Wang, Shun Qin, Ruidong Fan, Qiang Peng, Xiaojing Hu, Liu Yang, Zengliang Liu, Ivan Baccelli, Quirico Migheli, Gabriele Berg, Xiaoyulong Chen and Tomislav Cernava
J. Fungi 2023, 9(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020132 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) is widely cultivated in tropic and sub-tropic regions for the production of fruit, flowers, cosmetics, and for pharmacological applications. Its high economic, nutritional, and medical values elicit the market demand, and the growing areas are rapidly increasing. [...] Read more.
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) is widely cultivated in tropic and sub-tropic regions for the production of fruit, flowers, cosmetics, and for pharmacological applications. Its high economic, nutritional, and medical values elicit the market demand, and the growing areas are rapidly increasing. Leaf blight caused by Nigrospora sphaerica is a new and emerging disease of passion fruit in Guizhou, in southwest China, where the unique karst mountainous landscape and climate conditions are considered potential areas of expansion for passion fruit production. Bacillus species are the most common biocontrol and plant-growth-promotion bacteria (PGPB) resources in agricultural systems. However, little is known about the endophytic existence of Bacillus spp. in the passion fruit phyllosphere as well as their potential as biocontrol agents and PGPB. In this study, 44 endophytic strains were isolated from 15 healthy passion fruit leaves, obtained from Guangxi province, China. Through purification and molecular identification, 42 of the isolates were ascribed to Bacillus species. Their inhibitory activity against N. sphaerica was tested in vitro. Eleven endophytic Bacillus spp. strains inhibited the pathogen by >65%. All of them produced biocontrol- and plant-growth-promotion-related metabolites, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), protease, cellulase, phosphatase, and solubilized phosphate. Furthermore, the plant growth promotion traits of the above 11 endophytic Bacillus strains were tested on passion fruit seedlings. One isolate, coded B. subtilis GUCC4, significantly increased passion fruit stem diameter, plant height, leaf length, leaf surface, fresh weight, and dry weight. In addition, B. subtilis GUCC4 reduced the proline content, which indicated its potential to positively regulate passion fruit biochemical properties and resulted in plant growth promotion effects. Finally, the biocontrol efficiencies of B. subtilis GUCC4 against N. sphaerica were determined in vivo under greenhouse conditions. Similarly to the fungicide mancozeb and to a commercial B. subtilis-based biofungicide, B. subtilis GUCC4 significantly reduced disease severity. These results suggest that B. subtilis GUCC4 has great potential as a biological control agent and as PGPB on passion fruit. Full article
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17 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Control Efficiency and Yield Response of Chemical and Biological Treatments against Fruit Rot of Arecanut: A Network Meta-Analysis
by Balanagouda Patil, Shankarappa Sridhara, Hanumappa Narayanaswamy, Vinayaka Hegde and Ajay Kumar Mishra
J. Fungi 2022, 8(9), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090937 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Fruit rot disease (FRD) in arecanut has appeared in most of the arecanut growing regions of India in the last few decades. A few comprehensive studies on the management of FRD under field conditions have examined various treatment combinations for disease control and [...] Read more.
Fruit rot disease (FRD) in arecanut has appeared in most of the arecanut growing regions of India in the last few decades. A few comprehensive studies on the management of FRD under field conditions have examined various treatment combinations for disease control and yield response analysis. This study aimed to compare the control efficiencies and yield responses of treatments applied over multiple locations and compute the probable returns of investment (ROIs) for treatment costs. Data were gathered from 21 field trials conducted across five main arecanut growing regions of India in the period 2012–2019. The collected data were subjected to analysis with a multivariate (network) meta-analytical model, following standard statistical protocols. The quantitative, synthesized data were evaluated for the estimated effects of disease pressure (DPLow ≤ 35% of FRDInc in the treatments > DPHigh), mean disease control efficiencies (treatment mean, C), and yield responses (R) corresponding to the tested treatments. Based on disease control efficacy, the evaluated treatments were grouped into three efficacy groups (EGs): higher EGs were observed for the Bordeaux mixture (C, 81.94%) and its stabilized formulation (C, 74.99%), Metalaxyl + Mancozeb (C, 70.66%), while lower EGs were observed in plots treated with Biofight (C, 29.91%), Biopot (C, 25.66%), and Suraksha (C, 29.74%) and intermediate EGs were observed in plots to which microbial consortia (bio-agents) had been applied. Disease pressure acted as a significant moderator variable, influencing yield response and gain. At DPLow, the Bordeaux fungicide mixture (102%, 22% of increased yield) and Metalaxyl + Mancozeb (77.5%, +15.5%) exhibited higher yield responses, with absolute arecanut yield gains of 916.5 kg ha−1 and 884 kg ha−1, while, under DPHigh, Fosetyl-AL (819.6 kg ha−1) showed a yield response of 90.5%. To ensure maximum yield sustainability, arecanut growers should focus on the spraying of fungicides (a mixture of different active ingredients or formulations or products) as a preventative measure, followed by treating palms with either soil microbial consortia or commercial formulations of organic fungicides. Full article
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12 pages, 2307 KiB  
Article
Ophiostomatales Associated with Mediterranean Pine Engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in Dalmatia, Croatia
by Marta Kovač, Daniel Rigling and Milan Pernek
J. Fungi 2022, 8(8), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080788 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus was never considered as a significant pest in Croatia and did not appear in high population densities until 2017, when it reached outbreak level in Aleppo pine stands. The beetle was first detected in Marjan Forest Park, Split, [...] Read more.
Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus was never considered as a significant pest in Croatia and did not appear in high population densities until 2017, when it reached outbreak level in Aleppo pine stands. The beetle was first detected in Marjan Forest Park, Split, and was soon recorded in other parts of the Dalmatian coast. Soon after the outbreak occurred, we observed that all of the attacked trees exhibit severe blue staining in the sapwood which indicated fungal infection caused by the Ophiostomatales group of fungi. This raised the need to investigate their relationship with O. erosus and the pine decline, and the main aim of this study was to isolate and identify them. Isolates were obtained from adult O. erosus beetles, their galleries, and blue-stained sapwood, and identified according to the morphological characteristics and DNA sequencing. A total of six Ophiostomatales (Ophiostoma ips, O. piceae, Graphilbum cf. rectangulosporium, O. floccosum, Sporothrix pseudoabietina and Ceratocystiopsis cf. minuta) were identified in the study. This is the first record of Ophiostomatales as organisms associated with the pest O. erosus and pine species in Croatia. Full article
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21 pages, 3737 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Climatic Variables on Arecanut Fruit Rot Epidemic by Understanding the Disease Dynamics in Relation to Space and Time
by Balanagouda Patil, Vinayaka Hegde, Shankarappa Sridhara, Hanumappa Narayanaswamy, Manjunatha K. Naik, Kiran Kumar R. Patil, Hosahatti Rajashekara and Ajay Kumar Mishra
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070745 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
To understand the spatio-temporal dynamics and the effect of climate on fruit rot occurrence in arecanut plantations, we evaluated the intensity of fruit rot in three major growing regions of Karnataka, India for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019). A total of 27 [...] Read more.
To understand the spatio-temporal dynamics and the effect of climate on fruit rot occurrence in arecanut plantations, we evaluated the intensity of fruit rot in three major growing regions of Karnataka, India for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019). A total of 27 sampling sites from the selected regions were monitored and the percentage disease intensity (PDI) was assessed on 50 randomly selected palms. Spatial interpolation technique, ordinary kriging (OK) was employed to predict the disease occurrence at unsampled locations. OK resulted in aggregated spatial maps, where the disease intensity was substantial (40.25–72.45%) at sampling sites of the Malnad and coastal regions. Further, Moran’s I spatial autocorrelation test confirmed the presence of significant spatial clusters (p ≤ 0.01) across the regions studied. Temporal analysis indicated the initiation of disease on different weeks dependent on the sampling sites and evaluated years with significant variation in PDI, which ranged from 9.25% to 72.45%. The occurrence of disease over time revealed that the epidemic was initiated early in the season (July) at the Malnad and coastal regions in contrary to the Maidan region where the occurrence was delayed up to the end of the season (September). Correlations between environmental variables and PDI revealed that, the estimated temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and total rainfall (TRF) significantly positively associated (p = 0.01) with disease occurrence. Regression model analysis revealed that the association between Tmax, RH1 and TRF with PDI statistically significant and the coefficients for the predictors Tmax, RH1 and TRF are 1.731, 1.330 and 0.541, respectively. The information generated in the present study will provide a scientific decision support system, to generate forecasting models and a better surveillance system to develop adequate strategies to curtail the fruit rot of arecanut. Full article
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15 pages, 1627 KiB  
Article
Combination of Sodium Bicarbonate (SBC) with Bacterial Antagonists for the Control of Brown Rot Disease of Fruit
by Nadia Lyousfi, Chaimaa Letrib, Ikram Legrifi, Abdelali Blenzar, Assia El Khetabi, Hajar El Hamss, Zineb Belabess, Essaid Ait Barka and Rachid Lahlali
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060636 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
Simultaneous treatment with antagonistic bacteria Bacillus amylolquefaciens (SF14), Alcaligenes faecalis (ACBC1), and the food additive sodium bicarbonate (SBC) to control post-harvest brown rot disease caused by Monilinia fructigena, and their effect on the post-harvest quality of nectarines were evaluated. Four concentrations of [...] Read more.
Simultaneous treatment with antagonistic bacteria Bacillus amylolquefaciens (SF14), Alcaligenes faecalis (ACBC1), and the food additive sodium bicarbonate (SBC) to control post-harvest brown rot disease caused by Monilinia fructigena, and their effect on the post-harvest quality of nectarines were evaluated. Four concentrations of SBC (0.5, 2, 3.5, and 5%) were tested. Results showed that bacterial antagonists displayed remarkable compatibility with different concentrations of SBC and that their viability was not affected. The results obtained in vitro and in vivo bioassays showed a strong inhibitory effect of all treatments. The combination of each bacterial antagonist with SBC revealed a significant improvement in their biocontrol efficacies. The inhibition rates of mycelial growth ranged from 60.97 to 100%. These results also indicated that bacterial antagonists (SF14 or ACBC1) used at 1 × 108 CFU/ mL in combination with 2, 3.5, or 5% SBC significantly improved the control of M. fructigina by inhibiting the germination of spores. Interestingly, disease incidence and lesion diameter in fruits treated with SF14, ACBC1 alone, or in combination with SBC were significantly lower than those in the untreated fruits. In vivo results showed a significant reduction in disease severity ranging from 9.27 to 64.83% compared to the untreated control, while maintaining the appearance, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), and titratable acidity (TA) of fruits. These results suggested that the improved disease control by the two antagonistic bacteria was more likely due to the additional inhibitory effects of SBC on the mycelial growth and spore germination of the pathogenic fungus. Overall, the combination of both bacteria with SBC provided better control of brown rot disease. Therefore, a mixture of different management strategies can effectively control brown rot decay on fruits. Full article
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25 pages, 1490 KiB  
Article
Diversity, Succession and Seasonal Variation of Phylloplane Mycoflora of Leucaena leucocephala in Relation to Its Leaf Litter Decomposition
by Saloni Gulati, P. Chitralekha, Manisha Arora Pandit, Roma Katyal, Neeru Bhandari, Poonam Mehta, Charu Dogra Rawat, Surinder Kaur and Jasleen Kaur
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060608 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
To address international food security concerns and sustain a growing global population, global agricultural output needs to increase by 70% by the year 2050. Current agricultural techniques to increase crop yields, specifically the application of chemicals, have resulted in a wide range of [...] Read more.
To address international food security concerns and sustain a growing global population, global agricultural output needs to increase by 70% by the year 2050. Current agricultural techniques to increase crop yields, specifically the application of chemicals, have resulted in a wide range of negative impacts on the environment and human health. The maintenance of good quality soil organic matter, a key concern in tropical countries such as India, requires a steady input of organic residues to maintain soil fertility. A tree with many uses, Leucaena leucocephala, has attracted much attention over the past decades. As per our literature review, no research has been conducted examining Leucaena leucocephala leaves for their fungal decomposition and their use as green manure. A study of the fungal colonization of Leucaena leucocephala leaves at various stages of decomposition was conducted to get an insight into which fungi play a critical role in the decomposition process. In total, fifty-two different species of fungi were isolated. There was an increase in the percentage of fungus occurrences as the leaves senesced and then finally decomposed. Almost all decomposition stages were characterized by a higher percentage occurrence of Deuteromycetes (75.47%) and by a lower rate of Ascomycetes (9.43%). A gradual increase of basidiomycetes such as unidentified sclerotia and Rhizoctonia solani was seen as the leaves senesced and finally decomposed. In the moist chamber, Didymium nigripes was the only Myxomycete isolated from completely decomposed leaves. In the present study, on average, there were more fungi in wet seasons than in the dry seasons. Full article
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18 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
Temporal Dynamics of Incidence of Shot Hole Disease Affected by Training Systems and Cultivar Susceptibilities in an Integrated Plum Orchard
by Bianka Molnár, Szilárd Szabó and Imre J. Holb
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060580 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Shot hole disease (SHD) can cause severe epidemics in plum orchards, depending on cultivar susceptibility and training system; however, the combined effect on the progress of temporal disease and on the possible reduction in SHD in the disease management was not investigated. The [...] Read more.
Shot hole disease (SHD) can cause severe epidemics in plum orchards, depending on cultivar susceptibility and training system; however, the combined effect on the progress of temporal disease and on the possible reduction in SHD in the disease management was not investigated. The aim of this 3-year study was (i) to monitor and analyze the temporal dynamics of SHD progress under four training systems (4 × 1.5, 4 × 2, 5 × 2.5 and 6 × 3 m) and on four plum cultivars (‘Čačanska lepotica’, ‘Bluefre’, ‘Stanley’ and ‘President’) in an integrated plum orchard; (ii) to identify those time periods when training system and cultivar combinations can reduce the disease development. Both SHD incidences and the area under the disease progress curves (AUDPC) were significantly affected by the training system, cultivar and year. Plum cultivars with high or mid–high susceptibility to SHD showed continuous SHD development from May to November, while cultivars with low susceptibility to SHD showed no symptoms until mid-summer and then progressed slowly until November. High (4 × 1.5 m) vs. low (6 × 3 m) density training systems reduced SHD incidence and AUDPC consistently for three cultivars (‘Čačanska lepotica’, ‘Stanley’ and ‘President’) in September, October and November, compared to the high-density training system. Only cv. ‘Bluefre’ showed no effect either on disease incidence or AUDPC, due to very high disease incidences in all training systems from September to November. In conclusions, combinations of training system and cultivar can significantly reduce SHD incidence, which may be successfully used as a part of the integrated pest management approach during the establishment new plantations. Full article
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17 pages, 14478 KiB  
Article
Fungal Pathogens Associated with Crown and Root Rot of Wheat in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Kazakhstan
by Tuğba Bozoğlu, Sibel Derviş, Mustafa Imren, Mohammed Amer, Fatih Özdemir, Timothy C. Paulitz, Alexey Morgounov, Abdelfattah A. Dababat and Göksel Özer
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050417 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Kazakhstan is the fourteenth largest wheat producer in the world. Despite this fact, there has not been a comprehensive survey of wheat root and crown rot. A quantitative survey was conducted for the purpose of establishing the distribution of fungi associated with root [...] Read more.
Kazakhstan is the fourteenth largest wheat producer in the world. Despite this fact, there has not been a comprehensive survey of wheat root and crown rot. A quantitative survey was conducted for the purpose of establishing the distribution of fungi associated with root and crown rot on wheat (Triticum spp.). During the 2019 growing season, samples were taken from the affected plants’ roots and stem bases. A total of 1221 fungal isolates were acquired from 65 sites across the central (Karagandy region), eastern (East Kazakhstan region), and southeastern (Almaty region) parts of the country and identified using morphological and molecular tools. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequences were successfully used to identify the species of fungal isolates. It was found that Bipolaris sorokiniana (44.80%) and Fusarium acuminatum (20.39%) were the most predominant fungal species isolated, which were present in 86.15 and 66.15% of the fields surveyed, respectively, followed by F. equiseti (10.16%), Curvularia spicifera (7.62%), F. culmorum (4.75%), F. oxysporum (4.10%), F. redolens (2.38%), Rhizoctonia solani AG2-1 (1.06%), Nigrospora oryzae (0.98%), C. inaequalis (0.90%), F. pseudograminearum (0.74%), F. flocciferum (0.74%), Macrophomina phaseolina (0.66%), F. cf. incarnatum (0.33%), Fusarium sp. (0.25%), and F. torulosum (0.16%). A total of 74 isolates representing 16 species were tested via inoculation tests on the susceptible Triticum aestivum cv. Seri 82 and the results revealed that F. culmorum and F. pseudograminearum, B. sorokiniana, Fusarium sp., R. solani, F. redolens, C. spicifera, C. inaequalis, and N. oryzae were virulent, whereas others were non-pathogenic. The findings of this investigation demonstrate the presence of a diverse spectrum of pathogenic fungal species relevant to wheat crown and root rot in Kazakhstan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of F. pseudograminearum, Fusarium sp., C. spicifera, and C. inaequalis as pathogens on wheat in Kazakhstan. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

33 pages, 2023 KiB  
Review
Plant Beneficial Bacteria as Bioprotectants against Wheat and Barley Diseases
by Emma Dutilloy, Feyisara Eyiwumi Oni, Qassim Esmaeel, Christophe Clément and Essaid Ait Barka
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060632 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4039
Abstract
Wheat and barley are the main cereal crops cultivated worldwide and serve as staple food for a third of the world’s population. However, due to enormous biotic stresses, the annual production has significantly reduced by 30–70%. Recently, the accelerated use of beneficial bacteria [...] Read more.
Wheat and barley are the main cereal crops cultivated worldwide and serve as staple food for a third of the world’s population. However, due to enormous biotic stresses, the annual production has significantly reduced by 30–70%. Recently, the accelerated use of beneficial bacteria in the control of wheat and barley pathogens has gained prominence. In this review, we synthesized information about beneficial bacteria with demonstrated protection capacity against major barley and wheat pathogens including Fusarium graminearum, Zymoseptoria tritici and Pyrenophora teres. By summarizing the general insights into molecular factors involved in plant-pathogen interactions, we show to an extent, the means by which beneficial bacteria are implicated in plant defense against wheat and barley diseases. On wheat, many Bacillus strains predominantly reduced the disease incidence of F. graminearum and Z. tritici. In contrast, on barley, the efficacy of a few Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Paraburkholderia spp. has been established against P. teres. Although several modes of action were described for these strains, we have highlighted the role of Bacillus and Pseudomonas secondary metabolites in mediating direct antagonism and induced resistance against these pathogens. Furthermore, we advance a need to ascertain the mode of action of beneficial bacteria/molecules to enhance a solution-based crop protection strategy. Moreover, an apparent disjoint exists between numerous experiments that have demonstrated disease-suppressive effects and the translation of these successes to commercial products and applications. Clearly, the field of cereal disease protection leaves a lot to be explored and uncovered. Full article
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27 pages, 4608 KiB  
Review
A Panoramic View on Grapevine Trunk Diseases Threats: Case of Eutypa Dieback, Botryosphaeria Dieback, and Esca Disease
by Jihane Kenfaoui, Nabil Radouane, Mohammed Mennani, Abdessalem Tahiri, Lahsen El Ghadraoui, Zineb Belabess, Florence Fontaine, Hajar El Hamss, Said Amiri, Rachid Lahlali and Essaid Ait Barka
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060595 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4388
Abstract
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTD) are currently one of the most devastating and challenging diseases in viticulture, leading to considerable yield losses and a remarkable decline in grapevine quality. The identification of the causal agents is the cornerstone of an efficient approach to fighting [...] Read more.
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTD) are currently one of the most devastating and challenging diseases in viticulture, leading to considerable yield losses and a remarkable decline in grapevine quality. The identification of the causal agents is the cornerstone of an efficient approach to fighting against fungal diseases in a sustainable, non-chemical manner. This review attempts to describe and expose the symptoms of each pathology related to GTD, the modes of transmission, and the harmfulness of recently reported agents. Special attention was given to new diagnostic tests and technologies, grapevine defense mechanisms, molecular mechanisms of endophytes fungal colonization, and management strategies used to control these threats. The present extended review is, therefore, an updated state-of-the-art report on the progress in the management of vineyards. Full article
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