Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2023) | Viewed by 16274

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Optoelectronics, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: integrated optics; evanescent wave spectroscopy; material characterization; thin films; nanotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662, Warszawa, Poland
Interests: integrated photonics devices; circuits and systems for multiple applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photonics focuses on the generation, manipulation, measurement and use of light in various areas that are vital to modern society and the economy. Nowadays, we are witnessing the rapid growth of various technologies related to planar photonic sensors (e.g., photonic crystals or slot waveguides) that allow for the use of strong confinement effects to be applied in optical sensing. This area of research is a major source of creativity, innovation and collaboration that underpins the modern-day economy. The effort made to develop various photonic sensors is in response to the most pressing healthcare and environmental concerns. Therefore, we welcome research and review papers, both theoretical and experimental, in the areas concerning planar photonic sensors for the detection of physical, chemical and biological parameters. This Special Issue will cover, though is not limited to, the following:

  • Photonics for metrology;
  • Novel sensors and measurement architectures;
  • Micro- and nano-structured planar photonic structures;
  • Biosensors and photonic lab-on-a-chip analytical systems;
  • Plasmonic photonic crystals;
  • Functionalization of photonic structures;
  • Self-organizing molecular photonic structures;
  • Metamaterials and metasurfaces for applications in photonics.

We welcome papers concerning 1-D and 2-D photonic-crystal-based sensors, novel principles, structures and materials for photonic sensors, analytical and numerical optimization of planar photonic crystal topologies for evanescent wave sensing applications. We believe that your valuable input will allow further advancement in this most interesting and exciting research field.

Dr. Cuma Tyszkiewicz
Dr. Andrzej Kaźmierczak
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Photonics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photonic crystals
  • photonic bandgap structures
  • photonic integrated circuits
  • photonic sensors
  • evanescent wave spectroscopy
  • surface plasmon resonance

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 6543 KiB  
Article
Evanescent Wave Sensitivity of Silica-Titania Rib Waveguides in the Single-Mode Propagation Regime
by Cuma Tyszkiewicz and Paweł Kielan
Photonics 2023, 10(9), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10091065 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The analysis reported in this paper shows that the homogeneous sensitivity of both fundamental rib waveguide modes, HE00 and EH00, can slightly exceed the sensitivity of the optimized parent slab waveguide. The most crucial difference in the behavior of these [...] Read more.
The analysis reported in this paper shows that the homogeneous sensitivity of both fundamental rib waveguide modes, HE00 and EH00, can slightly exceed the sensitivity of the optimized parent slab waveguide. The most crucial difference in the behavior of these two polarizations is that the sensitivity of the HE00 mode is the maximum for strip waveguides. In contrast, the sensitivity of the EH00 mode can either decrease monotonically or not-monotonically with increasing rib height or behave like a homogeneous sensitivity characteristic of the slab waveguide’s EH0 mode. The second important conclusion comes from comparing the sensitivity characteristics with the distributions of the fundamental mode’s optical power. Namely, the homogeneous sensitivity of the rib waveguide is at the maximum if, due to a slight variance in the cover refractive index, a variation in the weighted optical power carried by the mode is the maximum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors)
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12 pages, 3502 KiB  
Article
Coupled Strip-Array Waveguides for Integrated Mid-IR Gas Sensing
by Pooja Thakkar, Clément Fleury, Gerald Stocker, Florian Dubois, Thang Duy Dao, Reyhaneh Jannesari, Parviz Saeidi, Gerald Pühringer, Thomas Ostermann, Thomas Grille, Bernhard Jakoby, Andreas Tortschanoff and Cristina Consani
Photonics 2023, 10(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10010055 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption spectroscopy is a widespread approach to gas sensing due to its selectivity and conceptual simplicity. One of the main challenges towards the development of fully integrated NDIR sensors is the design and fabrication of microstructures, typically waveguides, that can [...] Read more.
Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption spectroscopy is a widespread approach to gas sensing due to its selectivity and conceptual simplicity. One of the main challenges towards the development of fully integrated NDIR sensors is the design and fabrication of microstructures, typically waveguides, that can combine high sensitivity with the ease of integrability of other sensor elements (sources, filters, detectors). Here, we investigate theoretically and experimentally a class of coupled strip-array (CSA) waveguides realized on a SiO2/Si3N4 platform with mass semiconductor fabrication processes. We demonstrate that this class of waveguides shows comparable sensitivity for a wide range of presented geometries, making it a very promising platform for satisfying multiple sensor and fabrication requirements without loss of performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors)
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12 pages, 5305 KiB  
Article
Fiber Optic Sensor with a Gold Nanowire Group Array for Broad Range and Low Refractive Index Detection
by Gongli Xiao, Jiapeng Su, Hongyan Yang, Zetao Ou, Haiou Li, Xingpeng Liu, Zanhui Chen, Yunhan Luo and Jianqing Li
Photonics 2022, 9(9), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9090661 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
To achieve high performance and wide range detection, we propose an ultra-wide range high sensitivity plasmonic fiber optic sensor with a gold (Au) nanowire group array, which has both propagating surface plasmon resonance (PSPR) and local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing characteristics. The [...] Read more.
To achieve high performance and wide range detection, we propose an ultra-wide range high sensitivity plasmonic fiber optic sensor with a gold (Au) nanowire group array, which has both propagating surface plasmon resonance (PSPR) and local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing characteristics. The PSPR, LSPR, and PSPR+LSPR are presented as Au thin layers, Au spheres (or Au nanowires), and Au nanowire group arrays, respectively, and their respective properties are analyzed from theoretical, simulated, and numerical aspects. When detection is performed, the presence of both evanescent wave and electric field forces in the Au nanowire group array combines to significantly improve the sensor’s detection capability. Detection simulation analysis was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The range of refractive indices that can be detected is 1.08 to 1.37 in the optical band from 1210 nm to 2140 nm. In the detection range, the maximum sensitivity of the detected wavelength is 13,000 nm/RIU. Our proposed sensor has a broad range, high sensitivity, and low refractive index detection, and has good research value and application prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors)
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14 pages, 5664 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Ultrasensitive Hexagonal-Cored Photonic Crystal Fiber for Hazardous Chemical Sensing
by Abdul Mu’iz Maidi, Norazanita Shamsuddin, Wei-Ru Wong, Shubi Kaijage and Feroza Begum
Photonics 2022, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9010038 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2910
Abstract
A highly sensitive non-complex cored photonic crystal fiber sensor for hazardous chemical sensing with water, ethanol, and benzene analytes has been proposed and is numerically analyzed using a full-vector finite element method. The proposed fiber consists of a hexagonal core hole and two [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive non-complex cored photonic crystal fiber sensor for hazardous chemical sensing with water, ethanol, and benzene analytes has been proposed and is numerically analyzed using a full-vector finite element method. The proposed fiber consists of a hexagonal core hole and two cladding air hole rings, operating in the lower operating wavelength of 0.8 to 2.6 µm. It has been shown that the structure has high relative sensitivity of 94.47% for water, 96.32% for ethanol and 99.63% for benzene, and low confinement losses of 7.31 × 10−9 dB/m for water, 3.70 × 10−10 dB/m ethanol and 1.76 × 10−13 dB/m benzene. It also displays a high power fraction and almost flattened chromatic dispersion. The results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed fiber design for chemical sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors)
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11 pages, 4928 KiB  
Article
Photonic Crystal Enhanced by Metamaterial for Measuring Electric Permittivity in GHz Range
by Arafa H. Aly, Ayman A. Ameen, M. A. Mahmoud, Z. S. Matar, M. Al-Dossari and Hussein A. Elsayed
Photonics 2021, 8(10), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8100416 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
The rise of broadband cellular networks and 5G networks enable new rates of data transfer. This paper introduces a new design to measure the permittivity in the GHz range of non-magnetic materials. We tested the proposed design with a wide range of materials [...] Read more.
The rise of broadband cellular networks and 5G networks enable new rates of data transfer. This paper introduces a new design to measure the permittivity in the GHz range of non-magnetic materials. We tested the proposed design with a wide range of materials such as wood, glass, dry concrete, and limestone. The newly proposed design structure has a maximum sensitivity of 0.496 GHz/RIU. Moreover, it can measure permittivities in the range from 1 up to 9. The main component of the designed structure is a defective one-dimensional photonic crystal with a unit cell consisting of metamaterial and silicon. In addition, we demonstrate the role of the metamaterial in enhancing the proposed design and examine the impact of the defect layer thickness on the proposed structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors)
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10 pages, 38270 KiB  
Article
Photonic Band Gaps and Resonance Modes in 2D Twisted Moiré Photonic Crystal
by Khadijah Alnasser, Steve Kamau, Noah Hurley, Jingbiao Cui and Yuankun Lin
Photonics 2021, 8(10), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8100408 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
The study of twisted bilayer 2D materials has revealed many interesting physics properties. A twisted moiré photonic crystal is an optical analog of twisted bilayer 2D materials. The optical properties in twisted photonic crystals have not yet been fully elucidated. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The study of twisted bilayer 2D materials has revealed many interesting physics properties. A twisted moiré photonic crystal is an optical analog of twisted bilayer 2D materials. The optical properties in twisted photonic crystals have not yet been fully elucidated. In this paper, we generate 2D twisted moiré photonic crystals without physical rotation and simulate their photonic band gaps in photonic crystals formed at different twisted angles, different gradient levels, and different dielectric filling factors. At certain gradient levels, interface modes appear within the photonic band gap. The simulation reveals “tic tac toe”-like and “traffic circle”-like modes as well as ring resonance modes. These interesting discoveries in 2D twisted moiré photonic crystal may lead toward its application in integrated photonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors)
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12 pages, 3681 KiB  
Article
Towards Promising Platform by Using Annular Photonic Crystals to Simulate and Design Useful Mask
by Ayman A Ameen, Hussein A Elsayed, Sagr Alamri, Z.S. Matar, M. Al-Dossari and Arafa H. Aly
Photonics 2021, 8(9), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8090349 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Human masks are considered the mainstay in air filtration and purification technologies and against the spreading of bacterial and viral infections. This paper introduces a novel design of a human mask to increase the ultraviolet germicidal irradiation effect on pathogens. The proposed design [...] Read more.
Human masks are considered the mainstay in air filtration and purification technologies and against the spreading of bacterial and viral infections. This paper introduces a novel design of a human mask to increase the ultraviolet germicidal irradiation effect on pathogens. The proposed design consists of a tube with an annular photonic crystal (APC) attached to the mask’s orifice, and a UV source is located in the tube’s center. The main role of this study is the enhancement of UV doses based on the reflectivity of the proposed APC. Therefore, increasing pathogens’ inactivation level in the incoming air to the mask’s orifice could be investigated. The numerical investigations demonstrated that the proposed APC could provide a complete photonic bandgap with a high reflectivity in the wavelength regime from 207 to 230 nm. In addition, we have considered the roles of the thickness of layers, inner core radius, and the azimuthal number. Meanwhile, the results showed the ability to use a wide range of core radius values without almost any variations in the optical properties of the proposed design. Such results could grant the advantage of using this design by the manufacturing of human masks with different sizes besides the inclusions in other ultraviolet germicidal irradiation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Modern Evanescent Wave Photonic Sensors)
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