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Photonics, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 105 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We propose and demonstrate a Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (MZI)-based optical neural network (ONN) to regenerate a high inter-symbol interference (ISI) four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM4) signal generated experimentally by a silicon microing modulator (SiMRM). The proposed ONN has a multiple MZI configuration achieving a transmission matrix resembling a fully connected (FC) layer in a neural network. The PAM4 signals from 160 Gbit/s to 240 Gbit/s were experimentally generated by a SiMRM. As the SiMRM has a limited 3 dB modulation bandwidth of ~67 GHz, the generated PAM4 suffers from severe ISI. The results show that soft-decision (SD) forward-error-correction (FEC) requirement can be achieved at 200 Gbit/s transmission. View this paper
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11 pages, 7845 KiB  
Article
Amplified Nonreciprocal Reflection in a Uniform Atomic Medium with the Help of Spontaneous Emissions
by Xinyu Lin, Xinfu Zheng, Yue Geng, Guanrong Li, Qiongyi Xu, Jinhui Wu, Dong Yan and Hong Yang
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040389 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 480
Abstract
It is important to elaborate on versatile strategies for achieving the perfect nonreciprocal reflection amplification, which is the key technology of high-quality nonreciprocal photonic devices. In this work, we ingeniously design a coherent four-level N-type atomic system to harness the nonreciprocal light [...] Read more.
It is important to elaborate on versatile strategies for achieving the perfect nonreciprocal reflection amplification, which is the key technology of high-quality nonreciprocal photonic devices. In this work, we ingeniously design a coherent four-level N-type atomic system to harness the nonreciprocal light amplification, in which the uniform distribution of atoms is driven by two strong coupling fields and a weak probe field. In our regime, the strength of the two control fields is designed with linear variation along the x direction to destroy the spatial symmetry of the probe susceptibility, leading to the nonreciprocity of the reflection. In particular, the closed-loop transitions to amplify the probe field are due to the combined effect of the control fields and spontaneous emissions. The numerical simulation indicates that the perfect nonreciprocal reflection amplification can be realized and modulated by the appropriate settings of the control fields and the detuning, Δc. Our results will open a new route toward harnessing nonreciprocity, which can provide more convenience and possibilities in experimental realization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Quantum System)
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15 pages, 5041 KiB  
Article
HoloDiffusion: Sparse Digital Holographic Reconstruction via Diffusion Modeling
by Liu Zhang, Songyang Gao, Minghao Tong, Yicheng Huang, Zibang Zhang, Wenbo Wan and Qiegen Liu
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040388 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 540
Abstract
In digital holography, reconstructed image quality can be primarily limited due to the inability of a single small aperture sensor to cover the entire field of a hologram. The use of multi-sensor arrays in synthetic aperture digital holographic imaging technology contributes to overcoming [...] Read more.
In digital holography, reconstructed image quality can be primarily limited due to the inability of a single small aperture sensor to cover the entire field of a hologram. The use of multi-sensor arrays in synthetic aperture digital holographic imaging technology contributes to overcoming the limitations of sensor coverage by expanding the area for detection. However, imaging accuracy is affected by the gap size between sensors and the resolution of sensors, especially when dealing with a limited number of sensors. An image reconstruction method is proposed that combines physical constraint characteristics of the imaging object with a score-based diffusion model, aiming to enhance the imaging accuracy of digital holography technology with extremely sparse sensor arrays. Prior information of the sample is learned by the neural network in the diffusion model to obtain a score function, which alternately constrains the iterative reconstruction process with the underlying physical model. The results demonstrate that the structural similarity and peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed images using this method are higher than the traditional method, along with a strong generalization ability. Full article
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14 pages, 15723 KiB  
Article
Similariton-like Pulse Evolution in an Er-Doped Fiber Laser with Hybrid Mode Locking
by Aleksander Y. Fedorenko, Almikdad Ismaeel, Ilya O. Orekhov, Dmitriy A. Dvoretskiy, Stanislav G. Sazonkin, Lev K. Denisov and Valeriy E. Karasik
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040387 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 562
Abstract
An Er-doped all-fiber ultrashort pulse laser with positive total net-cavity group-velocity dispersion is demonstrated based on a hybrid mode-locking mechanism ensured by single-walled carbon–boron–nitrogen nanotubes with coaction of the nonlinear polarization evolution effect. The generation regime with a similariton-like spectrum is obtained. The [...] Read more.
An Er-doped all-fiber ultrashort pulse laser with positive total net-cavity group-velocity dispersion is demonstrated based on a hybrid mode-locking mechanism ensured by single-walled carbon–boron–nitrogen nanotubes with coaction of the nonlinear polarization evolution effect. The generation regime with a similariton-like spectrum is obtained. The spectrum width is ~31.5 nm, and the minimal pulse duration is ~294 fs at full width at half maximum. The average output power is ~3.2 mW, corresponding to 0.376 nJ pulse energy and 1.25 kW peak power. The fundamental pulse repetition rate is ~8.5 MHz, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 60 dB. The standard deviation of average output optical power stability, measured for 12 h, is about ~1% RMS, and the maximum level of relative intensity noise (RIN) does not exceed <−120 dBc/Hz in the 30 Hz–1 MHz frequency range. To prove the similariton-like regime generation, we also studied numerically and experimentally the pulse evolution during propagation through a laser resonator and output single-mode fiber with anomalous dispersion. Full article
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10 pages, 7225 KiB  
Article
All-Solid-State Post-Compression of Low-Energy Pulses at High Repetition Rate
by Vaida Marčiulionytė, Jonas Banys, Julius Vengelis, Gintaras Tamošauskas and Audrius Dubietis
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040386 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
We demonstrate a proof of principle of a simple all-solid-state post-compression setup for low-energy, high-repetition-rate laser pulses, where spectral broadening was performed using a combination of highly nonlinear bulk materials in a simple single-pass geometry. The 75 fs, 210 nJ pulses from an [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a proof of principle of a simple all-solid-state post-compression setup for low-energy, high-repetition-rate laser pulses, where spectral broadening was performed using a combination of highly nonlinear bulk materials in a simple single-pass geometry. The 75 fs, 210 nJ pulses from an amplified 76 MHz, 15.7 W Yb:KGW oscillator after sequential spectral broadening in ZnS and YAG samples of 2 mm and 15 mm thickness, respectively, were compressed to 37 fs by means of Gires–Tournois interferometric mirrors. The post-compressed pulses with an average power of 11.47 W demonstrated reasonable spatial-spectral homogeneity of the beam with the spectral overlap parameter V>83% and good beam quality with Mx2=1.28 and My2=1.14. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrafast Laser Science and Applications)
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11 pages, 5060 KiB  
Article
Flexible Modulation of Perfect Vortex Beams by Combining Coherent Beams
by Bowang Shu, Yuqiu Zhang, Hongxiang Chang, Shiqing Tang, Jinyong Leng, Jiangming Xu and Pu Zhou
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040385 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Perfect vortex beams (PVBs) possess the advantage of a stable light field distribution regardless of their topological charges, and thus they are extensively utilized in various applications, such as free-space optical communication, optical tweezers and laser processing. Herein, we report a new strategy [...] Read more.
Perfect vortex beams (PVBs) possess the advantage of a stable light field distribution regardless of their topological charges, and thus they are extensively utilized in various applications, such as free-space optical communication, optical tweezers and laser processing. Herein, we report a new strategy to generate and modulate PVBs using coherent beam combining (CBC) technology. Both piston phase and tilting phase controlling methods have been successfully employed, and the corresponding properties of the generated PVBs have been fully investigated. Moreover, the number and position of the gaps in fractional perfect vortex beams (FPVBs) could be precisely controlled, and the relationships between these modulated parameters and the performance of FPVBs are uncovered. These simulation analysis results demonstrate the potential for flexible modulation of PVBs or FPVBs in the CBC system, indicating promising prospects for coherent beam arrays (CBAs) in laser beam shaping and achieving high-power structured light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Laser Beams)
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19 pages, 8900 KiB  
Article
Coherent Raman Scattering Spectral Shapes in a Strong Excitation Regime (Model Calculations)
by Georgi B. Hadjichristov
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040384 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The influence of the interference between coherent processes in third-order nonlinear Raman scattering on the spectral shapes of Raman-scattered light waves is numerically modeled and discussed in the cases of commonly used coherent Raman spectroscopy techniques. The effects on the lineshapes depending on [...] Read more.
The influence of the interference between coherent processes in third-order nonlinear Raman scattering on the spectral shapes of Raman-scattered light waves is numerically modeled and discussed in the cases of commonly used coherent Raman spectroscopy techniques. The effects on the lineshapes depending on the laser intensity are analyzed for the coherent Raman spectroscopy performed via the excitation of molecular systems with focused laser pulses at high intensities. In this case, the interplay between the coherent processes in nonlinear Raman scattering, as well as laser power-induced resonance effects, may be significant and should be taken into account in the spectral lineshape analysis in coherent Raman spectroscopy and its related applications, since the coherent Raman spectra may be considerably modified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nonlinear Optics: From Fundamentals to Applications)
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14 pages, 4597 KiB  
Article
Simulation Analysis of an Atmospheric Turbulence Wavefront Measurement System
by Gangyu Wang, Laian Qin, Yang Li, Yilun Cheng, Xu Jing, Gongye Chen and Zaihong Hou
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040383 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 642
Abstract
In this paper, a turbulent wavefront measurement model based on the Hartmann system structure is proposed. The maximum recognizable mode number of different lens units is discussed, and the influence of different lens array arrangements on the accuracy of turbulent wavefront reconstruction is [...] Read more.
In this paper, a turbulent wavefront measurement model based on the Hartmann system structure is proposed. The maximum recognizable mode number of different lens units is discussed, and the influence of different lens array arrangements on the accuracy of turbulent wavefront reconstruction is analyzed. The results indicate that the increase in the aberration order of the turbulent wavefront has a certain influence on the reconstruction ability of the system. Different lens arrangements and number of lens units will lead to the effective reconstruction of different final mode orders. When using a 5 × 5 lens array arrangement and a hexagonal arrangement of 19 lenses, the maximum order of turbulent wavefront aberrations allowing for effective reconstruction was 25. When the sparse arrangement of 25 lenses or the sparse arrangement of 31 lenses was used, the maximum order allowing for effective reconstruction was 36. If the aberration composition of the turbulent wavefront contained higher-order aberrations, the system could not accurately measure the turbulent wavefront. When the order of the aberrations of the turbulent wavefront was low, the turbulent wavefront could be measured by the lens arrangement with fewer lens units, and the wavefront reconstruction accuracy was close to the measurement results obtained when more lens units were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Imaging and Measurements)
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15 pages, 8946 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Aluminium Nitride-Based Coatings on Mild Steel Substrates Utilising an Integrated Laser/Sol–Gel Method
by Ogulcan Eren, Alhaji M. Kamara, Huseyin Kursad Sezer and Sundar Marimuthu
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040382 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The field of protective coatings for industrial applications is continuously evolving, driven by a need for materials that offer exceptional hardness, enhanced wear resistance, and low friction coefficients. Conventional methods of coating development, such as physical vapour deposition (PVD) and chemical vapour deposition [...] Read more.
The field of protective coatings for industrial applications is continuously evolving, driven by a need for materials that offer exceptional hardness, enhanced wear resistance, and low friction coefficients. Conventional methods of coating development, such as physical vapour deposition (PVD) and chemical vapour deposition (CVD), often face challenges like the necessity of vacuum conditions, slow growth rates, and weak substrate adhesion, leading to inadequate interface bonding. This study introduces a novel approach utilising an integrated laser/sol–gel method for synthesising aluminium nitride (AlN) coatings on EN43 mild steel substrates which overcomes these limitations. The technique employs a high-intensity diode laser with optimal power and translation speeds to consolidate a pre-applied thin layer of sol–gel slurry consisting of aluminium hydroxide, graphite, and urea on the substrate. Chemical thermodynamic calculations were used to predict the slurry composition, along with identifying the critical temperature range and the essential enthalpy needed for the synthesis of aluminium nitride. A three-dimensional heat transfer model was developed to predict the important process parameters, such as scanning speed and laser power density, required to achieve the temperature ranges necessary for a successful deposition process. Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to examine the surface morphology and microstructure of the coating. Elemental energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and an X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the synthesis of an aluminium nitride coating with a thickness ranging from 4 to 5 µm. Furthermore, the detection of sub-micron crystalline aluminium nitride structures yielding a metal matrix composite interlayer was indicative of strong metallurgical bonding. Microhardness testing indicated a hardness value of approximately 876 HV. The coated samples with the highest quality exhibited a surface roughness, Ra, ranging from 1.8 to 2.1 µm. Additionally, the coatings demonstrated an exceptionally low coefficient of friction, recorded at less than 0.1. These results represent a significant step forward in this field, offering a cost-effective, efficient, and scalable solution for producing high-quality coatings with superior performance characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing and Modification of Materials)
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20 pages, 6756 KiB  
Article
Optical Design of a Wavelength Selective Switch Utilizing a Waveguide Frontend with Beamsteering Capability
by Georgios Patsamanis, Dimitra Ketzaki, Dimitrios Chatzitheocharis and Konstantinos Vyrsokinos
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040381 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Wavelength selective switches (WSSs) are essential elements for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, as they offer cost-effective, high port-count and flexible spectral channel switching. This work proposes a new hybrid WSS architecture that leverages the beam shaping and steering features of uniform [...] Read more.
Wavelength selective switches (WSSs) are essential elements for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, as they offer cost-effective, high port-count and flexible spectral channel switching. This work proposes a new hybrid WSS architecture that leverages the beam shaping and steering features of uniform silicon nitride-based end-fire optical phased arrays (OPAs). By introducing beamforming to a WSS system, the spectral channels on the liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) panel can be tailored and arranged properly, depending on the optical configuration, using the beam control capabilities of OPAs. Combining 3D-FDTD and ray tracing simulations, the study shows that, by reducing the input beam dimensions with proper sizing of the OPAs, the WSS design with a null-steering OPA layout and 4 × No switch size features increased spectral resolution. This extensive beamforming study on the steering-enabled layout reveals the acquirement of an even higher input channel number, matching the 8 × No WSS scheme, with flexible channel routing on the LCoS panel. Such implementation of beamsteerers can unlock an extra degree of freedom for the switching capabilities of hybrid WSS devices. The results show great promise for the introduction of OPAs in WSS systems and provide valuable insight for the design of future wireless communication links and WDM systems. Full article
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15 pages, 4060 KiB  
Article
Sensitive Detection of Silicon in Aqua Phase by Microwave-Assisted Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
by Ali M. Alamri and Zeyad T. Alwahabi
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040380 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Microwave-assisted laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (MA-LIBS) was demonstrated to be an effective method for the quantitative detection of silicon in the aqua phase. Microwave radiation was transmitted into plasma using a near-field applicator device under ambient pressure and temperature conditions. Silicon detection was performed [...] Read more.
Microwave-assisted laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (MA-LIBS) was demonstrated to be an effective method for the quantitative detection of silicon in the aqua phase. Microwave radiation was transmitted into plasma using a near-field applicator device under ambient pressure and temperature conditions. Silicon detection was performed directly on the surface of a water jet. Two Si emission lines, 251.6 nm and 288.16 nm, were selected to evaluate the MA-LIBS enhancement and determine the limit of detection for silicon. The signal-to-noise ratio of the MA-LIBS spectra was investigated as a function of laser energy and microwave power. The calibration curve was established for Si quantitative analysis using 8 mJ of laser energy and 900 W of microwave power. The MA-LIBS recorded a 51-fold and 77-fold enhancement for Si I 251.6 nm and 288.16 nm, respectively. Reducing liquid splashes after laser ablation is essential to improving the quantitative analysis. Using MA-LIBS reduced the liquid splashes due to MA-LIBS using 8 mJ. The detection limit achieved was 1.25, a 16-fold improvement over traditional LIBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensitive Laser Spectroscopy)
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15 pages, 1209 KiB  
Review
Revisiting Poincaré Sphere and Pauli Algebra in Polarization Optics
by Tiberiu Tudor and Gabriel Voitcu
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040379 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 611
Abstract
We present one of the main lines of development of Poincaré sphere representation in polarization optics, by using largely some of our contributions in the field. We refer to the action of deterministic devices, specifically the diattenuators, on the partial polarized light. On [...] Read more.
We present one of the main lines of development of Poincaré sphere representation in polarization optics, by using largely some of our contributions in the field. We refer to the action of deterministic devices, specifically the diattenuators, on the partial polarized light. On one hand, we emphasize the intimate connection between the Pauli algebraic analysis and the Poincaré ball representation of this interaction. On the other hand, we bring to the foreground the close similarity between the law of composition of the Poincaré vectors of the diattenuator and of polarized light and the law of composition of relativistic admissible velocities. These two kinds of vectors are isomorphic, and they are “imprisoned” in a sphere of finite radius, standardizable at a radius of one, i.e., Poincaré sphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polarization Optics)
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12 pages, 4941 KiB  
Communication
Impact of Motion Characteristics of Airborne Platforms on the Performance of Space Laser Communication Links
by Xin Zhang, Shiming Gao, Zhi Liu, Qingfang Jiang, Lixin Meng, Helong Wang and Keyan Dong
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040378 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
When a platform carrying a space laser communication system moves through the atmosphere, the relative motion of the turret and the air produces fluctuations in the air density, which affects the beam propagation, and, hence, the laser communication performance. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
When a platform carrying a space laser communication system moves through the atmosphere, the relative motion of the turret and the air produces fluctuations in the air density, which affects the beam propagation, and, hence, the laser communication performance. In this paper, we propose a performance analysis method for the space laser communication link to the airborne platform. By employing this method, which is based on a flow field simulation, we are able to determine the laser link’s communication performance curves for various flying situations. At an altitude of 5 km and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 dB for the laser communication link, the bit error rate (BER) under a flight speed of 0.4 Mach is 5.1×104. With each 0.1 Mach increase in speed, the BER decreases by approximately 6×105. If the flight speed is 0.8 Mach and the flight altitude increases from 5 km to 10 km, the BER decreases from 7.26×104 to 1.89×104, but the system becomes more sensitive to changes in flight speed. Under the same flight altitude conditions, the beam spot on the downwind side is more affected by airflow, resulting in a general increase in the BER by approximately one order of magnitude, compared to the upwind side. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optoelectronics and Optical Materials)
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12 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
Agreement on Anterior Chamber Depth Measurement between Three Commercially Available Devices
by Veronica Noya-Padin, Hugo Pena-Verdeal, Jacobo Garcia-Queiruga, Irene Sampedro-Mariño, Maria Jesus Giraldez and Eva Yebra-Pimentel
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040377 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 616
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the agreement of three commercially available devices on the measurement of anterior chamber depth (ACD) with and without compensation by central corneal thickness measurement (CCT). Fifty eyes were included in an observational cross-sectional study. Participants underwent a [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess the agreement of three commercially available devices on the measurement of anterior chamber depth (ACD) with and without compensation by central corneal thickness measurement (CCT). Fifty eyes were included in an observational cross-sectional study. Participants underwent a single visit during which devices were used to obtain the inclusion/exclusion (ARK510A, Canon TX-10) and studied (VX-120, Lenstar LS900 and EchoScan US-800) parameters. Based on invasiveness, tests were always performed in the same order by one researcher (to avoid inter-observer variability) and only in the right eye (to avoid overstating the precision of estimates) in each participant. The keratometry, autorefraction, intraocular pressure and anterior chamber angle values were used as inclusion criteria, while the CCT and ACD values were used in the agreement analysis between devices. There was a general and a paired difference in ACD measurements between devices (Greenhouse–Geisser: p ≤ 0.001; Sidak: all p ≤ 0.001). No significant difference was found in ACD measurements compensated by CCT values between the devices (Greenhouse–Geisser: p = 0.200). Pairwise analysis showed a significant difference in VX-120 vs. Lenstar (Sidak: p = 0.021). The differences in ACD measurements compensated by CCT values between the devices were clinically acceptable. Consequently, using these instruments interchangeably in daily routines based on this correction is justified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Developments in Ocular Biometry)
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10 pages, 5339 KiB  
Communication
Time-Division Multiplexed Optical Covert Communication System Based on Gain-Switched Optical Pulses
by Dong Liu, Yongliang Yin, Mingyu Cui, Zhanqi Liu and Huatao Zhu
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040376 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
In optical covert communication systems based on gain-switched distributed feedback semiconductor lasers, the trade-off between the modulation frequency and the spectral imperceptibility limits the bit rate of the secure channel. To improve the system performance in terms of the bit rate and covertness, [...] Read more.
In optical covert communication systems based on gain-switched distributed feedback semiconductor lasers, the trade-off between the modulation frequency and the spectral imperceptibility limits the bit rate of the secure channel. To improve the system performance in terms of the bit rate and covertness, optical time-division multiplexing is introduced to optical covert communication for the first time. The optical time-division multiplexed covert channel can work under both multiple-user and single-user conditions. The optical time-division multiplexed covert communication system is demonstrated via a system simulation. The results show that the covertness is enhanced by the optical time-division multiplexing in the spectral domain. The receiver sensitivity of the multiple-user condition is lower than the single-user one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Communication and Network)
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10 pages, 2215 KiB  
Article
Damascene Process Development for Low-Loss Photonics Devices with Applications in Frequency Comb
by Qiaoling Zhou, Yejia Jin, Shaonan Zheng, Xingyan Zhao, Yang Qiu, Lianxi Jia, Yuan Dong, Qize Zhong and Ting Hu
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040375 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Silicon nitride (SiN) is emerging as a material of choice for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) due to its ultralow optical losses, absence of two-photon absorption in telecommunication bands, strong Kerr nonlinearity and high-power handling capability. These properties make SiN particularly well-suited for applications [...] Read more.
Silicon nitride (SiN) is emerging as a material of choice for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) due to its ultralow optical losses, absence of two-photon absorption in telecommunication bands, strong Kerr nonlinearity and high-power handling capability. These properties make SiN particularly well-suited for applications such as delay lines, chip-scale frequency combs and narrow-linewidth lasers, especially when implemented with thick SiN waveguides, which is achieved through low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). However, a significant challenge arises when the LPCVD SiN film thickness exceeds 300 nm on an 8-inch wafer, as this can result in cracking due to high stress. In this work, we successfully develop a damascene process to fabricate 800 nm-thick SiN photonics devices on an 8-inch wafer in a pilot line, overcoming cracking challenges. The resulting 2 × 2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler exhibits low excess loss (−0.1 dB) and imbalance (0.06 dB) at the wavelength of 1310 nm. Furthermore, the dispersion-engineered SiN micro-ring resonator exhibits a quality (Q) factor exceeding 1 × 106, enabling the generation of optical frequency combs. Our demonstration of photonics devices utilizing the photonics damascene process sets the stage for high-volume manufacturing and widespread deployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optoelectronics and Optical Materials)
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23 pages, 2057 KiB  
Article
Specific and Simultaneous Detection of E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga-like Toxins Using a Label-Free Photonic Immunosensor
by Ana Fernández, Manuel Hernández, Yolanda Moreno and Jorge García-Hernández
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040374 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 707
Abstract
The current study outlines the advancement of an innovative technique for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7 and its Shiga-like toxins in food samples by utilizing a photonic label-free biosensor coupled with a microfluidic system. This detection method relies on ring resonator [...] Read more.
The current study outlines the advancement of an innovative technique for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7 and its Shiga-like toxins in food samples by utilizing a photonic label-free biosensor coupled with a microfluidic system. This detection method relies on ring resonator transduction that is functionalized with specific bioreceptors against O157:H7 on silicon nitride surfaces capable of binding specifically to the antigen bacterium and its verotoxins. This experiment included the characterization of selected monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies employed as detection probes through ELISA immunoassays exposed to target bacterial antigens. A thorough validation of photonic immunosensor detection was conducted on inoculated minced beef samples using reference standards for E. coli O157:H7 and its verotoxins (VTx1 and VTx2) and compared to gold-standard quantification. The lowest limit-of-detection values of 10 CFU/mL and 1 ppm were achieved for the detection of bacteria and its verotoxins. In this study, the lowest limit of quantification (LoQ) achieved for bacterial quantification was 100 CFU/mL, and, for verotoxins, it was 2 ppm. This study confirmed the effectiveness of a new quality control and food hygiene method, demonstrating the rapid and sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 and its verotoxins. This innovative approach has the potential to be applied in food production environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Editorial Board Members’ Collection Series: Photonics Sensors)
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8 pages, 3592 KiB  
Communication
Study of Optical Rogue Waves in Two-Dimensional Disordered Lattices
by Jie Song, Meng Li, Fuqiang Li, Ying Wang, Ziyang Chen and Cibo Lou
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040373 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 549
Abstract
We probed the impact of both the degree of disorder and nonlinearity on rogue waves (RWs) in two-dimensional disordered lattices. Our results unveiled that an increase in the disorder level under linear conditions heightened the probability of RW occurrence and simultaneously contracted the [...] Read more.
We probed the impact of both the degree of disorder and nonlinearity on rogue waves (RWs) in two-dimensional disordered lattices. Our results unveiled that an increase in the disorder level under linear conditions heightened the probability of RW occurrence and simultaneously contracted the “long tail”. Interestingly, with the introduction of nonlinearity, this “long tail” became shorter compared with linear conditions. Nevertheless, in the context of disordered media, RW occurrence probability demonstrated relative stability—a distinct deviation from its conduct within homogeneous media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Optics and Hyperspectral Polarization Imaging)
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11 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Structural, Mechanical, and Optoelectronic Properties of CH3NH3PbI3 as a Photoactive Layer in Perovskite Solar Cell
by Elkana K. Rugut, Nnditshedzeni E. Maluta, Regina R. Maphanga, Refilwe E. Mapasha and Joseph K. Kirui
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040372 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The structural, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties of pseudo-cubic CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite have been studied within the framework of density functional theory, in line with solar cell applications. The computed values of lattice and elastic constants concurred with the [...] Read more.
The structural, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties of pseudo-cubic CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite have been studied within the framework of density functional theory, in line with solar cell applications. The computed values of lattice and elastic constants concurred with the available theoretical and experimental data. This compound has a semi-conducting behavior, with a direct band gap of about 1.49 eV. Note that the solar radiation spectrum has a maximum energy intensity value of approximately 1.50 eV. Thus, semiconductors with such gaps are preferred for photovoltaic applications. Its elastic parameters reveal that it is a ductile material that is mechanically stable. Optical descriptors such as refractive index, reflectivity, extinction, energy loss, and absorption have been explored with the aim of establishing the optical features of the material. Our findings demonstrate that this perovskite is suitable for solar cell applications based on the size and nature of the band gap, as also supported by the obtained upper limit value of simulated power conversion efficiency via the spectroscopic limited maximum efficiency mathematical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optoelectronics and Optical Materials)
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13 pages, 955 KiB  
Article
Effects of Squeezing on the Power Broadening and Shifts of Micromaser Lineshapes
by Leonardi Hernández-Sánchez, Irán Ramos-Prieto, Francisco Soto-Eguibar and Héctor Manuel Moya-Cessa
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040371 - 16 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 648
Abstract
AC Stark shifts have an impact on the dynamics of atoms interacting with a near-resonant quantized single-mode cavity field, which is relevant to a single atom micromaser. In this study, we demonstrate that, when the field is in a squeezed coherent state, atomic [...] Read more.
AC Stark shifts have an impact on the dynamics of atoms interacting with a near-resonant quantized single-mode cavity field, which is relevant to a single atom micromaser. In this study, we demonstrate that, when the field is in a squeezed coherent state, atomic lineshapes are highly sensitive to the squeezing parameter. Furthermore, we show that, when considering a superposition of squeezed coherent states with equal amplitude, the displacement of the transition lines depends significantly, not only on the squeezing parameter, but also on its sign. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Future Perspectives in Solid-State Lasers)
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48 pages, 12097 KiB  
Review
Role of Pyramidal Low-Dimensional Semiconductors in Advancing the Field of Optoelectronics
by Ao Jiang, Shibo Xing, Haowei Lin, Qing Chen and Mingxuan Li
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040370 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Numerous optoelectronic devices based on low-dimensional nanostructures have been developed in recent years. Among these, pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors (zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials) have been favored in the field of optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss in detail the structures, preparation methods, band structures, [...] Read more.
Numerous optoelectronic devices based on low-dimensional nanostructures have been developed in recent years. Among these, pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors (zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials) have been favored in the field of optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss in detail the structures, preparation methods, band structures, electronic properties, and optoelectronic applications (photocatalysis, photoelectric detection, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and optical quantum information processing) of pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors and demonstrate their excellent photoelectric performances. More specifically, pyramidal semiconductor quantum dots (PSQDs) possess higher mobilities and longer lifetimes, which would be more suitable for photovoltaic devices requiring fast carrier transport. In addition, the linear polarization direction of exciton emission is easily controlled via the direction of magnetic field in PSQDs with C3v symmetry, so that all-optical multi-qubit gates based on electron spin as a quantum bit could be realized. Therefore, the use of PSQDs (e.g., InAs, GaN, InGaAs, and InGaN) as effective candidates for constructing optical quantum devices is examined due to the growing interest in optical quantum information processing. Pyramidal semiconductor nanorods (PSNRs) and pyramidal semiconductor nanowires (PSNWRs) also exhibit the more efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and strong light absorption effects, which are expected to be widely utilized in light-receiving devices. Finally, this review concludes with a summary of the current problems and suggestions for potential future research directions in the context of pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optoelectronics and Optical Materials)
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13 pages, 414 KiB  
Article
Dissipation-Induced Photon Blockade in the Anti-Jaynes–Cummings Model
by Biao Huang, Cuicui Li, Bixuan Fan and Zhenglu Duan
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040369 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Due to the fundamental differences between the quantum world and the classical world, some phenomena, such as entanglement and wave–particle duality, only exist in the quantum realm. These peculiar phenomena cannot be demonstrated by classical means: Quantum networks, quantum cryptography, and quantum precision [...] Read more.
Due to the fundamental differences between the quantum world and the classical world, some phenomena, such as entanglement and wave–particle duality, only exist in the quantum realm. These peculiar phenomena cannot be demonstrated by classical means: Quantum networks, quantum cryptography, and quantum precision measurements all require quantum sources. Photons are particularly well-suited as quantum sources owing to their minimal interaction with the environment, high flight speed, and ease of interaction with current typical quantum systems. Single-photon sources include pulsed excitation of quantum dots, spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and photon blockade. Herein, we propose that the anti-Jaynes–Cummings model can induce a pronounced photon antibunching effect when subjected to intense cavity dissipation. Similar to the photon blockade caused by strong photon–photon interaction, this antibunching effect is referred to as ’dissipation-induced blockade’. Our findings indicate that the minimum decay rate of a qubit, coupled with a high decay rate for photons, is conducive to achieving strong antibunching within the system. Notably, g(2)(0)<g(2)(τ), a characteristic of photon antibunching, is only valid under the optimal condition Δ=0. Conversely, g(2)(0)<1 is satisfied across all parameters, indicating that g(2)(0)<1 is not a prerequisite for antibunching in the anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. Moreover, under the optimal conditions of the antibunching effect, the average photon number attains its peak value. Consequently, the current anti-Jaynes–Cummings model is promising for developing single-photon sources characterized by excellent purity and average photon number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Quantum System)
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21 pages, 6842 KiB  
Article
A 930 m/180 Gbps*User Underwater Coherent Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access Network Based on Hybrid 256-Differential Pulse Position Modulation and Weighted Modified Prime Code Sequence
by Morsy Ahmed Morsy Ismail and Khalid Saleh
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040368 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Currently, there are three types of optical communication networks based on the communication channel between the transmitter and receiver: the optical fiber channel, visible light channel, and optical wireless channel networks. The last type has several advantages for underwater communication, wireless sensors, and [...] Read more.
Currently, there are three types of optical communication networks based on the communication channel between the transmitter and receiver: the optical fiber channel, visible light channel, and optical wireless channel networks. The last type has several advantages for underwater communication, wireless sensors, and military communication networks. However, this type of optical network suffers from weather conditions in free-space communications and attenuation owing to the scattering and absorption mechanisms for underwater communication. In this study, we present a new transceiver architecture of a coherent optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system based on a hybrid M-ary differential pulse position modulation scheme and a spreading code sequence called weighted modified prime code for underwater communication to minimize channel dispersion, increase the transmission rate per second, enhance the network bit error rate (BER) performance, and improve network security. Using an OCDMA system, we can simultaneously expand the network coverage area and increase the number of users sharing the network over the same channel bandwidth. The simulation results in this study proved that the proposed system can accommodate 1310 active users and a network throughput of 180 Gbps*user over a transmission distance of 930 m without any repeater at a 10−9 BER performance, compared to the 45 Gbps*user network throughput and 100 m transmission distance reported in the literature. Full article
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19 pages, 5108 KiB  
Article
Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in the Terahertz Band
by Haoxin Liu, Zhe Yang, Shuoyu Yang, Dongyun Sun and Cunlin Zhang
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040367 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
We have introduced, for the first time, a protocol for Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) in the terahertz (THz) frequency band. We have conducted a secret key rate analysis against collective attacks. The proposed THz CV-MDI-QKD is immune to all detector attacks, [...] Read more.
We have introduced, for the first time, a protocol for Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) in the terahertz (THz) frequency band. We have conducted a secret key rate analysis against collective attacks. The proposed THz CV-MDI-QKD is immune to all detector attacks, significantly enhancing the security assurance of practical THz CVQKD implementations. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of finite key length (the finite-size effect) and finite reconciliation efficiency on the performance of practical THz CV-MDI-QKD systems. Our findings reveal that by employing a large number of keys or signals and optimizing the modulation variance, the detrimental effects arising from the finite-size effect and suboptimal reconciliation efficiency can be notably mitigated. These insights play a crucial role in advancing the feasibility of THz CVQKD technology towards practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quantum Photonics and Technologies)
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9 pages, 3435 KiB  
Communication
Weak Faraday Effect Measurement in Anti-Resonant Fiber Based on Intermodal Interference Suppression
by Zhiyong Guo, Haoqi Du, Yuhao Lin and Zhangjun Yu
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040366 - 14 Apr 2024
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Anti-resonant fiber (ARF) works well in a relatively strong magnetic field due to its weak Faraday effect, which results from the fundamental mode mainly transmitting in the air core. Accurately measuring the Faraday effect strength, i.e., the effective Verdet constant, of an ARF [...] Read more.
Anti-resonant fiber (ARF) works well in a relatively strong magnetic field due to its weak Faraday effect, which results from the fundamental mode mainly transmitting in the air core. Accurately measuring the Faraday effect strength, i.e., the effective Verdet constant, of an ARF determines its applicable scenarios. However, the effective Verdet constant of ARF is ~3 orders of magnitude lower than that of a standard single-mode fiber, which is very difficult to measure. In this paper, we reveal that intermodal interference is the main obstacle to measuring the ultralow effective Verdet constant of ARF and propose using a narrow-band low-coherence light to suppress it. The measured effective Verdet constant of ARF is 0.423 ± 0.005 mrad/T/m at 1550 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Lasers and Fiber Sensors)
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13 pages, 2123 KiB  
Review
Review of High-Power Continuous Wave Yb-Doped Fiber Lasers near 980 nm
by Shangde Zhou, Jianqiu Cao, Maoni Chen, Zefeng Wang, Lei Si and Jinbao Chen
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040365 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
In this paper, the development of a high-power continuous wave (CW) fiber laser near 980 nm is reviewed. This review is focused primary on the power evolution resulting from the designation of Yb-doped fibers, which is important in the suppression of the amplified [...] Read more.
In this paper, the development of a high-power continuous wave (CW) fiber laser near 980 nm is reviewed. This review is focused primary on the power evolution resulting from the designation of Yb-doped fibers, which is important in the suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) around 1030 nm. Current studies on the in-band ASE as the power limitation of the Yb-doped fiber lasers near 980 nm are also summarized in this review. Full article
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13 pages, 8262 KiB  
Article
High-Efficiency Dynamic Three-Dimensional Topography Measurement Using the Phase Shift Generation Method
by Qinyuan Deng, Yangyi Liu, Fashi Zhu, Jie Hou, Fei Xiong and Yan Zhang
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040364 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 536
Abstract
In the fringe projection profilometry (FPP), the traditional phase-shifting (TPS) algorithm and the Fourier transform (FT) algorithm are beset with a conundrum where measurement efficiency and conflicts with measurement accuracy, thereby limiting their application in dynamic three-dimensional (3D) measurements. Here, we propose a [...] Read more.
In the fringe projection profilometry (FPP), the traditional phase-shifting (TPS) algorithm and the Fourier transform (FT) algorithm are beset with a conundrum where measurement efficiency and conflicts with measurement accuracy, thereby limiting their application in dynamic three-dimensional (3D) measurements. Here, we propose a phase shift generation (PSG) method, which acquires the sinusoidal fringes by sparse sampling and reconstructs the complete phase-shifting sequence by generating the missing fringes with superimposed coupling of adjacent fringes. According to our proposed PSG method in which the sinusoidal fringe sequence size is about half of the TPS method, meaning that the PSG method will be timesaving in the phase-shifting sequence sampling process. Moreover, because of the utilization of multiframe fringes, our PSG method allows for a more accurate measurement than the FT method. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed PSG method can well balance the measurement accuracy and efficiency with a lower sampling rate, bearing a great potential to be applied in both scientific and industrial areas. Full article
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11 pages, 3336 KiB  
Article
A Micro-Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Temperature Sensing Design Based on a Single Mode–Coreless–Multimode–Coreless–Single Mode Fiber Cascaded Structure
by Qing Yang, Jing Tian, Xiao Hu, Jiajun Tian and Qiqi He
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040363 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 651
Abstract
In this paper, a temperature sensing scheme with a miniature MZI structure based on the principle of inter-mode interference is proposed. The sensing structure mainly comprises single mode–coreless–multimode–coreless–single mode fibers (SCMCSs), which have been welded together, with different core diameters. The light beam [...] Read more.
In this paper, a temperature sensing scheme with a miniature MZI structure based on the principle of inter-mode interference is proposed. The sensing structure mainly comprises single mode–coreless–multimode–coreless–single mode fibers (SCMCSs), which have been welded together, with different core diameters. The light beam has been expanded after passing through the coreless optical fiber and is then coupled into a multimode optical fiber. Due to the light passing through the cladding and core mode of the multimode optical fiber with different optical paths, a Mach–Zehnder interferometer is formed. Moreover, due to the thermo-optic and thermal expansion effects of optical fibers, the inter-mode interference spectrum of a multimode fiber shifts when the external temperature changes. Through theoretical analysis, it is found that the change in the length of the sensing fiber during temperature detection has less of an effect on the sensitivity of the sensing structure. During the experiment, temperature changes between 20 and 100 °C are measured at sensing fiber lengths of 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm, 3.0 cm, 3.5 cm, and 4.0 cm, respectively, and the corresponding sensitivities are 65.98 pm/°C, 72.70 pm/°C, 67.75 pm/°C, 66.63 pm/°C, 74.80 pm/°C, and 72.07 pm/°C, respectively. All the corresponding correlation coefficients are above 0.9965. The experimental results indicate that in the case of a significant change in the length of the sensing fiber, the sensitivity of the sensing structure changes slightly, which is consistent with the theory that the temperature sensitivity is minimally affected by a change in the length of the sensing fiber. Therefore, the effect of the length on sensitivity in a cascade-based fiber structure is well solved. The sensing scheme has an extensive detection range, small size, good linearity, simple structure, low cost, and high sensitivity. It has a good development prospect in some detection-related application fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lasers, Light Sources and Sensors)
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9 pages, 4338 KiB  
Communication
A CsPbI3/PCBM Phototransistor with Low Dark Current by Suppressing Ion Migration
by Chenbo Huang, Yichao Yang, Yujie Li, Shijie Jiang, Lurong Yang, Ruixiao Li and Xiaojian She
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040362 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Perovskite-based metal oxide phototransistors have emerged as promising photodetection devices owing to the superior optoelectronic properties of perovskite materials and the high carrier mobility of metal oxides. However, high dark current has been one major problem for this type of device. Here, we [...] Read more.
Perovskite-based metal oxide phototransistors have emerged as promising photodetection devices owing to the superior optoelectronic properties of perovskite materials and the high carrier mobility of metal oxides. However, high dark current has been one major problem for this type of device. Here, we studied the dark current behaviors of phototransistors fabricated based on the Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO) channel and different perovskite materials. We found that depositing organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites materials (MAPbI3/FAPbI3/FA0.2MA0.8PbI3) on top of IGZO transistor can increase dark current from ~10−6 mA to 1~10 mA. By contrast, we observed depositing an inorganic perovskite material, CsPbI3, incorporated with PCBM additive can suppress the dark current down to ~10−6 mA. Our study of ion migration reveals that ion migration is pronounced in organic–inorganic perovskite films but is suppressed in CsPbI3, particularly in CsPbI3 mixed with PCBM additive. This study shows that ion migration suppression by the exclusion of organic halide and the incorporation of PCBM additive can benefit low dark current in perovskite phototransistors. Full article
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12 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Ghost Imaging Based on 2D-Haar Wavelets
by Zhuo Yu, Xiaoqian Wang, Chao Gao, Huan Zhao, Hong Wang and Zhihai Yao
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040361 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
To improve the imaging speed of ghost imaging and ensure the accuracy of the images, an adaptive ghost imaging scheme based on 2D-Haar wavelets has been proposed. This scheme is capable of significantly retaining image information even under under-sampling conditions. By comparing the [...] Read more.
To improve the imaging speed of ghost imaging and ensure the accuracy of the images, an adaptive ghost imaging scheme based on 2D-Haar wavelets has been proposed. This scheme is capable of significantly retaining image information even under under-sampling conditions. By comparing the differences in light intensity distribution and sampling characteristics between Hadamard and 2D-Haar wavelet illumination patterns, we discovered that the lateral and longitudinal information detected by the high-frequency 2D-Haar wavelet measurement basis could be used to predictively adjust the diagonal measurement basis, thereby reducing the number of measurements required. Simulation and experimental results indicate that this scheme can still achieve high-quality imaging results with about a 25% reduction in the number of measurements. This approach provides a new perspective for enhancing the efficiency of computational ghost imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Imaging: Progress and Challenges)
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11 pages, 3819 KiB  
Article
Switchable Dual-Wavelength Thulium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Bragg Grating and Compound Cavity Filter
by Xiangdong Wang, Fengping Yan, Hao Guo, Wei Wang, Dandan Yang, Pengfei Wang, Ting Li, Chenhao Yu, Kazuo Kumamoto and Yuping Suo
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040360 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 678
Abstract
This paper presents experimental evidence regarding a novel switchable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL). Wavelength switching is achieved by combining a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) with a polarization controller (PC). The three-coupler double-ring compound cavity (TC-DRC) structure, acting as a mode-selection filter, [...] Read more.
This paper presents experimental evidence regarding a novel switchable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL). Wavelength switching is achieved by combining a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) with a polarization controller (PC). The three-coupler double-ring compound cavity (TC-DRC) structure, acting as a mode-selection filter, is designed to select a single longitudinal mode (SLM) from the dense longitudinal modes. This paper introduces the design and fabrication method of the TC-DRC filter and analyzes, in detail, the mechanism for SLM selection. The experimental results demonstrate that the designed filter exhibits excellent performance. By adjusting the PC, the TDFL achieves stable SLM operation at the wavelengths of 1940.54 nm and 1941.06 nm, respectively. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is superior to 65 dB. When the TDFL is tested at room temperature, there is no significant wavelength drift, and power fluctuations are less than 1.5 dB. The operation of the SLM is verified through the self-heterodyne method, and the laser maintains stable SLM states for both wavelengths after continuous operation for an hour. Furthermore, based on the phase noise demodulation method, the linewidths of both wavelengths are measured to be less than 10 kHz at the integration time of 0.001 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single Frequency Fiber Lasers and Their Applications)
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