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Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Flavours and Fragrances".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 29824

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Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: food chemistry; wine quality and safety; Maillard reaction; melanoidins; nutraceuticals including gluten detoxification for celiac patients; phenolic compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: food science and technology; winemaking; alcoholic beverages; grapes; wine; wine stability; wine quality; wine aging; wine safety; fining; phenolic compounds; proteins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: food chemistry; oenology; analytical methods; winemaking; wine stability; phenolic compounds; aroma compounds; sensory analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine is highly appreciated for its distinctive sensory characteristics, including its colour, aroma, and taste. However, unwanted microbiological activity, unbalanced concentrations of certain compounds resulting from unbalanced grape chemical compositions, and inadequate winemaking practices and storage conditions can result in the appearance of sensory defects that result in a significant decrease in wine quality. Wine stabilisation refers to removal and prevention strategies and treatments that limit visual, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile wine defects, as well as increase wine safety and stability through fining and the application of different operations carried out in wineries (filtration, pasteurisation, electrodialysis and cold stabilisation) and the use of emerging technologies (electron-beam irradiation, high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light). Although the prevention of wine defects is the best strategy, they are sometimes difficult to avoid; therefore, when present, several fining agents or additives and technologies are available or being developed with different performances regarding their impact on wine quality. Future trends in this field involve the use of more sustainable and environmentally friendly fining agents and technologies, and the development of treatments with better performance and specificity.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish a compilation of original research and reviews that cover different aspects of wine sensory faults, their origin, prevention, and removal, and their impact on wine sensory quality.

Important aspects to be addressed are:

- Origins of the wine sensory faults;

- Impact of the wine faults on wine quality and safety;

- Prevention of wine faults either by viticultural or enological practices;

- The performance of available fining agents and new potential fining agents for the removal of wine defects, their selectivity, and impact on wine quality;

- Methods to estimate wine stability;

Original and review papers dealing with all aspects of wine sensory faults are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Molecules.

Prof. Dr. Fernando M. Nunes
Prof. Dr. Fernanda Cosme
Prof. Dr. Luís Filipe-Ribeiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wine sensory quality
  • wine faults
  • chemical and microbiological origin
  • fining agents
  • technological solution to improve wine stability
  • wine stability
  • wine stability tests

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 705 KiB  
Article
Air-Depleted and Solvent-Impregnated Cork Powder as a New Natural and Sustainable Fining Agent for Removal of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA) from Red Wines
by Fernanda Cosme, Sara Gomes, Alice Vilela, Luís Filipe-Ribeiro and Fernando M. Nunes
Molecules 2022, 27(14), 4614; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144614 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Trichloroanisole (TCA) in wine results in a sensory defect called “cork taint”, a significant problem for the wine industry. Wines can become contaminated by TCA absorption from the atmosphere through contaminated wood barrels, cork stoppers, and wood pallets. Air-depleted solvent-impregnated (ADSI) cork powder [...] Read more.
Trichloroanisole (TCA) in wine results in a sensory defect called “cork taint”, a significant problem for the wine industry. Wines can become contaminated by TCA absorption from the atmosphere through contaminated wood barrels, cork stoppers, and wood pallets. Air-depleted solvent-impregnated (ADSI) cork powder (CP) was used to mitigate TCA in wines. The ADSI CP (0.25 g/L) removed 91% of TCA (6 ng/L levels), resulting in an olfactory activity value of 0.14. A Freundlich isotherm described ADSI CP TCA adsorption with irreversible adsorption and a KF = 33.37. ADSI CP application had no significant impact on the phenolic profile and chromatic characteristics of red wine. Using headspace sampling with re-equilibration, an average reduction in the volatile abundance of 29 ± 15%, 31 ± 19%, and 37 ± 24% was observed for the 0.10, 0.25, and 0.50 g/L ADSI CP, respectively. The alkyl esters and acids were the most affected. The impact observed was much lower when using headspace sampling without re-equilibration. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl decanoate abundances were not significantly different from the control wine and 0.25 g/L ADSI CP application. Thus, ADSI CP can be a new sustainable fining agent to remove this “off-flavor” from wine, with a reduced impact on the wine characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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14 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Comparison of a Rapid Light-Induced and Forced Test to Study the Oxidative Stability of White Wines
by Emilio Celotti, Georgios Lazaridis, Jakob Figelj, Yuri Scutaru and Andrea Natolino
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010326 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
The oxidation processes of white wines can occur during storage and commercialization due to several factors, and these can negatively affect the color, aroma, and quality of the wine. Wineries should have faster and simpler methods that provide valuable information on oxidation stability [...] Read more.
The oxidation processes of white wines can occur during storage and commercialization due to several factors, and these can negatively affect the color, aroma, and quality of the wine. Wineries should have faster and simpler methods that provide valuable information on oxidation stability of wines and allow fast decision-making procedures, able to trigger suitable technological interventions. Using a portable prototype instrument for light irradiations at different wavelengths and times was considered and evaluated on sensorial, spectrophotometric, and colorimetric parameters of white wines. The sensorial analysis revealed that white and light blue were the most significant, after only 1 h of irradiation. The experimental results showed that hydrogen peroxide could enhance the effect of light treatment, allowing a contemporary evaluation of the oxidation stability of wine against light and chemical stresses. As expected, a good correlation (R2 > 0.89) between optical density at 420 nm and b* parameter was highlighted. The synergic effect of light and H2O2 was also studied on the hydrolyzable and condensed tannins’ additions to white wine. The proposed methodology could be used to evaluate the oxidative stability of white wines, but also to evaluate the effect of some oenological adjuvants on wine stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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20 pages, 1298 KiB  
Article
Light-Struck Taste in White Wine: Protective Role of Glutathione, Sulfur Dioxide and Hydrolysable Tannins
by Daniela Fracassetti, Sara Limbo, Natalia Messina, Luisa Pellegrino and Antonio Tirelli
Molecules 2021, 26(17), 5297; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175297 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Light exposure of white wine can cause a light-struck taste (LST), a fault induced by riboflavin (RF) and methionine (Met) leading to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). The study aimed to investigate the impact [...] Read more.
Light exposure of white wine can cause a light-struck taste (LST), a fault induced by riboflavin (RF) and methionine (Met) leading to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). The study aimed to investigate the impact of different antioxidants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO2), glutathione (GSH) and chestnut tannins (CT), on preventing LST in model wine (MW) and white wine (WW), both containing RF and Met. Both MW and WW samples were added with the antioxidants, either individually or in different combinations, prior to 2-h light exposure and they were stored in the dark for 24 months. As expected, the light induced the degradation of RF in all the conditions assayed. Met also decreased depending on the antioxidants added. The presence of antioxidants limited the formation of LST as lower concentrations of VSCs were found in both MW and WW samples. In the latter matrix, neither MeSH nor DMDS were detected in the presence of CT, while only DMDS was found in WW+GSH, WW+SO2+GSH and WW+CT+SO2 samples at a concentration lower than the perception thresholds. Considering the antioxidants individually, the order of their effectiveness was CT ≥ GSH > SO2 in WW under the adopted experimental conditions. The results indicate tannins as an effective enological tool for preventing LST in white wine and their use will be further investigated in different white wines under industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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22 pages, 2819 KiB  
Article
Aromatic Higher Alcohols in Wine: Implication on Aroma and Palate Attributes during Chardonnay Aging
by Antonio G. Cordente, Damian Espinase Nandorfy, Mark Solomon, Alex Schulkin, Radka Kolouchova, Ian Leigh Francis and Simon A. Schmidt
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4979; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164979 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3345
Abstract
The higher alcohols 2-phenylethanol, tryptophol, and tyrosol are a group of yeast-derived compounds that have been shown to affect the aroma and flavour of fermented beverages. Five variants of the industrial wine strain AWRI796, previously isolated due to their elevated production of the [...] Read more.
The higher alcohols 2-phenylethanol, tryptophol, and tyrosol are a group of yeast-derived compounds that have been shown to affect the aroma and flavour of fermented beverages. Five variants of the industrial wine strain AWRI796, previously isolated due to their elevated production of the ‘rose-like aroma’ compound 2-phenylethanol, were characterised during pilot-scale fermentation of a Chardonnay juice. We show that these variants not only increase the concentration of 2-phenylethanol but also modulate the formation of the higher alcohols tryptophol, tyrosol, and methionol, as well as other volatile sulfur compounds derived from methionine, highlighting the connections between yeast nitrogen and sulfur metabolism during fermentation. We also investigate the development of these compounds during wine storage, focusing on the sulfonation of tryptophol. Finally, the sensory properties of wines produced using these strains were quantified at two time points, unravelling differences produced by biologically modulating higher alcohols and the dynamic changes in wine flavour over aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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13 pages, 1182 KiB  
Article
Commercial Mannoproteins Improve the Mouthfeel and Colour of Wines Obtained by Excessive Tannin Extraction
by Alessandra Rinaldi, Alliette Gonzalez, Luigi Moio and Angelita Gambuti
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4133; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144133 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
In the production of red wines, the pressing of marcs and extended maceration techniques can increase the extraction of phenolic compounds, often imparting high bitterness and astringency to finished wines. Among various oenological products, mannoproteins have been shown to improve the mouthfeel of [...] Read more.
In the production of red wines, the pressing of marcs and extended maceration techniques can increase the extraction of phenolic compounds, often imparting high bitterness and astringency to finished wines. Among various oenological products, mannoproteins have been shown to improve the mouthfeel of red wines. In this work, extended maceration (E), marc-pressed (P), and free-run (F) Sangiovese wines were aged for six months in contact with three different commercial mannoprotein-rich yeast extracts (MP, MS, and MF) at a concentration of 20 g/hL. Phenolic compounds were measured in treated and control wines, and sensory characteristics related to the astringency, aroma, and colour of the wines were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed that mannoproteins had a different effect depending on the anthocyanin/tannin (A/T) ratio of the wine. When tannins are strongly present (extended maceration wines with A/T = 0.2), the MP conferred mouthcoating and soft and velvety sensations, as well as colour stability to the wine. At A/T = 0.3, as in marc-pressed wines, both MF and MP improved the mouthfeel and colour of Sangiovese. However, in free-run wine, where the A/T ratio is 0.5, the formation of polymeric pigments was allowed by all treatments and correlated with silk, velvet, and mouthcoat subqualities. A decrease in bitterness was also obtained. Commercial mannoproteins may represent a way to improve the mouthfeel and colour of very tannic wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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13 pages, 479 KiB  
Article
The Management of Dissolved Oxygen by a Polypropylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor Affects Wine Aging
by Francesco Errichiello, Luigi Picariello, Antonio Guerriero, Luigi Moio, Martino Forino and Angelita Gambuti
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123593 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
Background: Numerous oenological practices can cause an excess of dissolved oxygen in wine, thus determining sensory and chromatic defects in the short- to long-term. Hence, it is necessary to manage the excess of oxygen before bottling. Methods: In this study, the management of [...] Read more.
Background: Numerous oenological practices can cause an excess of dissolved oxygen in wine, thus determining sensory and chromatic defects in the short- to long-term. Hence, it is necessary to manage the excess of oxygen before bottling. Methods: In this study, the management of the dissolved oxygen content by a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor apparatus was performed in two wines from different grape varieties (Aglianico and Falanghina). The wines were analyzed after an 11-month aging. Anthocyanins and acetaldehyde content were evaluated by HPLC. In addition, other phenolic compounds and chromatic characteristics were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. NMR and HR ESIMS analyses were conducted to evaluate the amount of pyranoanthocyanins and polymeric pigments. Results: After 11 months of aging, in both wines a decrease of free and total SO2 with respect to initial values was detected. In the wines with the highest dissolved oxygen levels, a more remarkable loss was observed. No significant differences in terms of color parameters were detected. In red wine with the highest oxygen content, a massive formation of polymeric pigments and BSA reactive tannins was observed, as opposed to wines with lower oxygen levels. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the membrane contactor can prove a successful tool to manage dissolved oxygen in wines as to prevent their oxidative spoilage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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18 pages, 2297 KiB  
Article
Influence of Triazole Pesticides on Wine Flavor and Quality Based on Multidimensional Analysis Technology
by Ouli Xiao, Minmin Li, Jieyin Chen, Ruixing Li, Rui Quan, Zezhou Zhang, Zhiqiang Kong and Xiaofeng Dai
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5596; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235596 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2957
Abstract
Triazole pesticides are widely used to control grapevine diseases. In this study, we investigated the impact of three triazole pesticides—triadimefon, tebuconazole, and paclobutrazol—on the concentrations of wine aroma compounds. All three triazole pesticides significantly affected the ester and acid aroma components. Among them, [...] Read more.
Triazole pesticides are widely used to control grapevine diseases. In this study, we investigated the impact of three triazole pesticides—triadimefon, tebuconazole, and paclobutrazol—on the concentrations of wine aroma compounds. All three triazole pesticides significantly affected the ester and acid aroma components. Among them, paclobutrazol exhibited the greatest negative influence on the wine aroma quality through its effect on the ester and acid aroma substances, followed by tebuconazole and triadimefon. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that the triazole pesticides also changed the flower and fruit flavor component contents of the wines. This was attributed to changes in the yeast fermentation activity caused by the pesticide residues. The study reveals that triazole pesticides negatively impact on the volatile composition of wines with a potential undesirable effect on wine quality, underlining the desirability of stricter control by the food industry over pesticide residues in winemaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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Review

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23 pages, 1831 KiB  
Review
Wine Faults: State of Knowledge in Reductive Aromas, Oxidation and Atypical Aging, Prevention, and Correction Methods
by Štefan Ailer, Silvia Jakabová, Lucia Benešová and Violeta Ivanova-Petropulos
Molecules 2022, 27(11), 3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113535 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
The review summarizes the latest scientific findings and recommendations for the prevention of three very common wine faults of non-microbial origin. The first group, presented by the reductive aromas, is caused mainly by excessive H2S and other volatile sulfur compounds with [...] Read more.
The review summarizes the latest scientific findings and recommendations for the prevention of three very common wine faults of non-microbial origin. The first group, presented by the reductive aromas, is caused mainly by excessive H2S and other volatile sulfur compounds with a negative impact on wine quality. The most efficient prevention of undesirable reductive aromas in wine lies in creating optimal conditions for yeast and controlling the chemistry of sulfur compounds, and the pros and cons of correction methods are discussed. The second is browning which is associated especially with the enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction of polyphenols and the prevention of this fault is connected with decreasing the polyphenol content in must, lowering oxygen access during handling, the use of antioxidants, and correction stands for the use of fining agents. The third fault, atypical aging, mostly occurs in the agrotechnics of the entire green land cover in the vineyard and the associated stress from lack of nutrients and moisture. Typical fox tones, naphthalene, or wet towel off-odors, especially in white wines are possible to prevent by proper moisture and grassland cover and alternating greenery combined with harmonious nutrition, while the correction is possible only partially with an application of fresh yeast. With the current knowledge, the mistakes in wines of non-microbial origin can be reliably prevented. Prevention is essential because corrective solutions for the faults are difficult and never perfect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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12 pages, 922 KiB  
Review
Non-Saccharomyces as Biotools to Control the Production of Off-Flavors in Wines
by Antonio Morata, Iris Loira, Carmen González and Carlos Escott
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4571; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154571 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4662
Abstract
Off-flavors produced by undesirable microbial spoilage are a major concern in wineries, as they affect wine quality. This situation is worse in warm areas affected by global warming because of the resulting higher pHs in wines. Natural biotechnologies can aid in effectively controlling [...] Read more.
Off-flavors produced by undesirable microbial spoilage are a major concern in wineries, as they affect wine quality. This situation is worse in warm areas affected by global warming because of the resulting higher pHs in wines. Natural biotechnologies can aid in effectively controlling these processes, while reducing the use of chemical preservatives such as SO2. Bioacidification reduces the development of spoilage yeasts and bacteria, but also increases the amount of molecular SO2, which allows for lower total levels. The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, such as Lachancea thermotolerans, results in effective acidification through the production of lactic acid from sugars. Furthermore, high lactic acid contents (>4 g/L) inhibit lactic acid bacteria and have some effect on Brettanomyces. Additionally, the use of yeasts with hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCDC) activity can be useful to promote the fermentative formation of stable vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins, reducing the amount of ethylphenol precursors. This biotechnology increases the amount of stable pigments and simultaneously prevents the formation of high contents of ethylphenols, even when the wine is contaminated by Brettanomyces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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16 pages, 827 KiB  
Review
A Review of Ladybug Taint in Wine: Origins, Prevention, and Remediation
by Gary J. Pickering and Andreea Botezatu
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4341; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144341 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3128
Abstract
Ladybug taint (also known as ladybird taint) is a relatively recently recognized fault that has been identified in wines from a wide range of terroirs. Alkyl-methoxypyrazines—particularly 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine—have been determined as the causal compounds, and these are introduced into grape must during processing, when [...] Read more.
Ladybug taint (also known as ladybird taint) is a relatively recently recognized fault that has been identified in wines from a wide range of terroirs. Alkyl-methoxypyrazines—particularly 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine—have been determined as the causal compounds, and these are introduced into grape must during processing, when specific species of vineyard-dwelling Coccinellidae are incorporated into the harvested fruit. Coccinella septempunctata, and especially the invasive Harmonia axyridis, are the beetles implicated, and climate change is facilitating wider dispersal and survivability of H. axyridis in viticultural regions worldwide. Affected wines are typically characterized as possessing excessively green, bell pepper-, and peanut-like aroma and flavor. In this paper, we review a range of vineyard practices that seek to reduce Coccinellidae densities, as well as both “standard” and novel wine treatments aimed at reducing alkyl-methoxypyrazine load. We conclude that while prevention of ladybug taint is preferable, there are several winery interventions that can remediate the quality of wine affected by this taint, although they vary in their relative efficacy and specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Sensory Faults: Origin, Prevention and Removal)
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