Wine Fermentation and Aging - Evolution of Chemical and Sensory Profile

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2023) | Viewed by 4961

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: food science and technology; winemaking; alcoholic beverages; grapes; wine; wine stability; wine quality; wine aging; wine safety; fining; phenolic compounds; proteins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: food chemistry; wine quality and safety; Maillard reaction; melanoidins; nutraceuticals including gluten detoxification for celiac patients; phenolic compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: food chemistry; oenology; analytical methods; winemaking; wine stability; phenolic compounds; aroma compounds; sensory analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The winemaking process involves several operations, but the fermentation process is one of the most important that affects wine sensory profile and aging characteristics. Important developments in fermentation technology have occurred in the last years, resulting in the improvement of the wine quality besides making it possible to produce quality wines with a wide range of characteristics. The winery equipment with adequate control of the fermentation process is strongly associated with the existence of accurate fermentation models capable of predicting the fermentation process in advance with the use of suitable sensors which permit the key process variables to be measured.

This Special Issue is dedicated to wine fermentation and aging as well as to the evolution of chemical and sensory profiles during the fermentation and aging process. Potential topics include but are not limited to wine fermentation, alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, biochemistry of fermentation, the impact of fermentation on the wine chemistry and wine sensory profile, wine aging chemistry, and wine microbial spoilage, wine safety, and wine off-flavors, also to the application of precision enology during the wine fermentation and aging process. Original and review papers dealing with all these aspects are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Fermentation.

Prof. Dr. Fernanda Cosme
Prof. Dr. Fernando M. Nunes
Prof. Dr. Luís Filipe-Ribeiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wine fermentation
  • alcoholic fermentation
  • malolactic fermentation
  • biochemistry of fermentations
  • impact of fermentation on wine chemistry
  • wine aromatic profile
  • impact of fermentation on wine sensory profile
  • microbial spoilers, wine safety and wine off-flavors
  • wine aging chemistry
  • precision enology in wine fermentation and aging

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2726 KiB  
Article
Widely Targeted Metabonomic Analysis to Study Effect of GSH on Metabolites of Chardonnay Wine during Simulated Oxidation
by Deyan Gao, Cong Wang, Hongmei Shi and Hongmin Liang
Fermentation 2023, 9(9), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9090815 - 06 Sep 2023
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Abstract
The effects of reduced glutathione (GSH) on non-volatile and volatile metabolites of Chardonnay wine during storage under simulated oxidation were investigated. The metabolites of GSH, which play a key role in the storage of white wine, were identified. In this study, GSHs at [...] Read more.
The effects of reduced glutathione (GSH) on non-volatile and volatile metabolites of Chardonnay wine during storage under simulated oxidation were investigated. The metabolites of GSH, which play a key role in the storage of white wine, were identified. In this study, GSHs at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L were added to wine samples and stored at 45 °C for 45 days. Wine samples supplemented with 0 mg/L GSH were used as controls (CK). The samples stored for 45 days were analyzed via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 1107 non-volatile metabolites were detected, and 617 volatile metabolites were identified. Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) of >1.0 and Fold Change (FC) of ≧2.0 were used to screen differential metabolites. A total of 59 important non-volatile and 39 differential volatile metabolites were screened. Among the non-volatile metabolites, 17 substances were down-regulated, whereas 16 substances were up-regulated. Among the volatile metabolites, 3 substances were down-regulated, while 19 substances were up-regulated. After analysis, some lipids were found to play an important role in the changes to non-volatile substances. This study provides theoretical support for further application of GSH in increasing the oxidation stability of white wine. Full article
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17 pages, 5544 KiB  
Article
Utilization of the AIRMIXING M.I.™ System in Producing Red Wine without Added Sulphites
by Simona Guerrini, Damiano Barbato, Silvia Mangani, Eleonora Mari, Giacomo Buscioni, Donatella Ganucci, Viola Galli and Lisa Granchi
Fermentation 2023, 9(9), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9090812 - 06 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is usually used in winemaking due to its effectiveness as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. However, there is growing interest in finding alternatives to SO2 because of its adverse effects on human health. Therefore, in this work, [...] Read more.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is usually used in winemaking due to its effectiveness as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. However, there is growing interest in finding alternatives to SO2 because of its adverse effects on human health. Therefore, in this work, a low-SO2-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was selected and the AIR-MIXINGTM M.ITM (A.M.) system, capable of determining a high extraction of polyphenols, was used to produce a red wine without added sulphites. A tank managed with the traditional pumping-over technique was used as a comparison. Microbiological and chemical monitoring of both fermentations performed by plate counts and HPLC analyses, respectively, did not indicate significant differences as regards the yeast growth kinetics and the degradation of the sugars, while it highlighted a faster extraction kinetics of colour and total polyphenols in the fermentation carried out with the A.M. system. Both experimental wines showed a total SO2 content <10 mg/L, but in the wine produced with A.M., a higher content of the polymeric forms of anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenols was found in favour of a higher stability of the wine achieved in a shorter time than the control. Furthermore, a higher concentration of reduced glutathione, a compound well-known for its antioxidant activity, occurred in wine obtained with the A.M. system. In conclusion, the use of low-SO2-producing yeasts in combination with the A.M. system could be a suitable approach to produce wines without sulphites added. Full article
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15 pages, 4330 KiB  
Article
Impact of Commercial Inactive Yeast Derivatives on Antiradical Properties, Volatile and Sensorial Profiles of Grašac Wines
by Sandra Stamenković Stojanović, Stojan Mančić, Dragan Cvetković, Marko Malićanin, Bojana Danilović and Ivana Karabegović
Fermentation 2023, 9(5), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9050494 - 22 May 2023
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Abstract
This study shows the impact of three different commercial inactive yeast derivatives (IYDs) (Opti Less™, Noblesse™, Optimum White™, Lallemand, Canada and Oenolees MP™ Lafort, USA) during the 6-month aging period on the volatile profile, sensory attributes and antiradical activity, including polyphenols and the [...] Read more.
This study shows the impact of three different commercial inactive yeast derivatives (IYDs) (Opti Less™, Noblesse™, Optimum White™, Lallemand, Canada and Oenolees MP™ Lafort, USA) during the 6-month aging period on the volatile profile, sensory attributes and antiradical activity, including polyphenols and the total free sulfhydryl (-SH groups) content, of Grašac wines made in sequential fermentation with native Hanseniaspora uvarum S-2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae QA23. The addition of IYDs helped in maintaining the constant values of antiradical activity during aging by increasing polyphenolic values and mitigating the decrease in -SH groups. HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis showed that esters were the major volatile compounds, with ethyl-acetate and 2-phenyl-ethyl-acetate being the most abundant among all the samples, followed by ethyl-dodecaonate, ethyl-decanoate and 3-methyl-butyl-octanoate, all of them contributing to fruity and floral aromas in wine. As the concentration of IYDs increased, a corresponding rise in the levels of certain volatiles, such as 2-methyl-1-propanol, phenyl-ethyl-alcohol and ethyl-octanoate, was observed. Sensory analysis showed that the addition of IYDs generally improved the taste and odor profile of the wine by reducing astringency and increasing fullness and complexity, regardless of the IYD type. The results demonstrated that different IYDs may have varying effects on wine, with each product having its specific purposes, providing the tools for winemakers to carefully regulate and obtain the desired sensory profile of the wine. Full article
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