Secondary Metabolism of Microorganisms 3.0

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbial Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 2191

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Instituto de Biotecnología de León (INBIOTEC), León, Spain
2. Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Campus de Vegazana, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain
Interests: fungal secondary metabolism; molecular biology; biotechnology; genetic engineering; omics
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Guest Editor
Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad de León, 24007 León, Spain
Interests: secondary metabolites; microorganisms; proteomics; plastics; actinobacteria; fungi; carotenoids; steroids; immunosuppressors; antibiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our previous Special Issues, "Secondary Metabolism of Microorganisms" and “Secondary Metabolism of Microorganisms 2.0”.

Microbial secondary metabolism represents a very interesting research field. On the one hand, secondary metabolism is considered nonessential for microbial growth and development, but it results in the biosynthesis of an impressive array of compounds relevant for: (i) human and animal health (e.g., antibiotics, receptor antagonists and agonists, and immunosuppressants), (ii) food and feed (e.g., pigments), (iii) agriculture (e.g., pheromones and plant protectants), and (iv) farming (e.g., toxins). This industrially relevant group of compounds is produced by certain taxonomic clades of organisms such as bacteria, mainly Actinobacteria, and fungi. Since metabolite formation is usually repressed during the logarithmic phase of growth and boosted along the stationary growth phase, a regulatory fine-tuning of nutrients (e.g., phosphate and nitrogen), precursors, and energy molecules is needed. The understanding of this strictly controlled process opens the door to synthetic biology to redirect metabolic pathways, avoiding nutrient sinks and by-product generation.

On the other hand, secondary metabolism plays a significant ecological role in the communication among different microorganisms in nature. At present, mixed fermentation or co-cultivation is a trending method to study, understand, and harness microbial competition and communication when the appropriate physiological conditions are provided.

This Special Issue of Microorganisms invites researchers to contribute research articles, reviews, and opinions addressing the latest knowledge on the secondary metabolism of microorganisms, including molecular biology, omics, synthetic biology, industrial microbiology, genome editing, metabolite production, downstream processing, gene control and regulation, etc., both in fundamental research and its applications. This Special Issue is divided into three blocks: i) microbial secondary metabolites; ii) the regulation of secondary metabolism; and iii) communication between microbial communities. Manuscripts covering these areas of knowledge, and others related to microbial secondary metabolism, are of interest for this Special Issue.

Dr. Carlos García-Estrada
Dr. Carlos Barreiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2977 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Identification of Indole Alkaloids from Aspergillus amstelodami BSX001 and Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Neoechinulin A
by Shuyao Li, Xiaobo Liu, Qiuya Gu and Xiaobin Yu
Microorganisms 2024, 12(5), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12050864 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the alkaloid secondary metabolites of Aspergillus amstelodami BSX001, a fungus isolated from Anhua dark tea, and to improve the extraction yield of the active ingredients by optimizing the extraction process. The structural characterization of the compounds was investigated [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the alkaloid secondary metabolites of Aspergillus amstelodami BSX001, a fungus isolated from Anhua dark tea, and to improve the extraction yield of the active ingredients by optimizing the extraction process. The structural characterization of the compounds was investigated using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of echinulin-related alkaloids was evaluated by determining the total reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The extraction process of the compound with optimum activity was optimized by a single-factor test and response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box–Behnken design (BBD). The optimized result was validated. Finally, a new alkaloid 8-hydroxyechinulin (1), and four known alkaloids, variecolorin G (2), echinulin (3), neoechinulin A (4), and eurocristatine (5), were isolated. Echinulin-related compounds 1, 3, and 4 possessed certain antioxidant activities, with IC50 values of 0.587 mg/mL, 1.628 mg/mL, and 0.219 mg/mL, respectively, against DPPH radicals. Their total reducing power at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL was 0.29 mmol/L, 0.17 mmol/L, and 4.25 mmol/L. The extraction process of neoechinulin A was optimized with the optimum extraction parameters of 72.76% methanol volume fraction, 25 mL/g solid–liquid ratio, and 50.8 °C soaking temperature. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of neoechinulin A was up to 1.500 mg/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolism of Microorganisms 3.0)
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14 pages, 1541 KiB  
Article
Harnessing the Biocontrol Potential of Bradyrhizobium japonicum FCBP-SB-406 to Manage Charcoal Rot of Soybean with Increased Yield Response for the Development of Sustainable Agriculture
by Umar Khalid, Zill-e-Huma Aftab, Tehmina Anjum, Najat A. Bokhari, Waheed Akram and Waheed Anwar
Microorganisms 2024, 12(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12020304 - 31 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPRs) have the potential to act as biofertilizers and biopesticides. This study was planned to explore indigenously isolated PGPRs as a potential candidate to control charcoal rot that affects various crops including soybean. Among the four different tested species of [...] Read more.
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPRs) have the potential to act as biofertilizers and biopesticides. This study was planned to explore indigenously isolated PGPRs as a potential candidate to control charcoal rot that affects various crops including soybean. Among the four different tested species of PGPRs, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (FCBP-SB-406) showed significant potential to enhance growth and control soil borne pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina. Bacillus subtilis (FCBP-SB-324) followed next. Bradyrhizobium japonicum (FCBP-SB-406) reduced disease severity up to 81.25% in comparison to the control. The strain showed a strong fertilizing effect as a highly significant increase in biomass and other agronomic parameters was recorded in plants grown in its presence. The same was supported by the Pearson’s correlation and principal component analysis. A decrease in disease incidence and severity may be due to the induced resistance imparted by the bacterium. This resulted in significant increments in quantities of defense enzymes, including catalase, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). A significant production of proteases, catalases and hydrogen cyanide by B. japonicum (FCBP-SB-406) can also be associated to mycoparasitism. The establishment of PGPRs in treated soils also showed positive effects on soil health. Total metabolite profiling of treated plants in comparison to the control showed the upregulation of many flavonoids, isoflavonoids and amino acids. Many of these compounds have been well reported with antimicrobial activities. Bradyrhizobium japonicum (FCBP-SB-406) can be employed for the production of a potential formulation to support sustainable agriculture by reducing the input of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolism of Microorganisms 3.0)
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12 pages, 1637 KiB  
Article
Secondary Metabolites from the Nematode-Trapping Fungus Dactylellina haptotyla YMF1.03409
by Hongmei Lei, Guangke Zhang, Peiji Zhao and Guohong Li
Microorganisms 2023, 11(11), 2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11112693 - 3 Nov 2023
Viewed by 676
Abstract
As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Dactylellina haptotyla can capture and kill nematodes by producing traps, known as adhesive knobs. In this paper, the strain of D. haptotyla YMF1.03409 was studied by means of medium screening, fermentation, and purification and identification of crude extracts. [...] Read more.
As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Dactylellina haptotyla can capture and kill nematodes by producing traps, known as adhesive knobs. In this paper, the strain of D. haptotyla YMF1.03409 was studied by means of medium screening, fermentation, and purification and identification of crude extracts. Eighteen compounds were obtained from D. haptotyla YMF1.03409, including two new metabolites, nosporins C (1) and D (2). The known metabolites were identified to be 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (3), 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzoic acid (4), 2-chloro-1-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)benzene (5), 3-hydroxy-3-methyloxindole (6), nicotinic acid (7), succinic acid (8), 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (9), 5′-O-methyladenosine (10), uridine (11), 2′-deoxyuridine (12), thymidine (13), 3-(phenylmethyl)-2,5-morpholinedione (14), methyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (15), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis(2-methyl heptyl) ester (16), β-sitosterol (17), and 3β,6α-diol-stigmastane (18). The bioactive assay showed that these compounds had no obvious nematicidal activity against the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Panagrellus redivivus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolism of Microorganisms 3.0)
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