Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria in Pets, Livestock and Wild Animals

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3225

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: microbiology; one health; antimicrobial resistance; biofilms; microbial genetics; infectious diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: microbiology; one health; antimicrobial resistance; biofilms; microbial genetics; infectious diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance Team (MicroART), Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: microbiology; one health; antimicrobial resistance; biofilms; microbial genetics; infectious diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance occurs naturally through genetic changes and may be considered a process of natural selection in which species adapt to their environments, thus driving toward evolution. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in the medicine, agriculture, and food industries has exerted a significant selective pressure for the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. The increasing resistance to antimicrobials, including the most potent and last line agents, together with the decline in the development of new antimicrobial agents, poses a widespread public health problem considered to be the next global pandemic crisis. The antimicrobial resistance issue requires a “One Health” approach in which the health of humans, animals, and the environment is considered closely connected. Therefore, surveillance must become a global “One Health” effort to understand the dynamics and drivers of antimicrobial resistance and to solve the major threats associated with human, animal, and environmental health. Animals could be a reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms acting on the spread and transmission to other animals and humans through direct contact or indirectly via contaminated foods and water.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to provide new information about the status of antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages in pets, livestock, and wild animals. This Special Issue will bring together the latest studies regarding organisms isolated from animals, their antimicrobial resistance and virulence through molecular approaches, biofilm formation, and the current overview of animal-associated clonal lineages.

Dr. Vanessa Silva
Prof. Dr. Gilberto Igrejas
Prof. Dr. Patricia Poeta
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Dairy Cattle, Milk, Environment, and Workers’ Hands
by Basma Badawy, Samar Moustafa, Radwa Shata, Mohamed Z. Sayed-Ahmed, Saad S. Alqahtani, Md Sajid Ali, Nawazish Alam, Sarfaraz Ahmad, Nahed Kasem, Elzahara Elbaz, Hesham S. El-Bahkiry, Reda M. Radwan, Adel El-Gohary and Mona M. Elsayed
Microorganisms 2023, 11(11), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11112775 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infection in animals and humans. This study aimed to determine the ecological distribution and prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa isolated from dairy cattle, the environment, and workers’ hand swabs. Samples (n = 440) [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infection in animals and humans. This study aimed to determine the ecological distribution and prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa isolated from dairy cattle, the environment, and workers’ hand swabs. Samples (n = 440) were collected from farms and households (n = 3, each). Rectal swabs, udder skin swabs, milk, workers’ hand swabs, feed, water, water sources, and beddings were collected. Samples were subjected to the bacterial identification of P. aeruginosa via 16S rRNA. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was detected either phenotypically using an antibiotic susceptibility test or genotypically with AMR resistance genes (ARGs) such as drfA, sul1, and ermB. P. aeruginosa was detected on dairy farms and households (10.3–57.5%, respectively), with an average of 23.2%. The resistance of dairy farm strains was observed against sulfamethoxazole, imipenem, cefepime, piperacillin–tazobactam, and gentamycin (100%, 72.7%, 72.7%, 68.8%, and 63.3%, respectively). Meanwhile, the resistance of household strains was observed against sulfamethoxazole, imipenem, amoxicillin, gentamicin, cefepime, and erythromycin by 91.3%, 82.6%, 75.4%, 75.4%, 68.1%, and 63.8%, respectively. The susceptibility of farm strains was detected against norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin (90.9%, 84.8%, and 72.7%, respectively). Meanwhile, the susceptibility of household strains was detected against ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and norfloxacin (100%, 84.1%, and 72.5%, respectively). About 81.4% of P. aeruginosa strains were MDR. ARGs (drfA, sul1, and ermB) were detected in farm strains (48.5%, 72.7%, and 24.4%, respectively) and household strains (50.7%, 72.5%, and 47.8%, respectively). Almost all P. aeruginosa had MAR over 0.2, indicating repeated application of antibiotics. P. aeruginosa prevalence was fivefold higher in households than on farms. MDR strains were higher amongst household strains than farm strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria in Pets, Livestock and Wild Animals)
15 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
Baicalin Weakens the Porcine ExPEC-Induced Inflammatory Response in 3D4/21 Cells by Inhibiting the Expression of NF-κB/MAPK Signaling Pathways and Reducing NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
by Bingbing Zong, Yong Xiao, Mingxing Ren, Peiyi Wang, Shulin Fu and Yinsheng Qiu
Microorganisms 2023, 11(8), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11082126 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is a leading cause of death in pigs and has led to considerable economic losses for the pig industry. Porcine ExPEC infections often cause systemic inflammatory responses in pigs, characterized by meningitis, arthritis, pneumonia, and septicemia. Baicalin [...] Read more.
Porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is a leading cause of death in pigs and has led to considerable economic losses for the pig industry. Porcine ExPEC infections often cause systemic inflammatory responses in pigs, characterized by meningitis, arthritis, pneumonia, and septicemia. Baicalin has been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, but its function in porcine ExPEC remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect and mechanism of baicalin against the porcine ExPEC-induced inflammatory responses in 3D4/21 cells. After treatment with baicalin, the effects on cell damage, the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and the activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes were examined. Our results show that baicalin significantly reduced the damage to 3D4/21 cells infected with porcine ExPEC PCN033. Further study showed that baicalin significantly reduced the transcription and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Furthermore, baicalin inhibited the phosphorylation of proteins such as P65, nuclear factor κB inhibitor α (IκBα), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and P38 and reduced the expression levels of proteins such as NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and caspase-1. These results reveal that baicalin reduced the damage to 3D4/21 cells by inhibiting the expression of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways and blocking NLRP3 inflammasome activation in 3D4/21 cells infected with porcine ExPEC. Taken together, these results suggest that baicalin may have potential as a medicine for the treatment of porcine ExPEC-infected pigs by regulating inflammatory responses. This study provides a novel potential pharmaco-therapeutic approach to preventing porcine ExPEC infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria in Pets, Livestock and Wild Animals)
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