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Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume)

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2023) | Viewed by 13649

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Oral Pathology and Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
Interests: histopathology; biomaterials; tumorigenesis; tissue repair; regenerative medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials are not only inanimate matter, but also cells and extracellular matrix, and even living tissues themselves are now treated as "biomaterials”. In fact, these biomaterials are increasingly being used for tissue regeneration and repair, as well as for the treatment of various diseases that require biomaterials. Against this background, it is necessary to study the interaction between various biomaterials and living organisms and the application, use, development, and evaluation of biomaterials from various academic disciplines. Artificial intelligence has also begun to be used to evaluate biomaterials. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials in a broad sense used in tissue repair and regeneration processes and in the treatment of diseases and introduces their biological responses, material properties, fabrication methods, and evaluation methods. We invite submissions of reviews and original papers on recent developments in related fields.

Dr. Keisuke Nakano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • regeneration
  • tissue interaction
  • medical
  • dental

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 1579 KiB  
Article
Clinical Study of 14 Cases of Bone Augmentation with Selective Laser Melting Titanium Mesh Plates
by Ayaka Takahashi, Kazuya Inoue, Naoko Imagawa-Fujimura, Keisuke Matsumoto, Kazuto Yamada, Yasuhisa Sawai, Yoichiro Nakajima, Takamitsu Mano, Nahoko Kato-Kogoe and Takaaki Ueno
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216842 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Additive manufacturing techniques are being used in the medical field. Orthopedic hip prostheses and denture bases are designed and fabricated based on the patient’s computer-aided design (CAD) data. We attempted to incorporate this technique into dental implant bone augmentation. Surgical simulation was performed [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing techniques are being used in the medical field. Orthopedic hip prostheses and denture bases are designed and fabricated based on the patient’s computer-aided design (CAD) data. We attempted to incorporate this technique into dental implant bone augmentation. Surgical simulation was performed using patient data. Fourteen patients underwent bone augmentation using a selective laser melting (SLM) titanium mesh plate. The results showed no evidence of infection in any of the 14 patients. In 12 patients, only one fixation screw was used, and good results were obtained. The SLM titanium mesh plate was good adaptation in all cases, with bone occupancy greater than 90%. The average bone resorption of the marginal alveolar bone from the time of dental implant placement to the time of the superstructure placement was 0.69 ± 0.25 mm. Implant superstructures were placed in all cases, and bone augmentation with SLM titanium mesh plates was considered a useful technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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19 pages, 7289 KiB  
Article
Argon Plasma Treatment Effects on the Micro-Shear Bond Strength of Lithium Disilicate with Dental Resin Cements
by Yixuan Liao, Stephen J. Lombardo and Qingsong Yu
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155376 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 995
Abstract
The low bond strength of lithium disilicate (LD) ceramics to dental resin cements remains a critical issue for dental applications because it leads to frequent replacement and causes tooth tissue destruction and consumption. The objective of this study was to examine the effects [...] Read more.
The low bond strength of lithium disilicate (LD) ceramics to dental resin cements remains a critical issue for dental applications because it leads to frequent replacement and causes tooth tissue destruction and consumption. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of atmospheric non-thermal argon plasma (NTP) treatment on LD to improve its micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) with dental resin cements because LD mostly experiences shear stress for its commonly used dental applications as crowns or veneers. Argon plasma treatment was performed on hydrofluoric (HF) acid-etched LD surfaces, and then commercial resin cements were subsequently applied to the treated LD surfaces. The plasma treatment significantly reduced the water contact angle of the LD surface to less than 10° without changing the surface morphology. The μSBS test was performed with cement-bonded LD samples after 24 h and 30 days, as well as after 1000 cycles of thermal cycling. The test results show that, as compared with the untreated controls, 300 s of plasma treatment significantly improved the LD-resin cement bond strength by 59.1%. After 30 days of storage in DI water and 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, the plasma-treated LD samples show 84.2% and 44.8% higher bond strengths as compared to the control samples, respectively. The plasma treatment effect on LD surfaces diminished rapidly as the bond strength decreased to 25.5 MPa after aging in the air for 1 day prior to primer and cement application, suggesting that primers should be applied to the LD surfaces immediately after the plasma treatment. These results demonstrate that, when applied with caution, plasma treatment can activate LD surfaces and significantly improve the SBS of LD with dental resin cements in both short-term and long-term periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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15 pages, 8350 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Citric Acid-Induced Dentin Erosion by an Acidulated Phosphate Sodium Monofluorophosphate Solution
by Ryouichi Satou, Susumu Ueno, Hideyuki Kamijo and Naoki Sugihara
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155230 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3, MFP) is mainly used as an ingredient in fluoride-based dentifrices as it has a high safety profile, with one-third of the toxicity of sodium fluoride (NaF), as well as the ability to reach deep into the [...] Read more.
Sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3, MFP) is mainly used as an ingredient in fluoride-based dentifrices as it has a high safety profile, with one-third of the toxicity of sodium fluoride (NaF), as well as the ability to reach deep into the dentin. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevention of dentin erosion by MFP upon exposure to citric acid, which has a chelating effect, and to compare the effects to those of the conventional acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application method. Bovine dentin was used, and four groups were created: (i) APF (9000 ppmF, pH 3.6) 4 min group; (ii) acidulated phosphate MFP (AP-MFP, 9000 ppmF, pH 3.6) 4 min group; (iii) AP-MFP 2 min + APF 2 min (dual) group; and (iv) no fluoride application (control) group. Compared with the conventional APF application method, the application of AP-MFP was shown to significantly reduce substantial defects, mineral loss, and lesion depth; better maintain Vickers hardness; and promote the homogenous aggregation of fine CaF2 particles to seal the dentin tubules, enhancing acid resistance in their vicinity. The ΔZ value of the AP-MFP group was 2679 ± 290.2 vol% μm, significantly smaller than the APF group’s 3806 ± 257.5 vol% μm (p < 0.01). Thus, AP-MFP-based fluoride application could effectively suppress citric acid-induced demineralization and could become a new, more powerful, and biologically safer professional-care method for preventing acid-induced dentin erosion than the conventional method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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13 pages, 2971 KiB  
Article
Delivery of Low-Diluted Toothpaste during Brushing Improves Enamel Acid Resistance
by Ryouichi Satou, Chikara Shibata, Atsushi Takayanagi, Atsushi Yamagishi, Dowen Birkhed and Naoki Sugihara
Materials 2023, 16(14), 5089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16145089 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Toothpaste viscosity decreases rapidly when diluted with saliva during brushing, potentially causing premature washout of high-risk caries areas and reducing the uptake of dental fluoride ions. However, no reports have examined the acid resistance of enamel from the perspective of the toothpaste’s physical [...] Read more.
Toothpaste viscosity decreases rapidly when diluted with saliva during brushing, potentially causing premature washout of high-risk caries areas and reducing the uptake of dental fluoride ions. However, no reports have examined the acid resistance of enamel from the perspective of the toothpaste’s physical properties. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of toothpaste dilution on the acid resistance of the enamel, using bovine enamel as the subject. Five diluted toothpaste groups were created: a control group without toothpaste, and 100% (1.00×), 67% (1.50×), 50% (2.00×), and 25% (4.00×) dilution groups. Acid resistance was evaluated through pH cycling after toothpaste application. The results revealed a significant increase in substantial defects, compared to 67% (1.50×) at dilutions of 50% (2.00×) or higher, accompanied by a decrease in Vickers hardness. Moreover, the mineral loss increased with dilution, and a significant difference was observed between 67% (1.50×) and 50% (2.00×) (p < 0.01). This study revealed that the acid resistance of the enamel decreased when the dilution of toothpaste during brushing exceeded 67% (1.5×). Therefore, delivering toothpaste with a lower dilution to high-risk caries areas, including interproximal spaces and adjacent surfaces, could maintain a higher concentration of active ingredients in the toothpaste, thereby enhancing its medical effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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16 pages, 3325 KiB  
Article
Fully Automated Bioreactor-Based pH-Cycling System for Demineralization: A Comparative Study with a Conventional Method
by Ryouichi Satou, Naoko Miki, Miyu Iwasaki and Naoki Sugihara
Materials 2023, 16(14), 4929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16144929 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 677
Abstract
This study aimed to develop an automated pH-cycling system using inexpensive commercial components that can replicate pH fluctuations in the oral cavity and salivary clearance to compare demineralization characteristics with the conventional method. The study found that the newly developed cycle-1 group showed [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop an automated pH-cycling system using inexpensive commercial components that can replicate pH fluctuations in the oral cavity and salivary clearance to compare demineralization characteristics with the conventional method. The study found that the newly developed cycle-1 group showed improved demineralization properties, including apparent lesion depth, surface roughness, Vickers hardness, mineral loss, and depth of demineralization, compared to the control group. Additionally, the cycle-2 group, which had a longer cycle interval, showed further improvements in the demineralization properties. This system can replicate the differences in dental damage caused by differences in meals, snacking frequencies, and lifestyle rhythms, making it useful in cariology, preventive dentistry research, and oral care product development. It can be constructed using inexpensive commercial products, significantly reducing research costs and improving reproducibility and fairness between different experimental facilities. The system can replicate lifestyle rhythms, such as meals, sleep, and oral clearance by saliva, making it an in vitro pseudo-oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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7 pages, 1362 KiB  
Communication
Comparative Study of Ozonated Glycerol and Macrogol Ointment on Bone Matrix Production by Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line Saos-2
by Nobutaka Okusa, Hourei Oh, Kazuya Masuno, Yoshimasa Makita and Yasuhiro Imamura
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103857 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Ozonated glycerol is glycerol containing ozone, has no unpleasant odor, and has a long half-life. To apply ozonated glycerol for clinical use, ozonated macrogol ointment has been developed by adding macrogol ointment to ozonated glycerol to increase the retention in the affected area. [...] Read more.
Ozonated glycerol is glycerol containing ozone, has no unpleasant odor, and has a long half-life. To apply ozonated glycerol for clinical use, ozonated macrogol ointment has been developed by adding macrogol ointment to ozonated glycerol to increase the retention in the affected area. However, the effects of ozone on this macrogol ointment were unclear. The viscosity of the ozonated macrogol ointment was approximately two times higher than that of ozonated glycerol. The effect of the ozonated macrogol ointment on the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 (Saos-2 cells) proliferation, type 1 collagen production, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were studied. The proliferation of Saos-2 cells was assessed using MTT and DNA synthesis assays. Type 1 collagen production and ALP activity were studied using ELISA and ALP assays. Cells were treated for 24 h with or without 0.05, 0.5, or 5 ppm ozonated macrogol ointment. The 0.5 ppm ozonated macrogol ointment significantly elevated Saos-2 cell proliferation, type 1 collagen production, and ALP activity. These results also showed almost the same trend as for ozonated glycerol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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11 pages, 8368 KiB  
Article
Novel Artificial Scaffold for Bone Marrow Regeneration: Honeycomb Tricalcium Phosphate
by Yasunori Inada, Kiyofumi Takabatake, Hidetsugu Tsujigiwa, Keisuke Nakano, Qiusheng Shan, Tianyan Piao, Anqi Chang, Hotaka Kawai and Hitoshi Nagatsuka
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041393 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Bone marrow is complex structure containing heterogenetic cells, making it difficult to regenerate using artificial scaffolds. In a previous study, we succeeded in developing honeycomb tricalcium phosphate (TCP), which is a cylindrical scaffold with a honeycomb arrangement of straight pores, and we demonstrated [...] Read more.
Bone marrow is complex structure containing heterogenetic cells, making it difficult to regenerate using artificial scaffolds. In a previous study, we succeeded in developing honeycomb tricalcium phosphate (TCP), which is a cylindrical scaffold with a honeycomb arrangement of straight pores, and we demonstrated that TCP with 300 and 500 μm pore diameters (300TCP and 500TCP) induced bone marrow structure within the pores. In this study, we examined the optimal scaffold structure for bone marrow with homeostatic bone metabolism using honeycomb TCP. 300TCP and 500TCP were transplanted into rat muscle, and bone marrow formation was histologically assessed. Immunohistochemistry for CD45, CD34, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), c-kit single staining, Runx2/N-cadherin, and c-kit/Tie-2 double staining was performed. The area of bone marrow structure, which includes CD45(+) round-shaped hematopoietic cells and CD34(+) sinusoidal vessels, was larger in 300TCP than in 500TCP. Additionally, Runx2(+) osteoblasts and c-kit(+) hematopoietic stem cells were observed on the surface of bone tissue formed within TCP. Among Runx2(+) osteoblasts, spindle-shaped N-cadherin(+) cells existed in association with c-kit(+)Tie-2(+) hematopoietic stem cells on the bone tissue formed within TCP, which formed a hematopoietic stem cell niche similar to as in vivo. Therefore, honeycomb TCP with 300 μm pore diameters may be an artificial scaffold with an optimal geometric structure as a scaffold for bone marrow formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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12 pages, 3059 KiB  
Article
Development of Root Caries Prevention by Nano-Hydroxyapatite Coating and Improvement of Dentin Acid Resistance
by Miyu Iwasaki, Ryouichi Satou and Naoki Sugihara
Materials 2022, 15(22), 8263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15228263 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
There is no established method for optimizing the use of dentin to prevent root caries, which are increasing in the elderly population. This study aimed to develop a new approach for root caries prevention by focusing on bioapatite (BioHap), a new biomaterial, combined [...] Read more.
There is no established method for optimizing the use of dentin to prevent root caries, which are increasing in the elderly population. This study aimed to develop a new approach for root caries prevention by focusing on bioapatite (BioHap), a new biomaterial, combined with fluoride. Bovine dentin was used as a sample, and an acid challenge was performed in three groups: no fluoride (control group), acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment (APF group), and BioHap + APF treatment (BioHap group). After applying the new compound, the acid resistance of dentin was compared with that of APF alone. The BioHap group had fewer defects and an increased surface hardness than the APF group. The BioHap group had the smallest lesion depth and least mineral loss among all groups. Using a scanning electron microscope in the BioHap group showed the closure of dentinal tubules and a coating on the surface. The BioHap group maintained a coating and had higher acid resistance than the APF group. The coating prevents acid penetration, and the small particle size of BioHap and its excellent reactivity with fluoride are thought to have contributed to the improvement of acid resistance in dentin. Topical fluoride application using BioHap protects against root caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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12 pages, 3132 KiB  
Article
Improved Enamel Acid Resistance by Highly Concentrated Acidulated Phosphate Sodium Monofluorophosphate Solution
by Ryouichi Satou, Atsushi Yamagishi, Atsushi Takayanagi, Miyu Iwasaki, Hideyuki Kamijo and Naoki Sugihara
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207298 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) is a component of fluoride-containing dentifrices and is more biosafe than the conventional sodium fluoride (NaF). MFP can respond not only on the tooth surface layer but also deep into the enamel. We aim to confirm that high concentrations of [...] Read more.
Sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) is a component of fluoride-containing dentifrices and is more biosafe than the conventional sodium fluoride (NaF). MFP can respond not only on the tooth surface layer but also deep into the enamel. We aim to confirm that high concentrations of acid phosphate MFP (AP-MFP, 9000 ppmF), used in professional care, could lead to a highly biosafe fluoride application method that acts through the deep enamel layers. Sample groups were respectively treated in vitro with NaF, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF), MFP, and AP-MFP, and the samples were compared against an untreated group. Characterizations after fluoride application confirmed that MFP and AP-MFP treatments improved the acid resistance of enamel compared to that of conventional methods. Furthermore, the acid resistance of highly concentrated MFPs improved by using phosphoric acid. Although the acid resistance from the AP-MFP method is not as good as that using APF, AP-MFP can act both on the surface layer and deep into the enamel. Moreover, AP-MFP retains fluoride ions as much as APF does on the tooth surface. The proposed fluoride application method using AP-MFP introduces a dental treatment for acid resistance that is highly biosafe and penetrates deep layers of the enamel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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15 pages, 4192 KiB  
Article
Improved Enamel Acid Resistance Using Biocompatible Nano-Hydroxyapatite Coating Method
by Ryouichi Satou, Miyu Iwasaki, Hideyuki Kamijo and Naoki Sugihara
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207171 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
In this study, we attempted to develop a dental caries prevention method using a bioapatite (BioHap), an eggshell-derived apatite with nanoparticle size and biocompatibility, with a high-concentration fluoride tooth surface application method. The enamel acid resistance after the application of the proposed method [...] Read more.
In this study, we attempted to develop a dental caries prevention method using a bioapatite (BioHap), an eggshell-derived apatite with nanoparticle size and biocompatibility, with a high-concentration fluoride tooth surface application method. The enamel acid resistance after the application of the proposed method was compared with that of a conventional topical application of fluoride using bovine tooth enamel as an example. The tooth samples were divided into three groups based on the preventive treatment applied, and an acid challenge was performed. The samples were evaluated for acid resistance using qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. The BioHap group demonstrated reduced enamel loss and improved micro-Vickers hardness, along with a thick coating layer, decreased reaction area depth, and decreased mineral loss value and lesion depth. The combination of BioHap with high-concentration fluoride led to the formation of a thick coating layer on the enamel surface and better suppression of demineralization than the conventional method, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The proposed biocompatible nano-hydroxyapatite coating method is expected to become a new standard for providing professional care to prevent dental caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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10 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Factors in Endodontic Surgery Using an Endoscope: A 1 Year Retrospective Cohort Study
by Shintaro Sukegawa, Rieko Shimizu, Yuka Sukegawa, Kazuaki Hasegawa, Sawako Ono, Ai Fujimura, Izumi Yamamoto, Keisuke Nakano, Kiyofumi Takabatake, Hotaka Kawai, Hitoshi Nagatsuka and Yoshihiko Furuki
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093353 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2569
Abstract
This retrospective study clarified the success rate of endoscopic endodontic surgeries and identified predictors accounting for successful surgeries. In this retrospective study, 242 patients (90 males, 152 females) who underwent endoscopic endodontic surgery at a single general hospital and were diagnosed through follow-up [...] Read more.
This retrospective study clarified the success rate of endoscopic endodontic surgeries and identified predictors accounting for successful surgeries. In this retrospective study, 242 patients (90 males, 152 females) who underwent endoscopic endodontic surgery at a single general hospital and were diagnosed through follow-up one year later were included. Risk factors were categorized into attributes, general health, anatomy, and surgery. Then, the correlation coefficient was calculated for the success or failure of endodontic surgery for each variable, the odds ratio was calculated for the upper variable, and factors related to the surgical prognosis factor were identified. The success rate of endodontic surgery was 95.3%, showing that it was a highly predictable treatment. The top three correlation coefficients were post, age, and perilesional sclerotic signs. Among them, the presence of posts was the highest, compared with the odds ratio, which was 9.592. This retrospective study revealed the success rate and risk factors accounting for endoscopic endodontic surgeries. Among the selected clinical variables, the presence of posts was the most decisive risk factor determining the success of endodontic surgeries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration (Second Volume))
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