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Advances in the Machined Surface Integrity in Manufacturing Process of Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 14292

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080, China
Interests: design of cutting tool, cutting technology; intelligent optimization of cutting process; fem simulation of cutting process
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Interests: machining deformation; in-situ/on-machine measurement machining-induced residual stress; machining chatter; intelligent fixturing system

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Guest Editor
College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
Interests: cutting machining; machining process simulation; surface integrity; residual stress measurement and analysis; machining distortion control

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China
Interests: surface integrity characterization; laser-induced diagnostic; laser ultrasonic; residual stress; manufacturing
School of Mechatronic Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012, China
Interests: difficult-to-machining materials; cutting mechanism; material dynamic behavior; cutting tool; surface integrity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The surface integrity alteration induced by the machining process has a profound influence on the performance of a component. The cutting process directly affects the surface state of the machined parts (texture, morphology, residual stress, etc.) and the final performance of the workpiece. Therefore, it is of great significance to reveal the mapping relationship between working conditions, surface integrity, and workpiece functionality in cutting process. The effects of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed speed, cutting depth, and tool wear on the machined surface integrity during milling should be revealed. The relationship between the machined surface integrity and the performance of parts should also be explored.

This Special Issue provides an excellent opportunity for researchers who are studying and working with machined surface integrity in manufacturing processes, such as surface integrity in the turning process, the milling process, grinding process, shot peening process, rolling process and other high-energy modification processes. It is our pleasure to invite you to submit original research papers or state-of-the-art reviews which are within the scope of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Caixu Yue
Prof. Dr. Haibo Liu
Dr. Yinfei Yang
Prof. Dr. Minchao Cui
Dr. Yihang Fan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • surface integrity
  • part functionality
  • manufacturing process
  • high-energy modification process

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 19274 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Strengthening Mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Using the Ultrasonic Surface Rolling Process
by Xuming Zha, Zhi Yuan, Hao Qin, Linqing Xi, Yunwu Guo, Zhilong Xu, Xing Dai and Feng Jiang
Materials 2024, 17(6), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17061382 - 18 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
The demand for titanium alloy has been increasing in various industries, including aerospace, marine, and biomedical fields, as they fulfilled the need for lightweight, high-strength, and corrosion-resistant material for modern manufacturing. However, titanium alloy has relatively low hardness, poor wear performance, and fatigue [...] Read more.
The demand for titanium alloy has been increasing in various industries, including aerospace, marine, and biomedical fields, as they fulfilled the need for lightweight, high-strength, and corrosion-resistant material for modern manufacturing. However, titanium alloy has relatively low hardness, poor wear performance, and fatigue properties, which limits its popularization and application. These disadvantages could be efficiently overcome by surface strengthening technology, such as the ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP). In this study, the true thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V was obtained by dynamic mechanical experiment using a Hopkinson pressure bar. Moreover, USRP was applied on the Ti-6Al-4V workpiece with different parameters of static forces to investigate the evolution in surface morphology, surface roughness, microstructure, hardness, residual stress, and fatigue performance. The strain rate and temperature during the USRP of Ti-6Al-4V under the corresponding conditions were about 3000 s−1 and 200 °C, respectively, which were derived from the numerical simulation. The correlation between the true thermo-mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the USRP parameters of the Ti-6Al-4V workpiece was established, which could provide a theoretical contribution to the optimization of the USRP parameters. After USRP, the cross-sectional hardness distribution of the workpiece was shown to initially rise, followed by a subsequent decrease, ultimately to matrix hardness. The cross-sectional residual compressive stress distribution of the workpiece showed a tendency to initially reduce, then increase, and finally decrease to zero. The fatigue performance of the workpiece was greatly enhanced after USRP due to the effect of grain refinement, work hardening, and beneficial residual compressive stress, thereby inhibiting the propagation of the fatigue crack. However, it could be noted that the excessive static force parameter of USRP could induce the decline in surface finish and compressive residual stress of the workpiece, which eliminated the beneficial effect of the USRP treatment. This indicated that the choice of the optimal USRP parameters was highly crucial. This work would be conducive to achieving high-efficiency and low-damage USRP machining, which could be used to effectively guide the development of high-end equipment manufacturing. Full article
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15 pages, 14567 KiB  
Article
Research on Surface Integrity and Fatigue Properties in the Turning of TC17 Titanium Alloy Based on the Response Surface Method
by Xunqing Lai, Yuannan Wang, Dan Wang, Guolong Zhao and Yinfei Yang
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227180 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Titanium alloy parts are more and more widely used in the field of aerospace. In order to improve the service life of titanium alloy parts, the response surface method was used to study surface residual stress and roughness under different turning parameters. In [...] Read more.
Titanium alloy parts are more and more widely used in the field of aerospace. In order to improve the service life of titanium alloy parts, the response surface method was used to study surface residual stress and roughness under different turning parameters. In addition, a mathematical model was established through multiple linear regression to determine the relationship between surface integrity parameters and fatigue life. The test results indicate that the turning parameters have an effect on surface residual stress in the order of feed rate > depth of cut > cutting speed and on surface roughness in the order of feed rate > cutting speed > depth of cut. The analysis results of surface integrity show that the residual compressive stress on the surface has the greatest impact on fatigue life, followed by surface roughness. The fatigue life increases with the increase in residual compressive stress and decreases linearly with the increase in surface roughness. The feed rate has a significant impact on residual stress and surface roughness. Therefore, under the experimental conditions of this paper, the appropriate feed rate can be selected to ensure that the  Ra < 2 μm and a large residual compressive stress is obtained. Full article
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13 pages, 5725 KiB  
Article
Measurement of Creep Stress Exponent of TC17 Titanium Alloy by Nanoindentation Method at Room Temperature
by Fagui Li, Xiyu Chen, Yuannan Wang, Guolong Zhao and Yinfei Yang
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165702 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
The creep stress exponent is commonly employed to characterize the deformation mechanism during the steady-state creep stage, serving as an indicator of creep behavior. The creep phenomenon of high melting point metallic materials is not obvious at room temperature. However, the nanoindentation method [...] Read more.
The creep stress exponent is commonly employed to characterize the deformation mechanism during the steady-state creep stage, serving as an indicator of creep behavior. The creep phenomenon of high melting point metallic materials is not obvious at room temperature. However, the nanoindentation method proves suitable for investigating the creep properties of metallic materials under such conditions. Consequently, this paper places emphasis on measuring the creep stress exponent of TC17 titanium alloy at room temperature using the load preservation stage of the nanoindentation method with a constant loading rate. In order to investigate the effects of loading rate and maximum load on the experimental results, different loading rates were applied to the diamond Berkovich indenter to reach different maximum loads. The indenter was held under the maximum load for a duration of 360 s, and the relationship between the indentation strain rate and indentation stress during the holding process was used to obtain the creep stress exponent of the material at room temperature. The findings indicate that within the loading rate range of 1.25 to 15 mN/s and maximum load range of 50 to 300 mN, the influence on the experimental results is insignificant. Ultimately, the distribution range of the creep stress exponent for TC17 titanium alloy at room temperature was measured to be 8.524–8.687. Full article
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19 pages, 8140 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization in Ultrasonic Polishing of Silicon Carbide via Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis
by Xin Chen, Shucong Xu, Fanwei Meng, Tianbiao Yu and Ji Zhao
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165673 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
As high-level equipment and advanced technologies continue toward sophistication, ultrasonic technology is extensively used in the polishing process of difficult-to-process materials to achieve efficiently smooth surfaces with nanometer roughness. The polishing of silicon carbide, an indispensable difficult-to-machine optical material, is extremely challenging due [...] Read more.
As high-level equipment and advanced technologies continue toward sophistication, ultrasonic technology is extensively used in the polishing process of difficult-to-process materials to achieve efficiently smooth surfaces with nanometer roughness. The polishing of silicon carbide, an indispensable difficult-to-machine optical material, is extremely challenging due to its high hardness and good wear resistance. To overcome the current silicon carbide (SiC) ultrasonic polishing (UP) process deficiencies and strengthen the competitiveness of the UP industry, the multi-objective optimization based on the Taguchi–GRA method for the UP process with SiC ceramic to obtain the optimal process parameter combination is a vital and urgently demanded task. The orthogonal experiment, analysis of variance, grey relational analysis (GRA), and validation were performed to optimize the UP schemes. For a single objective of roughness and removal rate, the influence degree is abrasive size > preloading force > abrasive content > spindle speed > feed rate, and spindle speed > abrasive size > feed rate > preloading force > abrasive content, respectively. Moreover, the optimal process combination integrating these two objectives is an abrasive content of 14 wt%, abrasive size of 2.5 μm, preloading force of 80 N, spindle speed of 8000 rpm, and feed rate of 1 mm/s. The optimized workpiece surface morphology is better, and the roughness and removal rate are increased by 7.14% and 28.34%, respectively, compared to the best orthogonal group. The Taguchi–GRA method provides a more scientific approach for evaluating the comprehensive performance of polishing. The optimized process parameters have essential relevance for the ultrasonic polishing of SiC materials. Full article
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14 pages, 6285 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cutting Surface Integrity on Fatigue Properties of TC17 Titanium Alloy
by Dan Wang, Xiyu Chen, Xunqing Lai, Guolong Zhao and Yinfei Yang
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165658 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The turning process of titanium alloy material will affect the surface structure of the material and lead to a change in its service life. In this paper, the fatigue behavior of the TC17 titanium alloy turning sample was studied through the bending fatigue [...] Read more.
The turning process of titanium alloy material will affect the surface structure of the material and lead to a change in its service life. In this paper, the fatigue behavior of the TC17 titanium alloy turning sample was studied through the bending fatigue test. The fatigue life variation rule under the action of thermal coupling was then discussed. This revealed the fatigue fracture mechanism of TC17; the cracks originated from the surface of the source region, and the transient fault region was a ductile fracture. The mathematical model of turning parameters and surface integrity (roughness, microhardness and residual stress) was established, and the influence of turning parameters on fatigue life was analyzed with a mathematical relationship. Drawing a conclusion, the effects of turning parameters on fatigue life at normal temperature are as follows: Feed > Cutting depth > Cutting speed. The fatigue life of vc = 30 m/min, f = 0.25 mm/r, ap = 0.3 mm is only 40,586 cycles per week, the fatigue life of vc = 30 m/min, f = 0.05 mm/r, ap = 0.1 mm has 539,400 cycles per week, that is, the longest fatigue life is 16.6 times the smallest. Small cutting speed, feed, and large cut depth can be chosen based on ensuring practical processing efficiency. The fatigue fracture of the TC17 sample occurred after a certain cycle, and the fatigue fracture mechanism was revealed in this paper. Full article
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17 pages, 12055 KiB  
Article
Study on the Changing Law of Cutting and Ultrasonic Strengthening Surface Integrity during Fatigue of Ti-17 Alloy
by Zheng Zhou, Changfeng Yao, Liang Tan, Hongmin Xin, Ya Zhang and Yu Zhao
Materials 2022, 15(22), 8106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15228106 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 937
Abstract
The distribution of surface integrity features directly affects the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. In this paper, the surface integrity characteristics changing law of turning and ultrasonic impacting specimens during high cycle fatigue loading has been studied, and the effect of surface [...] Read more.
The distribution of surface integrity features directly affects the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. In this paper, the surface integrity characteristics changing law of turning and ultrasonic impacting specimens during high cycle fatigue loading has been studied, and the effect of surface modified layer on the fatigue properties of titanium alloy has been revealed. The results showed that the surface roughness increased with the increase of fatigue cycles. The compressive residual stress and its gradient distribution depth decreased continuously. The gradient distribution depth of residual stress in the ultrasonic-impacted surface rapidly decreased by about 50% near the fracture stage. Local cyclic hardening occurred at 20–50 μm from the surface of the specimen in the early stage of fatigue evolution, and then the microhardness continued to decrease. During this process, there were no significant changes in hardened layer depth. The fibrous microstructure of the ultrasonic-impacted surface undergoes a process from coarsening to gradual disintegration during the fatigue process. Its attenuation process needs a longer period of time. The fatigue source of the turned specimen was located at about 320 μm from the surface, and the fatigue source of ultrasonic impact was about 610 μm from the surface. The fatigue striation width of the ultrasonic impact specimen was about 20% narrower than that of the turned specimen. The fatigue life of the ultrasonic impact specimen was increased by 73.9% compared with the turned specimen. The research in this paper is of great significance for exploring the anti-fatigue mechanism and the ability of various surface integrity features. Full article
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13 pages, 5383 KiB  
Article
Research on Clamping Action Control Technology for Floating Fixtures
by Benchi Zhu, Zhuang Mu, Wenbo He, Longxin Fan, Guolong Zhao and Yinfei Yang
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165571 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
By adaptively releasing deformation during machining, floating clamping significantly raises the machining quality of aircraft structural parts. The fundamental issue to be resolved is how to precisely control the clamping action of the floating fixtures. In this study, the machining process of aircraft [...] Read more.
By adaptively releasing deformation during machining, floating clamping significantly raises the machining quality of aircraft structural parts. The fundamental issue to be resolved is how to precisely control the clamping action of the floating fixtures. In this study, the machining process of aircraft beams was studied, utilizing the finite element method (FEM) from the perspective of strain energy evolution. The study found that the increment of deformation and the variation of the strain energy between adjacent removed layers of the material showed the same trend of change, and targeted clamping loosening at the stage of an excessive strain energy evolution gradient is beneficial to reducing the final deformation of the workpiece. Therefore, a clamping action control method based on strain energy evolution gradient regulation is proposed, and a clamping action control strategy of floating fixtures was formulated. Furthermore, a cutting experiment was carried out, and the results showed that the maximum deformation of the aircraft beam using the clamping action control strategy was only 0.112 mm, which was reduced by 74.6% compared to traditional clamping. Full article
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16 pages, 8040 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of the Forming Mechanism of Exit Burrs in Metal Milling under Ice Boundary Constraint
by Chengxin Wang, Wentao Xiong, Guo Ding, Pengchao Li, Zhixiang Zhu and Haibo Liu
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165546 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
In metal processing, exit burrs are usually inevitable, which is a huge challenge for high-precision manufacturing. This paper innovatively proposes an ice boundary constraint (IBC) method to actively suppress exit burrs to obtain better workpiece edge quality. Firstly, the formation mechanism of the [...] Read more.
In metal processing, exit burrs are usually inevitable, which is a huge challenge for high-precision manufacturing. This paper innovatively proposes an ice boundary constraint (IBC) method to actively suppress exit burrs to obtain better workpiece edge quality. Firstly, the formation mechanism of the exits burr is analyzed from the perspective of material flow at the edge of the workpiece, and the principle of the IBC method is explained. Secondly, a finite element model (FEM) is established to analyze the stress distribution and flow at the edge of the workpiece, so as to reveal the suppression mechanism of IBC on the exit burrs. Finally, the feasibility of IBC method and the validity of FEM are verified by the milling experiments. The experimental results show that the IBC method can reduce the exit burr height by 51.4% on average, and FEM can effectively predict the height of the exit burr. The IBC method proposed in this study can provide some reference and guidance for the active suppression of exit burrs in industry. Full article
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19 pages, 72501 KiB  
Article
Analytical Model of Hole Diameter and Self-Guiding Machining Mechanism of BTA Deep Hole Drilling
by Xubo Li, Jianming Zheng, Biao Yu, Yongqiang Du and Yanan Zhou
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155329 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
The goal of this study was to explore the self-guided machining mechanism of boring and trepanning association (BTA) deep hole drilling and realize precise control of the machining quality. The motion analysis method was used to analyze the center motion trajectory of the [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to explore the self-guided machining mechanism of boring and trepanning association (BTA) deep hole drilling and realize precise control of the machining quality. The motion analysis method was used to analyze the center motion trajectory of the drill during the entrance, and the self-guiding mechanism and hole-forming mechanism of BTA deep hole drilling were revealed. Considering the bending deformation of the drilling tube and the tool structure parameters, according to the elastic-plastic deformation theory and Hertzian contact theory, a novel analytical model of the extrusion contact between the guide pads and the hole wall of the BTA deep hole drilling was established for the theoretical prediction of the extrusion deformation and the machining hole diameter. Combined with the finite element method (FEM) simulation model, the variation law of the contact inclination angle, contact stress, and extrusion deformation of the guide pads and the hole wall with the drilling conditions were studied. The total extrusion deformation between the guide pad and the hole wall was between 10 and 50 μm. The maximum error between the FEM simulation results and the test results was 18.1%, and the maximum error between the analytical model results and the test results was 23.6%. The simulation and experimental results showed that the established extrusion contact model could accurately predict the extrusion deformation of the hole wall and the machining hole diameter. Full article
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13 pages, 8421 KiB  
Article
Multiobjective Optimization of Cutting Parameters for TA10 Alloy Deep-Hole Drilling
by Yazhou Feng, Huan Zheng, Xiaolan Han and Zhanfeng Liu
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124366 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
In order to obtain better quality TA10 pipes, the Boring and Trepanning Association (BTA) deep-hole drilling process is used. However, this type of machining leads to difficult chip removal, tool wear, and poor hole-surface quality. In this study, a deep-hole drilling experiment was [...] Read more.
In order to obtain better quality TA10 pipes, the Boring and Trepanning Association (BTA) deep-hole drilling process is used. However, this type of machining leads to difficult chip removal, tool wear, and poor hole-surface quality. In this study, a deep-hole drilling experiment was conducted on TA10 workpieces using the designed tool with different process parameters, and the process parameters were optimized by machining results with multiple objectives such as chip morphologies, tool wear, hole-axis deflection, and hole surface roughness. The results show that different process parameters have a great impact on the cutting process, with a higher feed resulting in smoother chip removal and a lower spindle speed resulting in lighter tool wear and less hole axis deflection. When the spindle speed is 145 r/min and the feed is 0.12 mm/r, the machined TA10 pipe meets both the accuracy requirement of roughness and the machining efficiency. Full article
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18 pages, 6781 KiB  
Article
Analysis of High-Speed Milling Surface Topography and Prediction of Wear Resistance
by Wei Zhang, Kangning Li, Weiran Wang, Ben Wang and Lei Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051707 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Surface topography parameters are an important factor affecting the wear resistance of parts, and topography parameters are affected by process parameters in order to explore the influence law of process parameters on surface topography parameters and to find the quantitative relationship between milling [...] Read more.
Surface topography parameters are an important factor affecting the wear resistance of parts, and topography parameters are affected by process parameters in order to explore the influence law of process parameters on surface topography parameters and to find the quantitative relationship between milling surface topography parameters and wear resistance. Firstly, this paper took the surface after high-speed milling as the research object, established the residual height model of the milled surface based on static machining parameters, and analyzed the relationship between the residual height of the surface and the machining parameters. Secondly, a high-speed milling experiment was designed to explore the influence law of processing parameters on surface topography and analyzed the influence law of processing parameters on specific topography parameters; Finally, a friction and wear experiment was designed. Based on the BP neural network, the wear resistance of the milled surface in terms of wear amount and friction coefficient was predicted. Through experimental verification, the maximum error of the prediction model was 16.39%, and the minimum was 6.18%. Full article
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