Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae 3rd Edition

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Structural Studies on Marine Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 13804

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Marine Resources, Conservation and Technology, Marine Algae Laboratory, Centre for Functional Ecology—Science for People & the Planet (CFE), Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: marine biotechnology; phycology; biodiversity; nutraceuticals
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A4F Algae For Future, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar Campus do Lumiar, Ed. E – R/C., 1649-038 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: phycology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Seaweeds are already used in many products and for different purposes, from food products to medicine. They are a natural resource that can provide several compounds with beneficial bioactivities such as antiviral, anti-cholesterol, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging effects. The high diversity of compounds synthesized by seaweed is an outcome of the highly variable and extreme conditions to which they are exposed in their natural habitats.

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of studies on applications of macroalgae and microalgae as a result of the identification of different substances synthesized by these organisms. The immense biodiversity and consequent variability in the biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from algae cultures, combined with their genetic improvement and the development of large-scale cultivation technology, have made them a target of economic interest for several sectors of the industry, such as the food and pharmaceutical sectors.

Algae are a potential source for obtaining various biologically active compounds, such as carotenoids, fatty acids, vitamins, and polysaccharides, with an efficiency superior to that verified by traditional terrestrial vegetable crops. Furthermore, the possibility to produce algae in a more sustainable way without competing with other uses for freshwater and arable land greatly increases the acceptability of this biomass by consumers. Algae biomolecules can be used in the development of functional foods, which has led to the recent increase in commercial interest in algae by the food industry, including the nutraceutical and food supplement sectors.

Prof. Dr. Leonel Pereira
Dr. Rui Pedro Gonçalves Pereira
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • edible algae
  • seaweeds
  • microalgae
  • minerals
  • vitamins
  • polysaccharides
  • proteins
  • amino acids
  • fatty acids
  • pigments
  • phenolic compounds

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1454 KiB  
Article
Jasmonates and Ethylene Shape Floridoside Synthesis during Carposporogenesis in the Red Seaweed Grateloupia imbricata
by Pilar Garcia-Jimenez, Diana del Rosario-Santana and Rafael R. Robaina
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22030115 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Floridoside is a galactosyl–glycerol compound that acts to supply UDP-galactose and functions as an organic osmolyte in response to salinity in Rhodophyta. Significantly, the UDP-galactose pool is shared for sulfated cell wall galactan synthesis, and, in turn, affected by thallus development alongside carposporogenesis [...] Read more.
Floridoside is a galactosyl–glycerol compound that acts to supply UDP-galactose and functions as an organic osmolyte in response to salinity in Rhodophyta. Significantly, the UDP-galactose pool is shared for sulfated cell wall galactan synthesis, and, in turn, affected by thallus development alongside carposporogenesis induced by volatile growth regulators, such as ethylene and methyl jasmonate, in the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricata. In this study, we monitored changes in the floridoside reservoir through gene expression controlling both the galactose pool and glyceride pool under different reproductive stages of G. imbricata and we considered changing salinity conditions. Floridoside synthesis was followed by expression analysis of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) as UDP-galactose is obtained from UDP-glucose and glucose-1P, and through α-galactosidase gene expression as degradation of floridoside occurs through the cleavage of galactosyl residues. Meanwhile, glycerol 3-phosphate is connected with the galactoglyceride biosynthetic pathway by glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD), monogalactosyl diacylglyceride synthase (MGDGS), and digalactosyl diacylglyceride synthase (DGDGS). The results of our study confirm that low GALT transcripts are correlated with thalli softness to locate reproductive structures, as well as constricting the synthesis of UDP-hexoses for galactan backbone synthesis in the presence of two volatile regulators and methionine. Meanwhile, α-galactosidase modulates expression according to cystocarp maturation, and we found high transcripts in late development stages, as occurred in the presence of methyljasmonate, compared to early stages in ethylene. Regarding the acylglyceride pool, the upregulation of G3PD, MGDGS, and DGDGS gene expression in G. imbricata treated with MEJA supports lipid remodeling, as high levels of transcripts for MGDGS and DGDGS provide membrane stability during late development stages of cystocarps. Similar behavior is assumed in three naturally collected thalli development stages—namely, fertile, fertilized, and fertile—under 65 psu salinity conditions. Low transcripts for α-galactosidase and high for G3PD are reported in infertile and fertilized thalli, which is the opposite to high transcripts for α-galactosidase and low for G3PD encountered in fertile thalli within visible cystocarps compared to each of their corresponding stages in 35 psu. No significant changes are reported for MGDGS and DGDGS. It is concluded that cystocarp and thallus development stages affect galactose and glycerides pools with interwoven effects on cell wall polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae 3rd Edition)
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15 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
Structure and Binding Properties to Blood Co-Factors of the Least Sulfated Galactan Found in the Cell Wall of the Red Alga Botryocladia occidentalis
by Antim K. Maurya, Hoda Al. Ahmed, Anderson DeWitt, Anter A. Shami, Sandeep K. Misra and Vitor H. Pomin
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22020081 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2370
Abstract
Three different populations of sulfated polysaccharides can be found in the cell wall of the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis. In a previous work, the structures of the two more sulfated polysaccharides were revised. In this work, NMR-based structural analysis was performed on [...] Read more.
Three different populations of sulfated polysaccharides can be found in the cell wall of the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis. In a previous work, the structures of the two more sulfated polysaccharides were revised. In this work, NMR-based structural analysis was performed on the least sulfated polysaccharide and its chemically modified derivatives. Results have revealed the presence of both 4-linked α- and 3-linked β-galactose units having the following chemical features: more than half of the total galactose units are not sulfated, the α-units occur primarily as 3,6-anhydrogalactose units either 2-O-methylated or 2-O-sulfated, and the β-galactose units can be 4-O-sulfated or 2,4-O-disulfated. SPR-based results indicated weaker binding of the least sulfated galactan to thrombin, factor Xa, and antithrombin, but stronger binding to heparin cofactor II than unfractionated heparin. This report together with our previous publication completes the structural characterization of the three polysaccharides found in the cell wall of the red alga B. occidentalis and correlates the impact of their composing chemical groups with the levels of interaction with the blood co-factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae 3rd Edition)
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12 pages, 16703 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Nitrogen Concentrations on Co-Production of Fucoxanthin and Fatty Acids in Conticribra weissflogii
by Xiangyu Rui, David Kwame Amenorfenyo, Ke Peng, Haoming Li, Linfei Wang, Xianghu Huang, Changling Li and Feng Li
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21020106 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Fucoxanthin and fatty acids are active substances that are beneficial to the growth and immunity of humans and aquatic animals. However, relatively few species have been exploited for fucoxanthin and fatty acids in the industry. At the same time, due to its low [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin and fatty acids are active substances that are beneficial to the growth and immunity of humans and aquatic animals. However, relatively few species have been exploited for fucoxanthin and fatty acids in the industry. At the same time, due to its low extract content, poor stability, high production cost, and serious seasonal and regional limitations, the industry cannot normally meet the greater demand of the international market. Therefore, this experiment seeks to improve the fucoxanthin and fatty acid content of C. weissflogii by adjusting the nitrogen concentration in the culture medium. It was found that when the nitrogen concentration was 150 mg L−1, the cell number was 1.5 × 106 cell mL−1, and the average biomass was 0.75 g L−1. The mean value of carotenoid concentration was 2.179 mg L−1. The average concentration of fucoxanthin was 1.547 mg g−1. When the nitrogen concentration was 75 mg L−1, the fatty acid content reached its highest. By adjusting the concentration of nitrogen, the contents of fucoxanthin and fatty acids were increased. The results provided a theoretical basis for commercial extraction of fucoxanthin and fatty acids and further promoted the industrialization of fucoxanthin and fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae 3rd Edition)
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16 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
Fillet Fish Fortified with Algal Extracts of Codium tomentosum and Actinotrichia fragilis, as a Potential Antibacterial and Antioxidant Food Supplement
by Mohamed S. M. Abd El Hafez, Sarah H. Rashedy, Neveen M. Abdelmotilib, Hala E. Abou El-Hassayeb, João Cotas and Leonel Pereira
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(12), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20120785 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
With respect to the potential natural resources in the marine environment, marine macroalgae or seaweeds are recognized to have health impacts. Two marine algae that are found in the Red Sea, Codium tomentosum (Green algae) and Actinotrichia fragilis (Red algae), were collected. Antibacterial [...] Read more.
With respect to the potential natural resources in the marine environment, marine macroalgae or seaweeds are recognized to have health impacts. Two marine algae that are found in the Red Sea, Codium tomentosum (Green algae) and Actinotrichia fragilis (Red algae), were collected. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of these algae were evaluated in vitro. Polyphenols from the extracts were determined using HPLC. Fillet fish was fortified with these algal extracts in an attempt to improve its nutritional value, and sensory evaluation was performed. The antibacterial effect of C. tomentosum extract was found to be superior to that of A. fragilis extract. Total phenolic contents of C. tomentosum and A. fragilis aqueous extract were 32.28 ± 1.63 mg/g and 19.96 ± 1.28 mg/g, respectively, while total flavonoid contents were 4.54 ± 1.48 mg/g and 3.86 ± 1.02 mg/g, respectively. Extract of C. tomentosum demonstrates the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 value of 75.32 ± 0.07 μg/mL. The IC50 of L-ascorbic acid as a positive control was 22.71 ± 0.03 μg/mL. The IC50 values for inhibiting proliferation on normal PBMC cells were 33.7 ± 1.02 µg/mL and 51.0 ± 1.14 µg/mL for C. tomentosum and A. fragilis, respectively. The results indicated that both algal aqueous extracts were safe, with low toxicity to normal cells. Interestingly, fillet fish fortified with C. tomentosum extract demonstrated the greatest overall acceptance score. These findings highlight the potential of these seaweed species for cultivation as a sustainable and safe source of therapeutic compounds for treating human and fish diseases, as well as effective food supplements and preservatives instead of chemical ones after performing in vivo assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae 3rd Edition)
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Review

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25 pages, 1176 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Potential of Using Marine-Derived Ingredients: From the Extraction to Cutting-Edge Cosmetics
by João Pedro Costa, Luísa Custódio and Catarina Pinto Reis
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(12), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21120620 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2215
Abstract
The growing understanding and knowledge of the potential of marine species, as well as the application of “blue biotechnology” have been motivating new innovative solutions in cosmetics. It is widely noted that that marine species are important sources of compounds with several biological [...] Read more.
The growing understanding and knowledge of the potential of marine species, as well as the application of “blue biotechnology” have been motivating new innovative solutions in cosmetics. It is widely noted that that marine species are important sources of compounds with several biological activities that are yet to be discovered. This review explores various biological properties of marine-derived molecules and briefly outlines the main extraction methods. Alongside these, it is well known the legislative and normative framework of cosmetics is increasingly being developed. In this research segment, there is a growing concern with sustainability. In this sense, “blue biotechnology”, together with the use of invasive species or marine waste products to obtain new active ingredients, haven been emerging as innovative and sustainable solutions for the future’s cosmetics industry. This review also examines the regulatory framework and focus on the recent advancements in “blue biotechnology” and its relevance to the sustainable development of innovative cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae 3rd Edition)
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21 pages, 2406 KiB  
Review
Application of Nanomaterials in the Production of Biomolecules in Microalgae: A Review
by Xiaolong Yuan, Xiang Gao, Chang Liu, Wensheng Liang, Huidan Xue, Zhengke Li and Haojie Jin
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(11), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21110594 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Nanomaterials (NMs) are becoming more commonly used in microalgal biotechnology to empower the production of algal biomass and valuable metabolites, such as lipids, proteins, and exopolysaccharides. It provides an effective and promising supplement to the existing algal biotechnology. In this review, the potential [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials (NMs) are becoming more commonly used in microalgal biotechnology to empower the production of algal biomass and valuable metabolites, such as lipids, proteins, and exopolysaccharides. It provides an effective and promising supplement to the existing algal biotechnology. In this review, the potential for NMs to enhance microalgal growth by improving photosynthetic utilization efficiency and removing reactive oxygen species is first summarized. Then, their positive roles in accumulation, bioactivity modification, and extraction of valuable microalgal metabolites are presented. After the application of NMs in microalgae cultivation, the extracted metabolites, particularly exopolysaccharides, contain trace amounts of NM residues, and thus, the impact of these residues on the functional properties of the metabolites is also evaluated. Finally, the methods for removing NM residues from the extracted metabolites are summarized. This review provides insights into the application of nanotechnology for sustainable production of valuable metabolites in microalgae and will contribute useful information for ongoing and future practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae 3rd Edition)
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