Bio-Active Compounds from Algae

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Structural Studies on Marine Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 11030

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The search for bioactive compounds from algae remains an important and active area of research in the drug discovery field. This Special Issue of Marine Drugs invites contributions on the study of algae and will focus on highlighting new bioassays, testing, and profiling approaches to discover potential therapeutic leads. In addition, this Special Issue invites reviews and original contributions.

I look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Sylvia Urban
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • algae
  • bioactivity
  • testing
  • bioassays
  • profiling
  • drug discovery

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Halogenated Monoterpenes from the Red Alga Portieria hornemannii
by Yuan-Jhong Wu, Tzu-Yin Huang, Chiung-Yao Huang, Chi-Chen Lin, Wei-Lung Wang, Hui-Chi Huang, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Chih-Hua Chao and Jyh-Horng Sheu
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(9), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21090493 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The chemical investigation of a red alga Portieria hornemannii enabled the identification of three new halogenated monoterpenes (13) along with two previously identified metabolites (4 and 5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and also by [...] Read more.
The chemical investigation of a red alga Portieria hornemannii enabled the identification of three new halogenated monoterpenes (13) along with two previously identified metabolites (4 and 5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and also by utilizing single-crystal diffraction analysis and quantum chemical calculation, as well as by comparison with literature data. Further corrections for dichloro and dibromo carbons using the sorted training set (STS) method were established in this study to significantly improve the accuracy in GIAO 13C NMR calculation of compounds 13. To discover the potential bioactive metabolites from P. hornemannii, the anti-inflammatory activities of all compounds were examined. Compounds 1 and 35 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-stimulated mature dendritic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds from Algae)
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18 pages, 3383 KiB  
Article
Galdieria sulphuraria: An Extremophilic Alga as a Source of Antiviral Bioactive Compounds
by Annalisa Ambrosino, Annalisa Chianese, Carla Zannella, Simona Piccolella, Severina Pacifico, Rosa Giugliano, Gianluigi Franci, Antonino De Natale, Antonino Pollio, Gabriele Pinto, Anna De Filippis and Massimiliano Galdiero
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(7), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21070383 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
In the last decades, the interest in bioactive compounds derived from natural sources including bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae has significantly increased. It is well-known that aquatic or terrestrial organisms can produce, in special conditions, secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the interest in bioactive compounds derived from natural sources including bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae has significantly increased. It is well-known that aquatic or terrestrial organisms can produce, in special conditions, secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological properties, such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we focused on the extremophilic microalga Galdieria sulphuraria as a possible producer of bioactive compounds with antiviral activity. The algal culture was subjected to organic extraction with acetone. The cytotoxicity effect of the extract was evaluated by the 2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The antiviral activity was assessed through a plaque assay against herpesviruses and coronaviruses as enveloped viruses and poliovirus as a naked one. The monolayer was treated with different concentrations of extract, ranging from 1 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL, and infected with viruses. The algal extract displayed strong antiviral activity at non-toxic concentrations against all tested enveloped viruses, in particular in the virus pre-treatment against HSV-2 and HCoV-229E, with IC50 values of 1.7 µg/mL and IC90 of 1.8 µg/mL, respectively. However, no activity against the non-enveloped poliovirus has been detected. The inhibitory effect of the algal extract was confirmed by the quantitative RT-PCR of viral genes. Preliminary chemical profiling of the extract was performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), revealing the enrichment in primary fatty acid amides (PFAA), such as oleamide, palmitamide, and pheophorbide A. These promising results pave the way for the further purification of the mixture to explore its potential role as an antiviral agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds from Algae)
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25 pages, 6676 KiB  
Article
Study of the Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, and In Vitro Anti-Diabetic Efficacy of Gracilaria bursa-pastoris Extracts
by Safae Ouahabi, El Hassania Loukili, Nour Elhouda Daoudi, Mohamed Chebaibi, Mohamed Ramdani, Ilyesse Rahhou, Mohamed Bnouham, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Belkheir Hammouti, Larbi Rhazi, Alicia Ayerdi Gotor, Flore Dépeint and Mohammed Ramdani
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(7), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21070372 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
In this study, a comparison was made of the chemical makeup of different extracts obtained from Gracilaria bursa-pastoris, a type of red seaweed that was gathered from the Nador lagoon situated in the northern part of Morocco. Additionally, their anti-diabetic and antioxidant properties [...] Read more.
In this study, a comparison was made of the chemical makeup of different extracts obtained from Gracilaria bursa-pastoris, a type of red seaweed that was gathered from the Nador lagoon situated in the northern part of Morocco. Additionally, their anti-diabetic and antioxidant properties were investigated. The application of GC-MS technology to analyze the fatty acid content of the samples revealed that linoleic acid and eicosenoic acid were the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids across all samples, with palmitic acid and oleic acid following in frequency. The HPLC analysis indicated that ascorbic and kojic acids were the most prevalent phenolic compounds, while apigenin was the most common flavonoid molecule. The aqueous extract exhibited significant levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, registering values of 381.31 ± 0.33 mg GAE/g and 201.80 ± 0.21 mg QE/g, respectively. Furthermore, this particular extract demonstrated a remarkable ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, as evidenced by its IC50 value of 0.17 ± 0.67 mg/mL. In addition, the methanolic extract was found to possess antioxidant properties, as evidenced by its ability to prevent β-carotene discoloration, with an IC50 ranging from 0.062 ± 0.02 mg/mL to 0.070 ± 0.06 mg/mL. In vitro study showed that all extracts significantly inhibited the enzymatic activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Finally, molecular docking models were applied to assess the interaction between the primary phytochemicals identified in G. bursa-pastoris extracts and the human pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The findings suggest that these extracts contain bioactive substances capable of reducing enzyme activity more effectively than the commercially available drug acarbose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds from Algae)
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20 pages, 2606 KiB  
Article
Structural Characterization and Rheological and Antioxidant Properties of Novel Polysaccharide from Calcareous Red Seaweed
by Faiez Hentati, Latifa Tounsi, Guillaume Pierre, Mohamed Barkallah, Alina Violeta Ursu, Hajer Ben Hlima, Jacques Desbrières, Didier Le Cerf, Imen Fendri, Philippe Michaud and Slim Abdelkafi
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(9), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20090546 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
A novel sulfated xylogalactan (JASX) was extracted and purified from the rhodophyceae Jania adhaerens. JASX was characterized by chromatography (GC/MS-EI and SEC/MALLS) and spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and 1H/13C NMR) techniques. Results showed that JASX was constituted by repeating units of [...] Read more.
A novel sulfated xylogalactan (JASX) was extracted and purified from the rhodophyceae Jania adhaerens. JASX was characterized by chromatography (GC/MS-EI and SEC/MALLS) and spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and 1H/13C NMR) techniques. Results showed that JASX was constituted by repeating units of (→3)-β-d-Galp-(1,4)-3,6-α-l-AnGalp-(1→)n and (→3)-β-d-Galp-(1,4)-α-l-Galp-(1→)n substituted on O-2 and O-3 of the α-(1,4)-l-Galp units by methoxy and/or sulfate groups but also on O-6 of the β-(1,3)-d-Galp mainly by β-xylosyl side chains and less by methoxy and/or sulfate groups. The Mw, Mn, Đ, [η] and C* of JASX were respectively 600 and 160 kDa, 3.7, 102 mL.g−1 and 7.0 g.L−1. JASX exhibited pseudoplastic behavior influenced by temperature and monovalent salts and highly correlated to the power-law model and the Arrhenius relationship. JASX presented thixotropic characteristics, a gel-like viscoelastic behavior and a great viscoelasticity character. JASX showed important antioxidant activities, outlining its potential as a natural additive to produce functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds from Algae)
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11 pages, 1471 KiB  
Article
Two Foreign Antimicrobial Peptides Expressed in the Chloroplast of Porphyridium purpureum Possessed Antibacterial Properties
by Subing Han, Jialin Zhao, Ping Liu, Kang Wang, Song Qin, Zhenjun Zhao and Yulin Cui
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(8), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20080484 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
To solve the problem of antibiotic abuse in aquaculture and to utilize the application potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a chloroplast transformation system of Porphyridium purpureum was successfully constructed for effectively expressing two exogenous AMPs. The endogenous fragments of 16S rDNA/trnA-23S [...] Read more.
To solve the problem of antibiotic abuse in aquaculture and to utilize the application potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a chloroplast transformation system of Porphyridium purpureum was successfully constructed for effectively expressing two exogenous AMPs. The endogenous fragments of 16S rDNA/trnA-23S rDNA were used as flanking fragments for the homologous recombination in the chloroplast genome. Two AMPs encoded by the transformation vector were controlled by the native promoter psbB in a polycistron. The plasmids were transferred into P. purpureum via particle bombardment and the transformation vectors were screened using phosphinothricin (bar), a dominant selection marker under the control of the psbA promoter. Subsequently, in the positive transformed colonies, the exogenous fragments were found to be inserted in the flanking fragments directionally as expected and two foreign AMPs were successfully obtained. Finally, two exogenous peptides with antibacterial properties were obtained from the transformed strain. The two AMPs expressed by the transformed strain were shown to have similar inhibitory effects to antibiotics by inhibition tests. This suggested that AMPs can be introduced into aquaculture using baited microalgae, providing new ideas and ways to solve a series of aquaculture diseases caused by bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds from Algae)
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11 pages, 3021 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Active Compounds Using High-Performance Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) from Anti-Inflammatory Activity Fraction of Ecklonia maxima in South Africa
by Hyun-Soo Kim, Jun-Geon Je, Hyesuck An, Kyunghwa Baek, Jeong Min Lee, Mi-Jin Yim, Seok-Chun Ko, Ji-Yul Kim, Gun-Woo Oh, Min-Cheol Kang, Young Min Ham, You-Jin Jeon and Dae-Sung Lee
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(8), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20080471 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Ecklonia maxima is a brown seaweed, which is abundantly distributed in South Africa. This study investigated an efficient approach using high-performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC), which has been successfully developed for the isolation and purification of phlorotannins, eckmaxol, and dieckol from the ethyl [...] Read more.
Ecklonia maxima is a brown seaweed, which is abundantly distributed in South Africa. This study investigated an efficient approach using high-performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC), which has been successfully developed for the isolation and purification of phlorotannins, eckmaxol, and dieckol from the ethyl acetate fraction of E. maxima (EEM). We evaluated EEM for its inhibitory effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in zebrafish embryos. The separation of eckmaxol and dieckol from samples of EEM using HPCPC was found to be of high purity and yield under an optimal solvent system composed of n-hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water (2:7:3:7, v/v/v/v). To evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of EEM containing active compounds, zebrafish embryos exposed to LPS were compared with and without EEM treatment for nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell death two days after fertilization. These evaluations indicate that EEM alleviated inflammation by inhibiting cell death, ROS, and NO generation induced by LPS treatment. According to these results, eckmaxol and dieckol isolated from brown seaweed E. maxima could be considered effective anti-inflammatory agents as pharmaceutical and functional food ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds from Algae)
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