Mechatronic System for Automatic Control

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Automation and Control Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 42047

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Mechatronics and Automation Department, South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Interests: power engineering; industrial mechatronic systems; automation and control systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, 455000 Magnitogorsk, Russia
Interests: automation and control systems; optimal control system; data science; modeling; simulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mechatronics systems are a part of industrial automated control systems, which are a synergetic combination of electrical parts, electronic units, and precision mechanical parts; microprocessor technology; various energy sources; and electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives. These units and parts are combined in an intelligent control system, which is the focus of contemporary automated industrial systems.

This Special Issue will accept contributions describing innovative research and developments in “Mechatronic Systems for Automatic Control”. The overall objective is to cover a wide range of disciplines, including power engineering, industrial mechatronic systems, and automation and control systems. Emphasis is given to methods and findings aimed at determining the prospects for the development of Smart Industry technologies and the creation of promising technologies for the digital transformation of industries.

Suitable topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

Industrial mechatronics and robotics;

Diagnostics and reliability of mechatronic systems;

Control systems and applications;

Sensors and computer vision;

Process automation;

Big data, machine learning, and artificial intelligence for Industry 4.0

Flexible manufacturing systems;

Digital twins technologies

Modeling and computer technologies for industrial applications.

Dr. Vadim R. Gasiyarov
Dr. Sergey M. Andreev
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Machines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • robotics and mechatronics
  • automation and control
  • Industry 4.0
  • Smart Industry
  • machine learning
  • computer vision
  • mechanism design
  • electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic machines and drives

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3096 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Optimization Algorithms for Neural Network Solutions of Optimal Control Problems with Mixed Constraints
by Irina Bolodurina and Lyubov Zabrodina
Machines 2021, 9(5), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9050102 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting the most efficient optimization algorithm for neural network approximation—solving optimal control problems with mixed constraints. The original optimal control problem is reduced to a finite-dimensional optimization problem by applying the necessary optimality conditions, the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting the most efficient optimization algorithm for neural network approximation—solving optimal control problems with mixed constraints. The original optimal control problem is reduced to a finite-dimensional optimization problem by applying the necessary optimality conditions, the Lagrange multiplier method and the least squares method. Neural network approximation models are presented for the desired control functions, trajectory and conjugate factors. The selection of the optimal weight coefficients of the neural network approximation was carried out using the gravitational search algorithm and the basic particle swarm algorithm and the genetic algorithm. Computational experiments showed that evolutionary optimization algorithms required the smallest number of iterations for a given accuracy in comparison with the classical gradient optimization method; however, the multi-agent optimization methods were performed later for each operation. As a result, the genetic algorithm showed a faster convergence rate relative to the total execution time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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19 pages, 3684 KiB  
Article
Cybersecurity Risk Assessment in Smart City Infrastructures
by Maxim Kalinin, Vasiliy Krundyshev and Peter Zegzhda
Machines 2021, 9(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9040078 - 4 Apr 2021
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 10067
Abstract
The article is devoted to cybersecurity risk assessment of the dynamic device-to-device networks of a smart city. Analysis of the modern security threats at the IoT/IIoT, VANET, and WSN inter-device infrastructures demonstrates that the main concern is a set of network security threats [...] Read more.
The article is devoted to cybersecurity risk assessment of the dynamic device-to-device networks of a smart city. Analysis of the modern security threats at the IoT/IIoT, VANET, and WSN inter-device infrastructures demonstrates that the main concern is a set of network security threats targeted at the functional sustainability of smart urban infrastructure, the most common use case of smart networks. As a result of our study, systematization of the existing cybersecurity risk assessment methods has been provided. Expert-based risk assessment and active human participation cannot be provided for the huge, complex, and permanently changing digital environment of the smart city. The methods of scenario analysis and functional analysis are specific to industrial risk management and are hardly adaptable to solving cybersecurity tasks. The statistical risk evaluation methods force us to collect statistical data for the calculation of the security indicators for the self-organizing networks, and the accuracy of this method depends on the number of calculating iterations. In our work, we have proposed a new approach for cybersecurity risk management based on object typing, data mining, and quantitative risk assessment for the smart city infrastructure. The experimental study has shown us that the artificial neural network allows us to automatically, unambiguously, and reasonably assess the cyber risk for various object types in the dynamic digital infrastructures of the smart city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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20 pages, 7884 KiB  
Article
Optimal Control of the Positional Electric Drive and Its Implementation
by Vladimir Dotsenko, Roman Prokudin and Alexander Litvinenko
Machines 2021, 9(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9040070 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
The article deals with the optimal control of the positional electric drive of the stator element of a segment-type wind turbine. The calculation options charts current in the assumption of the minimum energy consumption and the implementation of line chart current using the [...] Read more.
The article deals with the optimal control of the positional electric drive of the stator element of a segment-type wind turbine. The calculation options charts current in the assumption of the minimum energy consumption and the implementation of line chart current using the phenomenon of capacitor discharge. The analysis of the implementation is expressed in a jump-like change in current and a triangular graph of the speed change. This article deals with small capacity synchronous wind turbine generators with a segment type stator. These units have the possibility of intentionally changing the air gap between the rotor and stator. This allows: (1) Reduce the starting torque on the rotor shaft, which will allow the rotor to pick up at low wind speeds. (2) Equivalent to change of air gap in this case is change of excitation of synchronous generators. Thus, the purpose of the article is to consider a method of excitation of generators in a segmented design, by controlling the gap with the electric drive, while providing control should be carried out with minimal losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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17 pages, 6370 KiB  
Article
The Simulation of Heat Supply System with a Scale Formation Factor to Enable Automation of Greenhouse Geothermal Heat Supply System
by Alexey Korzhakov, Sergei Oskin, Valery Korzhakov and Svetlana Korzhakova
Machines 2021, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030064 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
This article presents the results of the simulation of an automatic control system for the heat supply of a greenhouse complex with a geothermal heat source, conducted in order to study the possibility of geothermal heat supply system automation. Scilab version 6.1 was [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of the simulation of an automatic control system for the heat supply of a greenhouse complex with a geothermal heat source, conducted in order to study the possibility of geothermal heat supply system automation. Scilab version 6.1 was used for simulation. Based on the results of the simulation, the optimal mode of the automation system function of the heat exchanger primary circuit was developed and implemented. Reagentless treatment of geothermal water in the heat supply system with an acoustic–magnetic device (designed and patented by the authors of this paper) can significantly reduce the intensity of scale formation in the heat exchanger and geothermal heat supply system equipment. It provides conditions for the automation of geothermal heat supply systems of greenhouses with a surface heat exchanger. Using an automation system allows greater accuracy and reliability in maintaining the required temperature regime (18–20 °C) in the greenhouse, reduces the frequency of system shutdown for unplanned cleaning of the heat exchanger and equipment, reduces the complexity of manual operations of heat exchanger and equipment maintenance (removal of sludge, scale) and reduces the economic costs of transportation and heat consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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32 pages, 11977 KiB  
Article
Simulation Modeling of First Rise Section of Water Supply System with Installed Complex of Automatic Pump Performance Control
by George Palkin and Ivan Suvorov
Machines 2021, 9(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030063 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
The article considers the important problem of technical and economic optimization of the operating modes of the first rise section of water supply systems. At the same time, the task is to minimize the costs associated with the excessive operation of pumps, while [...] Read more.
The article considers the important problem of technical and economic optimization of the operating modes of the first rise section of water supply systems. At the same time, the task is to minimize the costs associated with the excessive operation of pumps, while providing the protection of the pipeline from freezing in harsh natural operating conditions. To solve this problem, a computer simulation model was developed for the first rise section, equipped with a pump performance control system. The main differences of the developed model are: integrated approach to the analysis of parameters of various physical nature, assessment of the object economic indicators, possibility of simulating non-standard control algorithms. Preliminary studies of the model have shown the possibility and feasibility of its application for calculating the optimal parameters and operating modes of the object under consideration. Based on the simulation results, it was revealed that to calculate the control action by level, it is advisable to use the PID law, for temperature—PD law, for flow rate—PI law. To calculate the main control action, it is proposed to simultaneously calculate the actions in terms of level and temperature, followed by bringing the larger of them to the value of the setpoint for the flow rate maintained by the flow controller. The studies of the proposed management concept for the first rise section have shown its high technical and economic efficiency. In particular, the savings in electricity consumption are estimated at about 55.2% while providing pipeline frost protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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17 pages, 2739 KiB  
Article
Validation of Complex Control Systems with Heterogeneous Digital Models in Industry 4.0 Framework
by Kirill Semenkov, Vitaly Promyslov, Alexey Poletykin and Nadir Mengazetdinov
Machines 2021, 9(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030062 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2923
Abstract
The precise evaluation of the system design and characteristics is a challenge for experts and engineers. This paper considers the problem of the development and application of a digital twin to assess cyberphysical systems. We analyze the details of digital twin applications at [...] Read more.
The precise evaluation of the system design and characteristics is a challenge for experts and engineers. This paper considers the problem of the development and application of a digital twin to assess cyberphysical systems. We analyze the details of digital twin applications at different lifecycle stages. The work reviews and summarizes properties of models concerning the digital and physical components of a cyberphysical system (CPS). The other issue of a CPS is increasing cybersecurity threat for objects, so special attention is paid to the heterogeneous digital twin usage scenarios to improve CPS cybersecurity. The article also details the heterogeneous digital twin’s implementation for a real upper-level control system of a nuclear power plant. The presented heterogeneous digital twin combines virtual machines with real equipment, namely hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) components. The achievements and drawbacks of the implemented model, including single timescale maintaining challenges, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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17 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
Application of the Sequence Planner Control Framework to an Intelligent Automation System with a Focus on Error Handling
by Martin Dahl, Kristofer Bengtsson and Petter Falkman
Machines 2021, 9(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030059 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Future automation systems are likely to include devices with a varying degree of autonomy, as well as advanced algorithms for perception and control. Human operators will be expected to work side by side with both collaborative robots performing assembly tasks and roaming robots [...] Read more.
Future automation systems are likely to include devices with a varying degree of autonomy, as well as advanced algorithms for perception and control. Human operators will be expected to work side by side with both collaborative robots performing assembly tasks and roaming robots that handle material transport. To maintain the flexibility provided by human operators when introducing such robots, these autonomous robots need to be intelligently coordinated, i.e., they need to be supported by an intelligent automation system. One challenge in developing intelligent automation systems is handling the large amount of possible error situations that can arise due to the volatile and sometimes unpredictable nature of the environment. Sequence Planner is a control framework that supports the development of intelligent automation systems. This paper describes Sequence Planner and tests its ability to handle errors that arise during execution of an intelligent automation system. An automation system, developed using Sequence Planner, is subjected to a number of scenarios where errors occur. The error scenarios and experimental results are presented along with a discussion of the experience gained in trying to achieve robust intelligent automation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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28 pages, 5260 KiB  
Article
Development of Digital Models of Interconnected Electrical Profiles for Rolling–Drawing Wire Mills
by Alexandr S. Karandaev, Vadim R. Gasiyarov, Andrey A. Radionov and Boris M. Loginov
Machines 2021, 9(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030054 - 4 Mar 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
The latest development trend in rolling industry is the combination of various technological operations in continuous production lines. In the production of long products, the combination of rolling and drawing processes looks promising. A wire drawing mill developed by the team of authors [...] Read more.
The latest development trend in rolling industry is the combination of various technological operations in continuous production lines. In the production of long products, the combination of rolling and drawing processes looks promising. A wire drawing mill developed by the team of authors of this work belongs to the conceptually new, integrated lines. The creation of new integrated rolling mills requires a research phase, where relevant concepts are scrutinized using the methods of mathematical modeling. This requires the development of digital (Digital Twin) models that reliably describe the technological processes. It seems efficient to create a Digital Twin for individual units, with their subsequent integration into a complex digital model. This approach was applied in the development of models of electrical systems for the new line. Such models should take into account a wide range of real-life physical relationships. At the same time, a three-high continuous train of stands with an idle inter-stand is the least studied technological unit of the new mill. The absence of an electric drive of the middle stand determines the particulars of deformation processes and the stands’ interconnections through the processed metal. To date, a comprehensive study of such objects has not been carried out. Therefore, the task of studying this technological unit is of immediate interest. The presented publication is devoted to the development of digital models of deformation zones of drive stands and idle stands, as well as of their relationship through the processed metal. The task is solved using the example of an operating pilot production line that implements rolling technology with an idle stand. The authors describe individual Digital Twins and present the structure of the complex model of the studied unit. The most important purpose of the model is to use it in the development of a control method for electric drives of stands to ensure the stability of the rolling process. The developed method should provide a reduction in energy consumption due to the use of friction force reserves present in the idle stand. The authors also substantiate the control principle based on continuous monitoring and alignment of critical angles in the deformation zones of the drive stands. The paper describes a structure of the control system and explains the technical implementation of this principle. The results of mathematical modeling and oscillograms of typical transient processes are presented. The advantages provided by implementing the proposed control method are shown. The work provides an indirect confirmation of the adequacy of the model to the physical object. Recommendations are given on the use of the developed Digital Twin in the study of rolling processes on sheet and sectional mills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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16 pages, 4842 KiB  
Article
Developing New Thermal Protection Method for AC Electric Motors
by Igor V. Bochkarev, Ivan V. Bryakin, Vadim R. Khramshin, Aida R. Sandybaeva and Konstantin V. Litsin
Machines 2021, 9(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030051 - 1 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Monitoring the thermal state of windings of electrical machines is a backbone for protection from unacceptable overheating. A large number of different methods and systems aim to solve this problem. This article discusses the main known methods of thermal protection of electric motors [...] Read more.
Monitoring the thermal state of windings of electrical machines is a backbone for protection from unacceptable overheating. A large number of different methods and systems aim to solve this problem. This article discusses the main known methods of thermal protection of electric motors and provides their comparative analysis. This paper shows that the most promising methods are those based on control of the current active resistance of the stator winding, as its value uniquely depends on temperature. It is demonstrated that the known methods have a number of disadvantages. A new phase method for thermal protection of AC motors is proposed. The method is based on the fact that a temperature-induced change in the active and reactive components of the winding impedance causes a corresponding change in the angle between the vectors of phase voltages and currents. This allows for thermal protection by controlling the change in this angle. This article provides tabular analytical substantiation of the proposed method, which is based on the direct measurements of voltage and current and the subsequent algorithmic calculation of physical values functionally related to the sought angle. The authors develop a structural block diagram of a device that implements the proposed thermal protection method. All relevant experimental studies were carried out. In this case, a small-sized electronic thermometer with a remote digital temperature sensor connected to the USB port of a personal computer was used as a temperature meter. The results obtained confirm the functional capability and efficiency of the proposed technical solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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18 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Design of Nonlinear Control of Gas Turbine Engine Based on Constant Eigenvectors
by Sagit Valeev and Natalya Kondratyeva
Machines 2021, 9(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030049 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6034
Abstract
A gas turbine engine represents a complex dynamic control object. Its characteristics change depending on the state of the environment and the regimes of its operation. This paper discusses an algorithmic approach to the design of a nonlinear controller, based on the concept [...] Read more.
A gas turbine engine represents a complex dynamic control object. Its characteristics change depending on the state of the environment and the regimes of its operation. This paper discusses an algorithmic approach to the design of a nonlinear controller, based on the concept of constant eigenvectors and analytical design of the control system. The proposed design method makes it possible to ensure the stability and the required quality of transient processes at different acceleration modes. In this case, the constancy of the matrix of the canonical basis of the closed-loop control system is assumed, which guarantees stability. The design of a neural network dynamic model of a gas turbine engine based on a neural network approximator with one input and multiple outputs is considered. An example of the design of a nonlinear controller for a gas turbine engine is considered, the neural network model of which is given in the state space. The application of neural network approximation of controller coefficients is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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17 pages, 3842 KiB  
Article
Consideration of Distinguishing Design Features of Gas-Turbine and Gas-Reciprocating Units in Design of Emergency Control Systems
by Pavel Ilyushin, Aleksandr Kulikov, Konstantin Suslov and Sergey Filippov
Machines 2021, 9(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9030047 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Modern gas-turbine units (GTUs) and gas-reciprocating units (GRUs) have found a wide use at power plants, including distributed generation facilities, running on gaseous fuel. The design features of these generating units have a considerable effect on the nature and parameters of transient processes [...] Read more.
Modern gas-turbine units (GTUs) and gas-reciprocating units (GRUs) have found a wide use at power plants, including distributed generation facilities, running on gaseous fuel. The design features of these generating units have a considerable effect on the nature and parameters of transient processes due to emergency disturbances in the adjacent network. The study shows that single-shaft gas-turbine and gas-reciprocating units do not allow even short-term considerable frequency drops. These schemes and operating conditions arise due to emergency active power shortages when the connection between the power plant and the power system weakens due to repair conditions or islanded operation. The paper presents the results of transient process calculations for operating power plants (distributed generation facilities), which make it possible to identify the unfavorable properties of GTUs and GRUs. The results show that two-shaft (three-shaft) GTUs and GRUs can switch to out-of-step conditions even when short-circuits in the adjacent network are cleared with high-speed relay protection devices. The features of out-of-step conditions and the admissibility of their short-term duration for the spontaneous restoration of generators’ synchronization are considered. The findings suggest that considering the fundamental design features of generating units provides informed technical decisions on equipping power plants (distributed generation (DG) facilities) and the adjacent network with efficient emergency control systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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18 pages, 8244 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Study of a Device for Electrical Power Lines Probing for a Tunnel-Boring Complex Control System
by Andrew V. Zhivodernikov, Alexander V. Pavlenko and Vladimir S. Puzin
Machines 2021, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9020035 - 7 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
The article considers the problems of the magnetic field distribution, generated by a power electric cable at the micro-tunnel-boring shield arrangement site by numerical modeling with a further full-scale device model experiment. The impact of foreign magnetic field sources on readings of three-component [...] Read more.
The article considers the problems of the magnetic field distribution, generated by a power electric cable at the micro-tunnel-boring shield arrangement site by numerical modeling with a further full-scale device model experiment. The impact of foreign magnetic field sources on readings of three-component sensors was established in the process of the study. The considerable existence of parasitic noises, conditioned by external magnetic fields and high sensitivity of the probes, which will require the use of additional filters, was established. When using three-component ferroprobes, the most informative is the probe component coinciding with the tunnel shield longitudinal axis Z. The study showed that with current values greater than 200 A and changes in cable location during the experiment, it is possible to record signals from other sensor components and subsequently determine the location and orientation of the current-carrying cable. The experimental results obtained confirm the feasibility of a multi-sensor probing device for the micro-tunneling machine shield movement control system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic System for Automatic Control)
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