10th Anniversary of Machines—Feature Papers in Electrical Machines and Drives

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Machines and Drives".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 15158

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitat de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: electric motors; fault diagnosis; transient analysis; signal processing; wavelet analysis; infrared thermography; time-frequency transforms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electric machines and drives is a traditional area, but one undergoing continuous evolution. Development of new designs of different machine typologies, the design of new drive topologies, new control strategies, novel condition monitoring and fault diagnosis techniques as well as the application of recent signal processing, artificial intelligence (AI), pattern recognition or machine-learning tools with diverse aims, are evidence of the dynamism of the area. This Special Issue invites paper submissions on the emerging research and technologies related to electrical machines and drives (design, control, materials, optimization, diagnosis). 

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • New electrical machine and drive designs;
  • Use of new materials in electrical machines and drives;
  • Novel electrical machines control strategies;
  • Enhanced optimization methods for electrical machines and drives;
  • New condition monitoring and fault diagnosis methods;
  • Modern applications of advanced signal processing tools;
  • Recent application of AI methods to electrical machines and drives;
  • Electrical machines and drives and machine learning;
  • New pattern recognition methods applied to electrical machines and drives.

Prof. Dr. Jose A Antonino-Daviu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Machines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 7557 KiB  
Article
Weight Minimization of Type 2 Composite Pressure Vessel for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Considering Mechanical Safety with Kriging Metamodel
by Jaewook An, Hamin Lee and Chang-Wan Kim
Machines 2024, 12(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12020132 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 938
Abstract
In recent years, increased sales of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have required composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) designs to be lightweight and allow safe high-pressure hydrogen storage. In this study, we propose the weight minimization of Type 2 COPVs for FCEVs considering [...] Read more.
In recent years, increased sales of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have required composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) designs to be lightweight and allow safe high-pressure hydrogen storage. In this study, we propose the weight minimization of Type 2 COPVs for FCEVs considering mechanical safety. Steel liner thickness, ply thickness, ply orientation, and the number of plies were set as design variables, and weight minimization was performed. For the constraints of optimization, the Tsai–Wu failure index of the composite layer and von Mises stress of the steel liner are considered. The design of experiments (DoE) was conducted to generate kriging model and perform sensitivity analysis. The optimized design of Type 2 COPVs was determined by satisfying all constraints, with significant weight reduction and preserved mechanical safety of the structure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 13332 KiB  
Article
Development of Various Types of Independent Phase Based Pulsewidth Modulation Techniques for Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverters
by Minh Hoang Nguyen, Sangshin Kwak and Seungdeog Choi
Machines 2023, 11(12), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11121054 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Discontinuous pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) methods have been extensively used in the industrial area to reduce overall losses, which decreases the corresponding thermal stress on the power switches of converters. However, local thermal overload can arise due to different aging conditions of semiconductor devices or [...] Read more.
Discontinuous pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) methods have been extensively used in the industrial area to reduce overall losses, which decreases the corresponding thermal stress on the power switches of converters. However, local thermal overload can arise due to different aging conditions of semiconductor devices or failure in the cooling system. This leads to reduced reliability of the converter system due to the low expected lifespan of the most aged switches or phase legs. In this paper, the modified DPWM strategies for independent control of per-phase switching loss are introduced to deal with this matter. The proposed per-phase DPWM techniques are generated by modifying the conventional three-phase DPWM methods for reducing the switching loss in a specific leg, whereas the output performance is not degraded. This paper reports on output performance, including output current total harmonic distortion (THD) and power loss of switching devices, analysis for the various modified DPWM strategies for independent control of per-phase switching loss, which is applicable in 2-level 3-phase voltage source inverters (2L3P VSIs). The results are compared to the corresponding continuous PWM technique to verify and analyze the effectiveness and accuracy of the modified DPWM strategies for independent control of per-phase switching loss. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4199 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Supporting Mounts of a Three-in-One Electric Drive Unit Using a Hybrid Simulation Model
by So-Hee Park, Chan-Jung Kim and Yeonjune Kang
Machines 2023, 11(11), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11111026 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
The 3-in-1 electric drive unit (EDU) has the advantage of increasing the motor size for a larger output, and the reducer can be a compact layout designed to incorporate three key components—the drive motor, inverter, and reducer—into a single main body. This paper [...] Read more.
The 3-in-1 electric drive unit (EDU) has the advantage of increasing the motor size for a larger output, and the reducer can be a compact layout designed to incorporate three key components—the drive motor, inverter, and reducer—into a single main body. This paper explores a hybrid simulation model for a 3-in-1 electromechanical drive unit (EDU) and its supporting components, consisting of the gear drive unit (GDU) mount, the motor mount, and the roll rod mounts. The synthesis of these sub-components, including the 3-in-1 EDU itself, the three supporting mount modules, and a rigid-body finite element model, is presented. The dynamics of the 3-in-1 EDU were determined through an experimental modal test. Meanwhile, the dynamic stiffness and damping coefficients of the three supporting mounts were measured using an elastomer tester across a frequency range from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz. To evaluate the sensitivity of each mount, the total spectral responses of the 3-in-1 EDU were compared under a torque input, considering rigid connections for each mount in contrast to their original dynamic stiffness. Through installing a rollrod mount, the optimal rigid connection was identified to control the dynamic response of the 3-in-1 EDU hybrid model. Furthermore, simulation results for the rigid connections in each mount were validated against experimental findings, confirming that the rigid rollrod mount configuration provided the best results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6534 KiB  
Article
Observer-Based Controller Using Line Integral Lyapunov Fuzzy Function for TS Fuzzy Systems: Application to Induction Motors
by Rabiaa Houili, Mohamed Yacine Hammoudi, Mohamed Benbouzid and Abdennacer Titaouine
Machines 2023, 11(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030374 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
This paper deals with the stabilization problem of a nonlinear system described by a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy (TSF) model with unmeasurable premise variables via a robust controller. Applying the sector nonlinearity techniques, the nonlinear system is represented by a decoupled fuzzy model. Then, we [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the stabilization problem of a nonlinear system described by a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy (TSF) model with unmeasurable premise variables via a robust controller. Applying the sector nonlinearity techniques, the nonlinear system is represented by a decoupled fuzzy model. Then, we design a robust observer-based controller for the obtained fuzzy system by utilizing the differential mean value approach. The observer and controller gains are obtained by the separation principle, in which the problem is solved in the sum of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The paper presents two main contributions: A state feedback controller is designed using differential mean value (DMVT) which ensures robust stabilization of the nonlinear system. Additionally, the Luenberger observer is extended to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy models. The second contribution is to reduce conservatism in the obtained conditions, a non-quadratic Lyapunov function (known as the line integral Lyapunov fuzzy candidate (LILF)) is employed. Two examples are provided to further illustrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach; specifically, the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy descriptor of an induction motor is derived and a robust observer-based controller applied to the original nonlinear system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 10042 KiB  
Article
Application of Transient Analysis Techniques to Fault Diagnosis in Low- and Medium-Power Synchronous Machines
by Angela Navarro-Navarro, Jose E. Ruiz-Sarrio, Vicente Biot-Monterde, Jose A. Antonino-Daviu, Vincent Becker and Sven Urschel
Machines 2023, 11(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020288 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Fault diagnosis techniques applied to synchronous motors such as Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) and Synchronous Reluctance Machines (SynRMs) are scarcely addressed in the literature, in strong contrast to the attention paid to asynchronous motors. In addition, the most widespread techniques are those [...] Read more.
Fault diagnosis techniques applied to synchronous motors such as Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) and Synchronous Reluctance Machines (SynRMs) are scarcely addressed in the literature, in strong contrast to the attention paid to asynchronous motors. In addition, the most widespread techniques are those based on steady-state condition analysis, and little attention is paid to detection during transient operation. The present paper aims to identify research gaps on the topic and to demonstrate the potential of transient analysis. First, the different diagnostic methodologies in literature are thoroughly analyzed. Then, two laboratory case studies are presented to demonstrate the potential of fault detection under non-stationary conditions for a PMSM and a SynRM. Stator current analysis is performed by building time–frequency maps to analyze the evolution of different fault indicators. The results show clear differences between healthy and faulty conditions during the transient regime. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 8171 KiB  
Article
Application of a Model-Based Method to the Online Detection of Rotating Rectifier Faults in Brushless Synchronous Machines
by Kumar Mahtani, José M. Guerrero, Luis F. Beites and Carlos A. Platero
Machines 2023, 11(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020223 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Converters are one of the most sensible components of any power conversion system when it comes to electrical faults. Moreover, if these converters are used in a rotating system, as is the case with rotating rectifiers used in brushless synchronous machines, apart from [...] Read more.
Converters are one of the most sensible components of any power conversion system when it comes to electrical faults. Moreover, if these converters are used in a rotating system, as is the case with rotating rectifiers used in brushless synchronous machines, apart from also being exposed to mechanical effects and thus having a greater likelihood of failure, no access is available directly, causing a lack of available measurements for condition monitoring. This paper applies a model-based method to the online detection of open-diode faults, shorted-diode faults and exciter open-phase faults in the rotating rectifiers of brushless synchronous machines. The applied method relies on the comparison between the measured and the theoretical exciter field currents, the latter computed through a healthy machine model from the machine actual output values. The proposed protection strategy stands out for its computational simplicity and its non-invasiveness, which makes its industrial application straightforward without the need of any further equipment or adaptation. Its applicability has been verified through a double approach, on the one hand, through computer simulations, and, on the other hand, through experimental tests, achieving satisfactory results. The research conducted proves that with the proposed method, given reasonable measurement and model estimation typical errors of less than 5%, positive differences between the measured and the theoretical exciter field currents of more than 13%, 200% and 30% for open-diode faults, shorted-diode faults and exciter open-phase faults, respectively, are detectable with at least a 95% confidence interval. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 2044 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Drivetrain Topologies for an Ankle Gait Cycle
by Yentl Joos, Peter Sergeant, Hendrik Vansompel and Tom Verstraten
Machines 2023, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11010023 - 25 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Powered prosthesis actuation is a field where energy efficiency and mass are important characteristics. The motion requirements of high torque at low speed and low torque at high speed are difficult to effectively combine in a single electric motor. A possibility is to [...] Read more.
Powered prosthesis actuation is a field where energy efficiency and mass are important characteristics. The motion requirements of high torque at low speed and low torque at high speed are difficult to effectively combine in a single electric motor. A possibility is to use an oversized direct–drive motor that can deliver the peak torque. However, this results in a heavy actuation system and low overall efficiency. A common practice is combining a smaller electric motor with a gear reduction system. In the literature, novel redundant electric actuation systems have been presented with or without locking mechanisms to mitigate this problem. In this work, we provide a comparison of multiple electrical actuation systems composed of electric motors, gear reduction systems and locking mechanisms. This is done using the gait cycle of a human ankle as a case study. An electric motor with a double stator and a single rotor combined with a gearbox shows the most promising overall results when taking energy loss, total mass and complexity of the system into account. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6347 KiB  
Article
Model-Based Field Winding Interturn Fault Detection Method for Brushless Synchronous Machines
by Kumar Mahtani, José M. Guerrero, Luis F. Beites and Carlos A. Platero
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121227 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
The lack of available measurements makes the detection of electrical faults in the rotating elements of brushless synchronous machines particularly challenging. This paper presents a novel and fast detection method regarding interturn faults at the field winding of the main machine, which is [...] Read more.
The lack of available measurements makes the detection of electrical faults in the rotating elements of brushless synchronous machines particularly challenging. This paper presents a novel and fast detection method regarding interturn faults at the field winding of the main machine, which is characterized because it is non-intrusive and because its industrial application is straightforward as it does not require any additional equipment. The method is built upon the comparison between the theoretical and the measured exciter field currents. The theoretical exciter field current is computed from the main machine output voltage and current magnitudes for any monitored operating point by means of a theoretical healthy brushless machine model that links the main machine with the exciter. The applicability of the method has been verified for interturn faults at different fault severity levels, both through computer simulations and experimental tests, delivering promising results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motors for Ship RIM-Driven Thruster
by Hichem Ouldhamrane, Jean-Frédéric Charpentier, Farid Khoucha, Abdelhalim Zaoui, Yahia Achour and Mohamed Benbouzid
Machines 2022, 10(10), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100932 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4137
Abstract
This paper deals with the design and optimization of a 2.1 MW rim-driven electric thruster for ship propulsion. For this purpose, a double stator ironless rotor axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) motor is considered as the propulsion motor. The analytical model of the [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the design and optimization of a 2.1 MW rim-driven electric thruster for ship propulsion. For this purpose, a double stator ironless rotor axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) motor is considered as the propulsion motor. The analytical model of the selected AFPM motor is presented. The magnetic field in the AFPM machine is calculated using the 3D magnetic charge concept in combination with image theory and permeance functions to take into account the stator slotting effects, and a simple thermal model is used to evaluate the heat dissipation capabilities of the machine and the thermal dependence of the main electromagnetic losses. To optimally design the AFPM, an optimization process based on genetic algorithms is applied to minimize the cost of the active motor materials. An appropriate objective function has been constructed, and different constraints related to the main electrical, geometrical, and mechanical parameters have been taken into account. The achieved results are compared with the performance of a podded radial flux permanent magnet (RFPM) motor, which is considered a reference propulsion motor. The obtained results show a fairly satisfactory improvement in the cost and masses of the active motor materials. Finally, the accuracy of the obtained optimum solution is validated by performing 3D finite element analysis (3D-FEA) simulations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop