New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmaceutical Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 December 2022) | Viewed by 21121

Special Issue Editors

Program in the Clinical Drug Development of Herbal Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Interests: natural products chemistry; mass spectrometry-based metabolomics; pharmacognosy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Interests: investigation of chemical constituents from natural products and their bioactivities (plants, fungi, traditional Chinese medicine, and herbal medicine); isolation of endophytes from formosan plants and establishment of their fermentate extract banks; medicinal botany research; development of functional foods and dietary supplements

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the most famous oceanographers, Dr. Sylvia Earle, once said "Great attention gets paid to rainforests because of the diversity of life there. Diversity in the oceans is even greater." With their diversity and uniqueness, marine organisms have become an important source of important compounds for the development of new drug leads. The exploration of novel chemical structures and bioactive secondary metabolites is a key element for developing innovative drugs. The study of marine natural products began in 1950 when Bergman isolated several antiviral nucleosides from the Caribbean sponge Tethya crypta. The science of marine natural product chemistry has rapidly developed over the past six decades, and to date, marine natural product chemists have isolated more than 20,000 new compounds from marine organisms, including bacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, sponges, soft corals, mollusks, bryozoans, echinoderms, and ascidians. Many of these compounds are structurally unique and exhibit significant biological activities, and several compounds are expected to be developed as important drug leads. In light of these successes, we are promoting this Special Issue on new insights into marine drug discovery. We aim to publish research focusing not only on the bioactive compounds exploration, but also novel research strategies of marine drug discovery. This Special Issue will publish manuscripts and reviews covering the following themes, although similar themes related to marine natural products are also welcome:

  • Isolation of marine secondary metabolites with novel structures and biological activity.
  • Biotechnological developments in the field of marine natural products.
  • Drug lead development from marine organisms.
  • Technological advances in the extraction methods of marine secondary metabolites.
  • The application of computer models and artificial intelligence in the discovery of novel marine natural products.
  • The application of novel organic synthetic methods for the synthesis of marine secondary metabolites.
  • The application of modern chromatographic techniques for the purification of novel marine natural products.
  • The application of modern spectroscopic techniques for the identification of marine secondary metabolites.
  • The development of pharmaceutical products or cosmeceuticals from marine secondary metabolites or extracts.
  • The application of new genetic and chemotaxonomic tools for the identification and characterization of marine organisms.

Dr. Kuei-Hung Lai
Dr. Ho-Cheng Wu
Prof. Dr. Mohamed El-Shazly
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • marine drug discovery 
  • novel research strategy

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3216 KiB  
Article
Anti-Hypercholesterolemia Effects of Edible Seaweed Extracts and Metabolomic Changes in Hep-G2 and Caco-2 Cell Lines
Life 2023, 13(6), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061325 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the main cause of mortality worldwide, and it is characterized by high levels of circulating cholesterol. The drugs currently available for hypercholesterolemia control have several side effects, so it is necessary [...] Read more.
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the main cause of mortality worldwide, and it is characterized by high levels of circulating cholesterol. The drugs currently available for hypercholesterolemia control have several side effects, so it is necessary to develop new effective and safer therapies. Seaweeds serve as sources of several bioactive compounds with claimed beneficial effects. Eisenia bicyclis (Aramé) and Porphyra tenera (Nori) are edible seaweeds that were previously recognized as rich in bioactive compounds. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the anti-hypercholesterolemia effect of these two seaweed extracts and their health potential. Both extracts, but more efficiently Aramé extract, have liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitory activity as well as the capability to reduce approximately 30% of cholesterol permeation through human Caco-2 cells by simulating the intestinal lining, which is a target for hypercholesterolemia treatments. An untargeted metabolomic assay on human intestinal Caco-2 and liver Hep-G2 cell lines exposed to Aramé and Nori extracts revealed changes in the cells’ metabolism, indicating the extracts’ health beneficial effects. The metabolic pathways affected by exposure to both extracts were associated with lipid metabolism, such as phospholipids, and fatty acid metabolism, amino acid pathways, cofactors, vitamins, and cellular respiration metabolism. The effects were more profound in Aramé-treated cells, but they were also observed in Nori-exposed cells. The metabolite modifications were associated with the protection against CVDs and other diseases and to the improvement of the cells’ oxidative stress tolerance. The results obtained for the anti-hypercholesterolemia properties, in addition to the revelation of the positive impact on cell metabolism, offer an important contribution for further evaluation of these seaweed extracts as functional foods or for CVD prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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16 pages, 1379 KiB  
Article
Taxonomic Positions and Secondary Metabolite-Biosynthetic Gene Clusters of Akazaoxime- and Levantilide-Producers
Life 2023, 13(2), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020542 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Micromonospora sp. AKA109 is a producer of akazaoxime and A-76356, whereas Micromonospora sp. AKA38 is that of levantilide C. We aimed to clarify their taxonomic positions and identify biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of these compounds. In 16S rRNA gene and DNA gyrase subunit [...] Read more.
Micromonospora sp. AKA109 is a producer of akazaoxime and A-76356, whereas Micromonospora sp. AKA38 is that of levantilide C. We aimed to clarify their taxonomic positions and identify biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of these compounds. In 16S rRNA gene and DNA gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) sequence analyses, strains AKA109 and AKA38 were the most closely related to Micromonospora humidisoli MMS20-R2-29T and Micromonospora schwarzwaldensis HKI0641T, respectively. Although Micromonospora sp. AKA109 was identified as M. humidisoli by the gyrB sequence similarity and DNA–DNA relatedness based on whole genome sequences, Micromonospora sp. AKA38 was classified to a new genomospecies. M. humidisoli AKA109 harbored six type-I polyketide synthase (PKS), one type-II PKS, one type-III PKS, three non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and three hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters, among which the BGC of akazaoxime and A-76356 was identified. These gene clusters are conserved in M. humidisoli MMS20-R2-29T. Micromonospora sp. AKA38 harbored two type-I PKS, one of which was responsible for levantilide C, one type-II PKS, one type-III PKS, two NRPS and five hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters. We predicted products derived from these gene clusters through bioinformatic analyses. Consequently, these two strains are revealed to be promising sources for diverse non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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30 pages, 5991 KiB  
Article
Chitosan or Cyclodextrin Grafted with Oleic Acid Self-Assemble into Stabilized Polymeric Micelles with Potential of Drug Carriers
Life 2023, 13(2), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020446 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Polymeric micelles combining the advantages of biocompatible poly- and oligosaccharides with classical micellar amphiphilic systems represent a promising class of drug carriers. In this work, micelles based on chitosan (or cyclodextrin) and oleic acid with various modification degrees were synthesized—the most optimal grafting [...] Read more.
Polymeric micelles combining the advantages of biocompatible poly- and oligosaccharides with classical micellar amphiphilic systems represent a promising class of drug carriers. In this work, micelles based on chitosan (or cyclodextrin) and oleic acid with various modification degrees were synthesized—the most optimal grafting degree is 15–30% in terms of CMC. According to NTA data, micelles have a hydrodynamic diameter of the main fraction of 60–100 nm. The inclusion of the antibacterial agents: moxifloxacin or rifampicin in micelles was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy using a pyrene label (using monomer-excimer approach). When aromatic molecules are incorporated into micelles, the absorption bands of C-H bonds of the fatty tails of micelles shift towards smaller wavenumbers, indicating a stabilization of the micelles structure, and the microenvironment of the drug molecule changes according to the low frequencies shift and intensity changes in oscillation frequencies of 1450 cm−1 corresponding to aromatic fragment. Loading of moxifloxacin and rifampicin into micelles leads to a change in the fluorescent properties: a shift of the maximum of fluorescence emission to the long-wavelength region and an increase in the fluorescence anisotropy due to a drastic increase in the hydrodynamic volume of the fluorophore-containing rotating fragment. Using the pyrene label, the critical micelle concentrations were determined: from 4 to 30 nM depending on the polymer composition. Micellar systems enhance the effect of the antibiotic by increasing the penetration into bacterial cells and storing the drug in a protective coat. As a part of the supramolecular structure, the antibiotic remains active for more than four days, while in free form, the activity decreases after two days. In pharmacokinetic experiments, in vivo moxifloxacin in micellar systems show 1.7 times more efficiency compared to free form; moreover, two times higher maximal concentration in the blood is achieved. The advantage of polymer micellar systems in comparison with simple cyclodextrins and chitosan, which do not so significantly contribute to the antibacterial and pharmacokinetic parameters, was shown. Thus, polymeric micelles are one of the key approaches to improving the effectiveness of antibacterial drugs and solving the problems of resistant bacterial infections and multidrug resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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13 pages, 3361 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic Synthesis of Materials for Regenerative Medicine Using Complex Oxides with β-pyrochlore Structure
Life 2023, 13(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020352 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto cod collagen was carried out under visible light irradiation (λ = 400–700 nm) at 20–25 °C using the RbTe1.5W0.5O6, CsTeMoO6, and RbNbTeO6 complex oxides with β-pyrochlore structure as [...] Read more.
Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto cod collagen was carried out under visible light irradiation (λ = 400–700 nm) at 20–25 °C using the RbTe1.5W0.5O6, CsTeMoO6, and RbNbTeO6 complex oxides with β-pyrochlore structure as photocatalysts. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. It was also found that RbNbTeO6 with β-pyrochlore structure was not able to photocatalyze the reaction. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the obtained graft copolymers proceeds with the formation of peptides with a molecular weight (MW) of about 20 and 10 kDa. In contrast to collagen, which decomposes predominantly to peptides with MW of about 10 kDa, the ratio of fractions with MW of about 10 kDa and 20 kDa differs much less, their changes are symbatic, and the content of polymers with MW of more than 20 kDa is about 70% after 1 h in the case of graft copolymers. The data obtained indicate that synthetic fragments grafted to the collagen macromolecule do not prevent the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds but change the rate of polymer degradation. This is important for creating network matrix scaffolds based on graft copolymers by cross-linking peptides, which are products of enzymatic hydrolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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19 pages, 1539 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Microalgae Dunaliella salina, Cylindrotheca closterium and Phormidium versicolor NCC466 Exposed to High Salinity and Irradiation
Life 2023, 13(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020313 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae), Phormidium versicolor (Cyanophyceae), and Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) were isolated from three ponds in the solar saltern of Sfax (Tunisia). Growth, pigment contents, and photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured under controlled conditions of three light levels (300, 500, and [...] Read more.
Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae), Phormidium versicolor (Cyanophyceae), and Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) were isolated from three ponds in the solar saltern of Sfax (Tunisia). Growth, pigment contents, and photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured under controlled conditions of three light levels (300, 500, and 1000 µmol photons m−2 s−1) and three NaCl concentrations (40, 80, and 140 g L−1). The highest salinity reduced the growth of D. salina and P. versicolor NCC466 and strongly inhibited that of C. closterium. According to ΦPSII values, the photosynthetic apparatus of P. versicolor was stimulated by increasing salinity, whereas that of D. salina and C. closterium was decreased by irradiance rise. The production of carotenoids in D. salina and P. versicolor was stimulated when salinity and irradiance increased, whereas it decreased in the diatom. Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were only detected when the three species were cultivated under E1000. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids could compensate for the low antioxidant enzyme activity measured in D. salina. Salinity and irradiation levels interact with the physiology of three species that have mechanisms of more or less effective stress resistance, hence different resistance to environmental stresses according to the species. Under these stress-controlled conditions, P. versicolor and C. closterium strains could provide promising sources of extremolyte for several purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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15 pages, 3228 KiB  
Article
Conjugates of Chitosan with β-Cyclodextrins as Promising Carriers for the Delivery of Levofloxacin: Spectral and Microbiological Studies
Life 2023, 13(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020272 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
In this work, we synthesized chitosan 5 kDa conjugates with β-cyclodextrins with various substituents as promising mucoadhesive carriers for the delivery of fluoroquinolones using the example of levofloxacin. The obtained conjugates were comprehensively characterized by spectral methods (UV-Vis, ATR-FTIR, 1H NMR, SEM). The [...] Read more.
In this work, we synthesized chitosan 5 kDa conjugates with β-cyclodextrins with various substituents as promising mucoadhesive carriers for the delivery of fluoroquinolones using the example of levofloxacin. The obtained conjugates were comprehensively characterized by spectral methods (UV-Vis, ATR-FTIR, 1H NMR, SEM). The physico-chemical properties of the complex formations were studied by IR, UV, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The dissociation constants of complexes with levofloxacin were determined. Complexation with conjugates provided four times slower drug release in comparison with plain CD and more than 20 times in comparison with the free drug. The antibacterial activity of the complexes was tested on model microorganisms Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. The complex with the conjugate demonstrated the same initial levofloxacin antibacterial activity but provided significant benefits, e.g., prolonged release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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17 pages, 3619 KiB  
Article
Potential of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Padina boergesenii as a Natural UV Filter in Sunscreen Cream Formulation
Life 2023, 13(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010239 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Brown seaweeds, due to their wide range of bioactive compounds, have a high ability to inhibit free radicals and protect against ultraviolet rays. In the present study, the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) was isolated from the Padina boergesenii brown seaweed. Antioxidant activity (by [...] Read more.
Brown seaweeds, due to their wide range of bioactive compounds, have a high ability to inhibit free radicals and protect against ultraviolet rays. In the present study, the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) was isolated from the Padina boergesenii brown seaweed. Antioxidant activity (by the DPPH scavenging activity method) and cytotoxicity against UVB-induced cytotoxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes were evaluated. Then, this fraction was used as a bio-filter in the formulation of sunscreen, and the physical properties and stability were investigated. The results showed that the EF could inhibit DPPH radical scavenging (54 ± 1%) and cell viability of HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB irradiation (81.2 ± 0.1%). The results of the stability study of the cream formulated with EF showed that at temperatures 4 °C and 25 °C it has high stability; and at 40 °C on the 28th day, a slight decrease in its stability was observed. The pH and Sun Protection Factor of the cream formulated with EF were reported at 5.8 and 20.55, respectively. Also, the DPPH scavenging activity of the cream was not altered for 28 days of storage at temperatures of 4–40 °C. According to our results, it was proved that the sunscreen formulated with EF of P. boergesenii brown seaweed has promising properties and characteristics that can create a new opportunity for the development of cosmetics and skin care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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15 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
Primary and Secondary Physiological Stress Responses of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Due to Rearing Practices under Aquaculture Farming Conditions in M’diq Bay, Moroccan Mediterranean: The Case of Sampling Operation for Size and Weight Measurement
Life 2023, 13(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010110 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
Globally, aquaculture contributes to sustainable food and nutritional stability. However, stress conditions constitute a major threat affecting farmed-fish welfare and fish farms’ performances. In this regard, the present study was aimed at measuring and comparing in-situ (offshore) the physiological stress responses caused by [...] Read more.
Globally, aquaculture contributes to sustainable food and nutritional stability. However, stress conditions constitute a major threat affecting farmed-fish welfare and fish farms’ performances. In this regard, the present study was aimed at measuring and comparing in-situ (offshore) the physiological stress responses caused by recurrent sampling operations for length–weight measurement. Studied fish were European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax sub-adults and adults reared in intensive farming conditions in M’diq Bay, on the Moroccan Mediterranean coast. The physiological stress response was evaluated by measuring blood biomarkers, including cortisol, glucose, lactate, total cholesterol and total proteins levels, and hematocrit percentage. The hypercortisolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlactatemia and hypoproteinemia detected in the post-sampling state in both age groups of D. labrax indicated stress tendencies and a high sensitivity to aquaculture practice-related stress factors, with major and minor responses detected in the same age and same stress conditions. It is also interesting to note that the fish age and the time-course of the sampling operation had a statistically significant effect in terms of the physiological response (with p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the present study showed that sea bass subjected to various stressful situations in intensive farming conditions displayed a physiological stress response specific to its age, to the individual status, as well as to the duration of stressor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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21 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Pharmacological Potential of Novel Exopolysaccharide Isolated from Marine Kocuria sp. Strain AG5: Broad-Spectrum Biological Investigations
Life 2022, 12(9), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091387 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
With more than 17 clinically approved Drugs and over 20 prodrugs under clinical investigations, marine bacteria are believed to have a potential supply of innovative therapeutic bioactive compounds. In the current study, Kocuria sp. strain AG5 isolated from the Red Sea was identified [...] Read more.
With more than 17 clinically approved Drugs and over 20 prodrugs under clinical investigations, marine bacteria are believed to have a potential supply of innovative therapeutic bioactive compounds. In the current study, Kocuria sp. strain AG5 isolated from the Red Sea was identified and characterized by biochemical and physiological analysis, and examination of a phylogenetic 16S rRNA sequences. Innovative exopolysaccharide (EPS) was separated from the AG5 isolate as a major fraction of EPS (EPSR5, 6.84 g/L−1). The analysis of EPSR5 revealed that EPSR5 has a molecular weight (Mw) of 4.9 × 104 g/mol and number average molecular weight (Mn) of 5.4 × 104 g/mol and contains sulfate (25.6%) and uronic acid (21.77%). Analysis of the monosaccharide composition indicated that the EPSR5 fraction composes of glucose, galacturonic acid, arabinose, and xylose in a molar ratio of 2.0:0.5:0.25:1.0, respectively. Assessment of the pharmacological potency of EPSR5 was explored by examining its cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-acetylcholine esterase influences. The antioxidant effect of EPSR5 was dose- and time-dependently increased and the maximum antioxidant activity (98%) was observed at 2000 µg/mL after 120 min. Further, EPSR5 displayed a significant repressive effect regarding the proliferation of HepG-2, A-549, HCT-116, MCF7, HEP2, and PC3 cells with IC50 453.46 ± 21.8 µg/mL, 873.74 ± 15.4 µg/mL, 788.2 ± 32.6 µg/mL, 1691 ± 44.2 µg/mL, 913.1 ± 38.8 µg/mL, and 876.4 ± 39.8 µg/mL, respectively. Evaluation of the inhibitory activity of the anti-inflammatory activity of EPSR5 indicated that EPSR5 has a significant inhibitory activity toward lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) activities (IC50 15.39 ± 0.82 µg/mL and 28.06 ± 1.1 µg/mL, respectively). Finally, ESPR5 presented a substantial hemolysis suppressive action with an IC50 of 65.13 ± 0.89 µg /mL, and a considerable inhibitory activity toward acetylcholine esterase activity (IC50 797.02 μg/mL). Together, this study reveals that secondary metabolites produced by Kocuria sp. strain AG5 marine bacteria serve as an important source of pharmacologically active compounds, and their impact on human health is expected to grow with additional global work and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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Review

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14 pages, 1627 KiB  
Review
Amphidinium spp. as a Source of Antimicrobial, Antifungal, and Anticancer Compounds
Life 2023, 13(11), 2164; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13112164 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Dinoflagellates make up the second largest marine group of marine unicellular eukaryotes in the world ocean and comprise both heterotrophic and autotrophic species, encompassing a wide genetic and chemical diversity. They produce a plethora of secondary metabolites that can be toxic to other [...] Read more.
Dinoflagellates make up the second largest marine group of marine unicellular eukaryotes in the world ocean and comprise both heterotrophic and autotrophic species, encompassing a wide genetic and chemical diversity. They produce a plethora of secondary metabolites that can be toxic to other species and are mainly used against predators and competing species. Dinoflagellates are indeed often responsible for harmful algal bloom, where their toxic secondary metabolites can accumulate along the food chain, leading to significant damages to the ecosystem and human health. Secondary metabolites from dinoflagellates have been widely investigated for potential biomedical applications and have revealed multiple antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. Species from the genus Amphidinium seem to be particularly interesting for the production of medically relevant compounds. The present review aims at summarising current knowledge on the diversity and the pharmaceutical properties of secondary metabolites from the genus Amphidinium. Specifically, Amphidinium spp. produce a range of polyketides possessing cytotoxic activities such as amphidinolides, caribenolides, amphidinins, and amphidinols. Potent antimicrobial properties against antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains have been observed for several amphidinins. Amphidinols revealed instead strong activities against infectious fungi such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Finally, compounds such as amphidinolides, isocaribenolide-I, and chlorohydrin 2 revealed potent cytotoxic activities against different cancer cell lines. Overall, the wide variety of antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer properties of secondary metabolites from Amphidinium spp. make this genus a highly suitable candidate for future medical applications, spanning from cancer drugs to antimicrobial products that are alternatives to currently available antibiotic and antimycotic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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26 pages, 3053 KiB  
Review
Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Algae
Life 2023, 13(2), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020460 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4652
Abstract
Currently, algae arouse a growing interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area due to the fact that they have a great diversity of bioactive compounds with the potential for pharmacological and nutraceutical applications. Due to lifestyle modifications brought on by rapid urbanization, diabetes [...] Read more.
Currently, algae arouse a growing interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area due to the fact that they have a great diversity of bioactive compounds with the potential for pharmacological and nutraceutical applications. Due to lifestyle modifications brought on by rapid urbanization, diabetes mellitus, a metabolic illness, is the third largest cause of death globally. The hunt for an efficient natural-based antidiabetic therapy is crucial to battling diabetes and the associated consequences due to the unfavorable side effects of currently available antidiabetic medications. Finding the possible advantages of algae for the control of diabetes is crucial for the creation of natural drugs. Many of algae’s metabolic processes produce bioactive secondary metabolites, which give algae their diverse chemical and biological features. Numerous studies have demonstrated the antioxidant and antidiabetic benefits of algae, mostly by blocking carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity, such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Additionally, bioactive components from algae can lessen diabetic symptoms in vivo. Therefore, the current review concentrates on the role of various secondary bioactive substances found naturally in algae and their potential as antioxidants and antidiabetic materials, as well as the urgent need to apply these substances in the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Marine Drugs Discovery)
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