Epidemiology, Virology, and Prevention of Infectious Diseases in Human

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 3691

Special Issue Editor

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium
Interests: T-cell immunity; vaccines; infectious diseases; multi-omics; machine learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Viral diseases have led to some of the most dramatic and deadly pandemics observed by the world. In recent decades, major advances have been achieved in the field of human virology, through breakthroughs in computational and structural biology, bioinformatics, multi-omics, next-generation sequencing, genome editing, and single-cell methodologies.

This Special Issue aims to explore the nature of human viruses, the epidemiology of human viral diseases, their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as disorders of host immune responses through basic research as well as pre-clinical and clinical studies.

For this Special Issue, both original research articles and reviews are welcome. The research areas may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • virus–host cell interaction;
  • viral disease pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention;
  • viral immunology;
  • epidemiology;
  • anti-viral therapy;
  • and vaccine development.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Vaccines.

Dr. My Kieu Ha
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Life is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • human virology
  • viral disease
  • virus
  • infection
  • vaccine

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 977 KiB  
Article
The Association of Body Mass Index with COVID-19 Complications and Survival Rate at a Tertiary Hospital
by Salma AlBahrani, Thekra N. Al-Maqati, Yaser A. Al Naam, Jaber S. Alqahtani, Abdullah S. Alqahtani, Saad AlRabeeah, Abdulelah M. Aldhahir, Faisal Alkhalaf, Hind R. Alzuraiq, Maryam Hamad Alenezi, Amal Alzahrani, Mohanad Bakkar, Zainab Albahrani and Rawan M. Maawadh
Life 2023, 13(7), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071572 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
A high body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for coronavirus infection in hospitalized patients. Our study examined the association between BMI and complications and the survival rate among COVID-19 patients. This retrospective analysis used data from a tertiary hospital in [...] Read more.
A high body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for coronavirus infection in hospitalized patients. Our study examined the association between BMI and complications and the survival rate among COVID-19 patients. This retrospective analysis used data from a tertiary hospital in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia during two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study included 600 participants, with the majority being between 41 and 60 years old (41.3%) and men comprising 63.5% of the sample. Approximately 42.5% of patients were obese, and 31.3% were overweight. The results showed that BMI was significantly linked to respiratory diseases (p = 0.013); end-stage renal disease (p = 0.021); and cardiovascular disease (p = 0.003) but not diabetes mellitus (p = 0.064). Death occurred in 10.8% of patients; 33.8% were admitted to the ICU; 13.8% needed mechanical ventilation; and 60.7% had lung infiltration. Obese patients with oxygen saturation levels below 93% were 2.45 times more likely to require mechanical ventilation than those in the normal-weight group. Overweight and obese patients were also more likely to require mechanical ventilation than normal-weight patients, with odds ratios of 3.66 and 2.81, respectively. The BMI categorized was not associated with survival rate in COVID-19-hospitalized patients using Kaplan-Meier survival plots (p = 0.061). However, the BMI categorized was associated with survival rate in COVID-19 ICU patients (p < 0.001). In addition, the overweight showed a statistically significant higher hazard ratio of 2.22 (p = 0.01) compared to normal-weight patients using a Cox regression model. A high BMI was identified as an independent risk factor for reduced oxygen saturation (<93%), the need for mechanical ventilation, lung infiltration, mortality, and longer ICU stays in COVID-19 patients. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1134 KiB  
Review
New Insights into HIV Life Cycle, Th1/Th2 Shift during HIV Infection and Preferential Virus Infection of Th2 Cells: Implications of Early HIV Treatment Initiation and Care
by Joseph Hokello, Kratika Tyagi, Richard Oriko Owor, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Alok Bhushan, Rene Daniel and Mudit Tyagi
Life 2024, 14(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14010104 - 9 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
The theory of immune regulation involves a homeostatic balance between T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) responses. The Th1 and Th2 theories were introduced in 1986 as a result of studies in mice, whereby T-helper cell subsets were found to direct different [...] Read more.
The theory of immune regulation involves a homeostatic balance between T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) responses. The Th1 and Th2 theories were introduced in 1986 as a result of studies in mice, whereby T-helper cell subsets were found to direct different immune response pathways. Subsequently, this hypothesis was extended to human immunity, with Th1 cells mediating cellular immunity to fight intracellular pathogens, while Th2 cells mediated humoral immunity to fight extracellular pathogens. Several disease conditions were later found to tilt the balance between Th1 and Th2 immune response pathways, including HIV infection, but the exact mechanism for the shift from Th1 to Th2 cells was poorly understood. This review provides new insights into the molecular biology of HIV, wherein the HIV life cycle is discussed in detail. Insights into the possible mechanism for the Th1 to Th2 shift during HIV infection and the preferential infection of Th2 cells during the late symptomatic stage of HIV disease are also discussed. Full article
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