Extraction, Characterization, and Application of Valuable Biologically Active Substances from Plants

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 8737

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Biocatalysis, Kemerovo State University, 650043 Kemerovo, Russia
Interests: biologically active substances; extraction methods; natural sources; structure; in vitro cell cultures

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Civil Engineering, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Interests: antioxidant activity; free radicals; medicinal plants; biotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are producers of many biologically active substances (BAS)—compounds capable of influencing biological processes in the body. Such compounds include cardiac glycosides, saponins, sterols, carotenoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, vitamins, quinones, and substances with a specific aroma, taste, and color. Biologically active substances are the products of secondary metabolism, which are called secondary metabolites or secondary products of biosynthesis. More than 100,000 secondary metabolites produced by plants are currently known. Many of them are practically and economically important products and used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. This Special Issue aims to publish research articles and reviews that focus on the identification of new plant sources of valuable biologically active substances, their structural, physicochemical and rheological characterization, the processes used to extract and purify them, and their biological properties.

Dr. Alexander Prosekov
Prof. Dr. Natalia Politaeva
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • biologically active substances
  • extracts
  • plants materials
  • medicinal plants
  • antioxidant activity
  • nutraceuticals
  • algae

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1594 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Bitter Orange Industrial Waste and Identification of the Main Compounds
by Juan F. García-Martín, Chao-Hui Feng, Nelson-Manuel Domínguez-Fernández and Paloma Álvarez-Mateos
Life 2023, 13(9), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13091864 - 04 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
In this work, the extraction of phenolic compounds from orange waste (OW) obtained after the industrial extraction of neohesperidin from bitter oranges (Seville oranges) was assayed by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE). The extraction agents were ethanol and acetone. For SE, [...] Read more.
In this work, the extraction of phenolic compounds from orange waste (OW) obtained after the industrial extraction of neohesperidin from bitter oranges (Seville oranges) was assayed by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE). The extraction agents were ethanol and acetone. For SE, aqueous solutions of both extraction agents were used at 50%, 75%, and 100% (v/v). For MAE, a design of experiments was applied to determine the conditions that maximize the extraction yield. The independent variables were temperature (from 20 to 75 °C), process time (between 10 and 20 min), and percentage of extraction agent (v/v) in the extraction solution (50%, 75%, and 100%). Following that, the extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography to identify the main phenolic compounds extracted. Results showed that 50% (v/v) ethanol or acetone was the extraction agent concentration that maximized the extraction yield for both SE and MAE, with the yields of MAE being higher than those of SE. Thus, the highest extraction yields on a dry basis achieved for MAE were 16.7 g/100 OW for 50% acetone, 75 °C, and 15 min, and 20.2 g/100 OW for 50% ethanol, 75 °C, and 10.8 min, respectively. Finally, the main phenolic compounds found in the orange waste were naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and naringenin (i.e., flavonoids). Full article
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22 pages, 5294 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the In Vivo Anti-Atherosclerotic Activity of Quercetin Isolated from the Hairy Roots of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb
by Anna Vesnina, Irina Milentyeva, Varvara Minina, Oksana Kozlova and Lyudmila Asyakina
Life 2023, 13(8), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13081706 - 08 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic properties of quercetin isolated from the extract of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb hairy roots. During the study, the hormonal composition of the nutrient medium for cultivation of H. neglectum hairy root biomass was selected: Gamborg’s medium enriched [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic properties of quercetin isolated from the extract of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb hairy roots. During the study, the hormonal composition of the nutrient medium for cultivation of H. neglectum hairy root biomass was selected: Gamborg’s medium enriched with the cytokine 6-benzylaminopurine (1.5 mg/1 dm3). It was found that the extraction of hairy root biomass with a 50% water–ethanol solution (40:1 1 h at 60 ± 2 °C) yielded an extract that contained the highest amount of quercetin (an average of 2.1 times higher than in extracts obtained at other parameters). It was determined that 100 µM quercetin solution showed the greatest bioactivity on Caenorhabditis elegans: on day 61, the percentage of surviving nematodes was 2.06 times higher compared to other samples and 6 times higher compared to control, resulting in a 12.5-fold increase in SOD-3 expression compared to control (without biologically active substance (BAS) addition). Meanwhile, the 10 µM quercetin solution exhibited the best ability to inhibit the accumulation of lipid fractions; the accumulation was 1.06 times less compared to the control. The results of this study show that quercetin, which was isolated from the biomass of H. neglectum hairy roots, can be used as a component of anti-atherosclerotic dietary supplements. Full article
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19 pages, 4524 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Centranthus longiflorus Stems Extracts Recovered Using Ired-Irrad®, an Innovative Infrared Technology, Compared to Water Bath and Ultrasound
by Mariam Hammoud, Hiba N. Rajha, Ali Chokr, Carl Safi, Lambertus A. M. van den Broek, Gijs van Erven, Richard G. Maroun, Espérance Debs, Hassan Rammal and Nicolas Louka
Life 2023, 13(6), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061288 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Extraction of polyphenols from Centranthus longiflorus stems was conducted using ultrasound and infrared Ired-Irrad® techniques, and compared to the conventional water bath method. Response surface methodology was used to analyse the effect of time, temperature, and ethanol percentage, as well as to [...] Read more.
Extraction of polyphenols from Centranthus longiflorus stems was conducted using ultrasound and infrared Ired-Irrad® techniques, and compared to the conventional water bath method. Response surface methodology was used to analyse the effect of time, temperature, and ethanol percentage, as well as to optimize the three extraction methods. The highest phenolic content (81 mg GAE/g DM) and antioxidant activity (76% DPPH inhibition) were recorded with the Ired-Irrad® extract obtained under the optimal conditions: 55 °C, 127 min, 48% (v/v) ethanol. Biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antibiofilm) of the three extracts were assessed. All C. longiflorus stems extracts showed limited antibacterial effects regardless of the extraction method (MIC = 50 mg/mL), whereas Ired-Irrad® extract exhibited the highest biofilm eradication and prevention capacities (93% against Escherichia coli and 97% against Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively). This bioactivity is likely related to abundant caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin rutinoside, as identified by RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS analysis. The results obtained further promote the effectiveness of Ired-Irrad® as a highly flexible and cost-efficient extraction technique. Full article
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18 pages, 1835 KiB  
Article
Influence of Extraction Techniques and Solvents on the Antioxidant and Biological Potential of Different Parts of Scorzonera undulata
by Sourour Idoudi, Khadija Ben Othman, Jalloul Bouajila, Audrey Tourrette, Mehrez Romdhane and Walid Elfalleh
Life 2023, 13(4), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040904 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The genus Scorzonera has various medicinal values. Species belonging to this genus were traditionally used as drugs or in food. The current study aimed to determine the phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity, and biological properties of the tuber, leaf, and flower of Scorzonera undulata [...] Read more.
The genus Scorzonera has various medicinal values. Species belonging to this genus were traditionally used as drugs or in food. The current study aimed to determine the phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity, and biological properties of the tuber, leaf, and flower of Scorzonera undulata extracts, collected from the southwest of Tunisia. Phenolic compounds from the three parts were extracted using two solvents (water and ethanol) and two extraction techniques (maceration and ultrasound). The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Furthermore, the chemical composition of Scorzonera undulata extract was also investigated by the LC-ESI–MS method using phenolic acid and flavonoid standards. The variation of the extraction methods induced a variation in the real potentialities of the three parts in terms of bioactive molecules. However, the aerial part of S. undulata (leaves and flowers) showed, in general, the highest phenolic contents. Twenty-five volatile compounds have been detected by GC-MS in S. undulata extracts; among them, fourteen were identified before derivatization. The DPPH test showed that the aerial part of the plant has a higher antioxidant activity compared to the tuber (25.06% at 50 µg/mL for the leaf ethanolic extract obtained by ultrasound extraction). For most biological activities (anti-Xanthine, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase)), the aerial parts (flowers and leaves) of the plant showed the highest inhibition than tubers. Full article
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15 pages, 2757 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Potential of Valuable Protein from Ulva rigida Macroalgae
by Wanida Pan-utai, Thidarat Pantoa, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Jantana Praiboon, Prapat Kosawatpat, Montakan Tamtin and Bussaba Thongdang
Life 2023, 13(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010086 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
Ulva green macroalgae or sea lettuce are rich sources of protein with nutritional benefits that promote health as a future plant-based functional ingredient in the food industry. Alkaline pretreatment improved ultrasonic-assisted protein extraction from Ulva rigida biomass. Parameters affecting ultrasonic-assisted extraction of protein [...] Read more.
Ulva green macroalgae or sea lettuce are rich sources of protein with nutritional benefits that promote health as a future plant-based functional ingredient in the food industry. Alkaline pretreatment improved ultrasonic-assisted protein extraction from Ulva rigida biomass. Parameters affecting ultrasonic-assisted extraction of protein were type of solvent, biomass-solvent ratio, biomass preparation and extraction cycle. In vitro digestibility was evaluated from oven- and freeze-dried biomass. Results showed highest concentration and extraction yield of protein from U. rigida using alkaline rather than acid and distilled water. A high biomass–solvent ratio at 1:10 or 0.1 g mL−1 increased protein extraction. Higher alkaline concentration increased protein extraction. Highest protein extractability was 8.5% dry matter from freeze-dried U. rigida biomass, with highest protein extraction and antioxidant activity from extraction of U. rigida macroalgae at high alkaline concentrations. U. rigida macroalgae oven-dried biomass presented suitable human digestibility. Efficient pretreatment of U. rigida maximized protein hydrolysate and bioactive peptide production for wide-ranging applications. Full article
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